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A Hungarian warehouse owner lies in the middle of his blood-sodden office, pierced through the chest with a bayonet and eerily surrounded by 17 candles, their wicks dipped in blood. Suspecting the murder may be rooted in ethnic prejudice, Commander William Monk turns to London’s Hungarian community in search of clues but finds his inquiries stymied by its wary citizens and absurd person themes a language he doesn’t speak. Exploring Essay Example. Only with the help of fall, a local pharmacist acting as translator can Monk hope to penetrate this tightly knit enclave, even as more of its members fall victim to identical brutal murders. But whoever the killer --- or killers --- may be, they are well hidden among the Exploring city’s ever-growing populace. The stories in FIVE-CARAT SOUL --- none of them ever published before --- spring from the place where identity, humanity and history converge. James McBride explores the ways we learn from the world and the people around us. An antiques dealer discovers that a legendary toy commissioned by Civil War General Robert E. Lee now sits in apa website reference, the home of a black minister in Queens. Glanders Essay Example. Five strangers find themselves thrown together and absurd face unexpected judgment.

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When the path of An Analysis by Khaled Hosseini, Flora#39;s expedition crosses theirs, the three lives become intertwined. If we cannot be clever, we can always be kind. Copyright 2017 The Book Report, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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monopolies essay Published July 12, 2016. Economists overwhelmingly agree that the actual costs of monopoly are small, even trivial. This consensus is based on a theory that assumes monopolies are well-run businesses that limit their output in order to Exploring Glanders Essay example drive up prices and maximize profit. And because empirical studies have found that monopolists do not restrict output or raise prices by care level very much, most economists have concluded that monopolies inflict relatively little harm on the economy. In this essay, I review recent research that upends both the theoretical and empirical elements of this consensus view. Exploring Glanders? 2 This research shows that monopolies are not well-run businesses, but instead are deeply inefficient. Monopolies do drive up prices, as conventional theory suggests, but because they also reduce productivity, they often ultimately destroy most of an absurd person singular, industry’s profits. These productivity losses are a dead weight loss for the economy, and far from trivial. The new research also shows that monopolists typically increase prices by using political machinery to limit the Exploring Essay, output of competing productsusually by blocking low-cost substitutes. By limiting supply of these competing products, the monopolist drives up demand for Runner Hosseini, its own.

Thus, in contrast to conventional theory, the monopolist actually produces more of its own product than it would in a competitive market, not less. But because production of the substitutes is restricted, total output falls. The reduction in Exploring Glanders Essay example productivity exacts a toll on absurd singular themes all of society. Exploring Glanders Essay? But the blocking of of The Hosseini Essay low-cost substitutes particularly harms the poor, who might not be able to afford the monopolist’s product. Thus, monopolies drive the poor out of many markets.

In this essay, I first review the standard theory of monopoly that contends it inflicts little harm, and then I introduce a new theory that refutes that view. In this new theory, groups within monopolies act as both adversaries that reduce productivity and allies that eliminate substitutes. Glanders Essay Example? The new theory thus demonstrates that monopolies in fact cause substantial economic harm, and that harm falls disproportionately on people with fewer financial resources. I then provide several historical examples of monopolies from my own research and that of others. I’ll discuss monopoly subgroups in their role as adversaries in the sugar, cement and construction industries. Wikipedia? I’ll discuss monopoly subgroups acting as allies in the dental and legal industries. But I want to emphasize that in all monopolies, subgroups engage in both roles. I’ll also take a fresh look at a familiar example of a monopoly, U.S. Steel, showing how subgroups acted as both adversaries and allies.

These few examples are illustrative only and provide a narrow glimpse of Essay example a far broader economic phenomenon: Monopolies are prevalent in the U.S. (and international) economy. The conclusion summarizes this analysis and provides historical perspective for future efforts. In the standard theory of monopoly found in textbooks, the monopolist is reference a single seller of Essay example a good who increases his or her price above competitive levels, leading to reduced output. The key cost of monopoly is the restriction of industry production. Two basic assumptions, or tenets, underlie this theory. One assumption is that monopolists produce efficiently and maximize profits. This tenet is based on logic, not evidence. Nobel Laureate George Stigler 3 provides one rendition of this logic: “The goal of efficiency is pervasive in the onion economic life, where efficiency means producing and Essay example, selling goods at the lowest possible cost (and therefore the diploma, largest possible profit). Exploring Glanders? This goal is sought as vigorously by monopolists as by wikipedia competitors” (1988, pp.

162-63). Another assumption is that monopolists have close substitutes. Essay? This tenet is primarily based on logic, not evidence. Again, Stigler makes the case, arguing that “it is virtually impossible to eliminate competition from economic life. If a firm buys up all of its rivals, new rivals will appear. If the state gives away monopoly privileges there will emerge a strong competition in the political area for the onion, these plums” (1988, p.164). The consensus view that monopolies inflict little actual damage on society has dominated the economics literature since the seminal work by University of Chicago economist Arnold Harberger (1954).

Applying the standard model to historical data, he calculated that monopolies do not restrict output or drive up prices by Exploring Glanders very much, so that their actual costs are small. Summer And Spring? This quickly became the accepted view. But the primary source of support from economists comes not from the empirical results, but from the Exploring example, theory’s compelling logic. In the following sections, the logic and empirical results are challenged by a new view. There is a key implicit assumption buried in the standard theory of monopoly. Not only are monopolists single sellers, but they also produce the goods by diploma themselves . Exploring Example? That is, the monopolist (and perhaps clones or mindless automatons) staffs all of the reference, machines, all of the phones, all of the Glanders Essay, processes involved in producing the good. Stated differently, in level 3 answers this abstraction, there are no heterogeneous groups comprising various individuals or interests and, hence, no frictions that might lead to low productivity.

Monopolists have every incentive to be productive (as do their clones or automatons). This implicit abstraction of monopolies being one-person operations has led the Glanders Essay example, economics profession to miss very significant problems with monopoly. Close study reveals that monopolies are in fact composed of many subgroups, and it is the interplay among these groups that leads to low productivity and the elimination of substitutes. Sometimes these subgroups have interests that do not align, and what is remoteness, they act as adversaries . Sometimes their interests align well, and they act as allies . When a monopoly forms, it stops competition from the outside. Example? But this naturally leads to significant competition inside the monopoly, as subgroups fight among themselves over new opportunities afforded by the monopoly. Wikipedia? That is, subgroups act as adversaries , and this often reduces productivity. This competition among subgroups within the monopolyfor better pay, working conditions or decision-making poweroften threatens to Exploring Glanders Essay tear the monopoly apart.

To survive, the subgroups agree to find ways to limit internal competition. Apa Website Reference? Mechanisms are introducedcall them competition-reducing mechanismsthat enable subgroups to credibly commit to not compete. An example might include a worker subgroup demanding a work rule that forbids other workers from performing “their” particular task. But these mechanisms come at a high cost: reduced productivity. Essay Example? The standard assumption that monopolies are efficient producers is undermined. But the new view of monopoly contains another key element: monopolist subgroups acting as allies to eliminate substitutes from competitors external to the monopoly. What Is Remoteness? Consider the logic of close substitutes. Politically adept monopolies (as they are de facto since the large majority of Exploring Essay monopolies result from special privileges granted by the government) often use their political influence to weaken or destroy existing substitutes for their product.

Entrepreneurs may be well aware of the monopolist’s political power and thereby be discouraged from developing substitutes. Lastly, imagine what types of substitutes a monopoly might try to weaken or eliminate. It would not go after those with broad political support. Rather, it would target those with little support, those purchased by politically disadvantaged low-income segments of the An Analysis Kite Runner by Khaled, population. A few examples of monopolies that reduce productivity and kill substitutes. As just mentioned, subgroups within monopolies act as adversaries and allies. Exploring? Adversarial relationships often reduce a monopoly’s productivity substantially. An Analysis Kite Runner By Khaled Essay? When subgroups act as allies, their joint goal is often to eliminate products that might otherwise compete with theirs. While subgroups in any monopoly engage in both adversarial and cooperative actions, I’ll discuss separate examples of each in this section. Adversaries: Reducing productivity.

I’ll start by example looking at some adversarial relationships. In the United States, the singular themes, sugar cartel, cement industry and construction business provide excellent examples of subgroups within monopolies acting as adversaries and reducing productivity. During the Great Depression, the sugar manufacturing industry was one of many industries permitted to form a cartel as part of Glanders example New Deal economic policy (see Bridgman, Qi and Schmitz 2015). In exchange for this permission, the industry agreed to sell sugar at a “fair” price. In addition, members of the industry, including factory owners and incumbent farmers, drafted a joint plan (subject to wikipedia the onion government approval) for how the Glanders Essay example, cartel would meet price targets and share cartel profits. The cartel allocated sales quotas to the onion factories each year so as to hit the agreed-upon price target, a price in line with the agreement with the federal government. This cartel operated from Exploring Essay example, 1934 to 1974.

There were many adversarial relationships within the An Analysis of The Kite by Khaled Essay, sugar industry that led to cartel rules beyond the factory sales quotas. Exploring Glanders Essay? These additional rules greatly lowered productivity, as well as productivity growth. One such example: conflict between farmers and health and social level, factory owners. Just as factory owners wanted and received sales quotas, farmers demanded and got quotas on the number of acres used to grow sugar crops. The acre quotas were not a mechanism to control sugar prices; the factory sales quotas served this purpose. Rather, they were a mechanism to ensure that incumbent farmers received a share of the monopoly profits. Without the acre quotas, for example, firms could have moved their factories beyond the Glanders, geographic range of incumbent farmers.

It was this adversarial relationship between factories and reference, farmers that led to Glanders example acre quotas. Sugar-producing states were also locked in adversarial relationships, most notably by “stealing” manufacturing industries from each other, a common practice that goes back to the late 1800s. So some cartel subgroups, in particular, local and state authorities, had the incentive to push for limits on the renting of quotas, whereby acre quotas could be traded only within counties. Ultimately, they succeeded in including such rules in the cartel agreement. These cartel rules led to large productivity losses.

When the cartel was started in 1934, California and Colorado were the biggest beet-sugar-producing states, while Minnesota and North Dakota were very small producers. After World War II, the opportunity cost of land and the onion, (irrigated) water in Colorado and California grew much faster than in, say, Minnesota and North Dakota. Because cartel rules prohibited farmers from renting their quotas beyond the local area, however, quota rights could not flow from, say, California to North Dakota, where additional acres would have been more profitable. The result was tremendous inefficiency, as the opportunity cost of inputs used to produce a given quantity of Exploring sugar in California was much greater than that in North Dakota. The same thing happened where sugar cane was grown. When the sugar cartel started, Louisiana was a large cane producer, but Florida had barely begun its cane crop, and so received a very small quota. After WWII, the profit of the marginal farmer in Florida began growing much faster than that of his or her counterpart in Louisiana but, again, quotas could not move to An Analysis Kite by Khaled Essay Florida, where production would have been more profitable. Quotas also led to slower productivity growth by eliminating the incentive to find ways to increase output by, for example, increasing the period during which factories can operate during the year. Indeed, the sugar industry’s factory-operating days have increased dramatically in the United States since the cartel ended. The U.S. cement industry provides another good case study of adversaries within a monopoly. 4.

During the 1950s, a powerful union, the United Cement, Lime and Gypsum Workers International Union (CLGW, for short) had a near-monopoly on the supply of labor to the industry. Again, there were many adversarial relationships among subgroups. Exploring Example? One was between different groups of person workers. Because the workers were earning very high wages, there was potentially severe competition for jobs. Hence, groups of workers fought for rules that would secure their jobs from competition from Exploring Glanders Essay, other workers. Wikipedia The Onion? For example, union contracts had rules such as: “When the Exploring, Finish Grind Department is completely down for repairs, the Company will not use Repairmen assigned to the Clinker Handling Department on repairs in the Finish Grind Department.” 5 No detailed knowledge of cement plants is needed to An Analysis of The Kite understand that this rule was meant to protect the repair jobs in the Finish Grind Department. This rule enabled workers to credibly commit to Glanders Essay not compete with each other. This rule, and many others like it, not only protected jobs, but led to underutilization of capital. 6 Such rules led to is remoteness a waste of resources, like energy.

7 Such mechanisms, sometimes called restrictive work practices, led to significant reductions in industry productivity. Other restrictive work practices resulted from adversarial relationships between workers and Exploring example, managers. After the CLGW negotiated a big wage increase in the early 1960s, managers invested in larger, labor-saving machines that led to significant job losses. Unions reacted by demanding a 1965 rule that prohibited managers from firing workers made redundant as a result of Kite by Khaled new investment, new ways of Glanders Essay organizing production and so on. Managers agreed to the union demand, but this restrictive work practice significantly reduced productivity. One would expect this rule to the onion have dulled investment incentives and, indeed, there is evidence of a dip in investment in the late 1960s. But the Exploring Glanders Essay example, energy crisis of the 1970s hit the cement industry hard, and the industry responded by fall winter making big investments in Exploring Glanders new, energy-efficient machinery. The new machines were also more labor-efficient, but managers abided by their earlier commitment not to reduce employment. Wikipedia? Hence, large productivity gains were repeatedly sacrificed to Exploring preserve peace between adversaries. When foreign competition rocked the industry in the 1980s, the landscape changed. Cement factory managers were no longer committed to the rules they had agreed to with the is remoteness, CLGW.

The industry was able to expand its output and reduce its workforce; labor productivity soared. The gains that were missed in the 1970s were enjoyed in the 1980s. Construction: Size is not the issue. Discussion of Exploring monopoly typically conjures up images of giant corporations and giant manufacturing establishments, like U.S. Steel and its massive factories. But, in fact, the size of the what is remoteness, monopolist’s operation does not correlate with its destructive impact. Monopolies consisting of small units, operating on Exploring Glanders a small scale, also do great damage. 8. Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis found this to be true 90 years ago in summer fall dealing with the Chicago construction industry. He described an industry in Exploring Glanders turmoil: “It is the violation of no confidence to say that building construction has gotten into bad repute in summer and spring this community.

There was a general disposition to keep away from it as a thing diseased. Capital avoided it. The wise dollar preferred almost any other form of activity or no activity” (Montgomery 1926, p. 273). To address these serious problems in Chicago construction, Landis was appointed to arbitrate wage disputes (Montgomery 1926). But Landis felt that if he was to do his job well, he needed to also analyze the work rules in Essay example the industry. This surprised and scared most of the parties involved. Landis also knew that the work rules contained in themes the contracts were the tip of the iceberg, so he spent a considerable amount of time going out to jobs, talking with the workers and investigating the situation firsthand (p. 270). He concluded that while high wages were an issue, “The real malady lurked in a maze of conditions artificially created to give parties a monopoly, and in rules designed to produce waste for the mere sake of waste; all combined to bring about an insufferable situation, not the least burdensome element of which was the jurisdictional dispute between trade-union members of the Glanders Essay, same parent organization” (p. 273). The waste he reported is with us still (Schmitz 2016).

I can also apply these ideas to nonindustrial markets not usually thought of as pervaded by monopoly, such as the absurd, markets for professional services. Although these markets are made up of Exploring Essay thousands of independent professionals, these professionals band together to fall act as a cartel, a monopoly composed of Essay many separate business entities. I will show that the problems of of The Kite by Khaled Hosseini Essay monopolylow productivity and the elimination of low-cost substituteshave permeated these markets as well. Indeed, the problems created by these monopolies are particularly pernicious because they limit the supply of low-cost substitutes for high-priced professional services. Glanders? For example, lawyers limit the provision of inexpensive legal advice by paralegals, and health care diploma level 3 answers, dentists limit the provision of low-cost fillings by dental therapists. These limitations are not too harmful to the rich. But for Essay example, those with low income, such restrictions make legal advice and dental care unavailable.

They are priced out of the market. Wikipedia? Again, the costs of Exploring Glanders Essay example monopoly are inflicted disproportionately on the poor. Subgroups in a monopoly are not necessarily adversaries. Indeed, they may act as allies when they try to eliminate competition from substitute products. Consider, for example, the dental industry. There are many thousands of dentists, but they coordinate their actions through state dental associations. While these associations may have some public benefit, such as continuing professional education, they also act like a cartel, finding ways to increase the price of their members’ services. They do so in a way that also increases the demand for apa website reference, their services. One service dentists provide is filling cavities. In many countries, dental nurses or dental therapists, as they are called, are trained to Exploring example provide these services, most often in school-based programs for winter, children. 9 In the Glanders, United States, dental therapists have been vigorously opposed by dentists, with a few exceptions, including the native villages of Alaska and the state of Minnesota.

The impact of these cartel restrictions is profound. Summer Winter And Spring? Dental therapists require less training than dentists and Exploring Essay, so are able to wikipedia the onion provide basic services at a lower cost. Blocking these mid-level providers significantly increases the price of filling cavities, and low-income people may be forced to go without basic dental care. The debate over dental therapists in the United States is Exploring not over. Since Minnesota authorized the licensure of dental therapists in 2009, Maine and Vermont have passed similar laws.

A number of states are considering similar measures, despite stiff opposition from state dental associations. The laws often require that dental therapists work under the direct supervision of dentists, ostensibly for the protection of apa website patients, but the arrangement also protects dentists from competing directly with dental therapists operating independently. In most health markets, monopolies restrict or kill low-cost substitutes. For example, in Exploring Essay example the hearing aid industry, audiologists, who have Ph.D.s, often put tremendous entry restrictions on apa website reference hearing aid fitters. Glanders Example? The fitters are less skilled, but are perfectly capable of most work.

Again, the poor are hurt by this. This same analysis applies to spring summer fall many other types of services. Lawyers introduce statutes to prevent the Exploring Glanders example, “unlawful practice of law.” Essentially, lawyers don’t allow anyone who is not a member of the bar to absurd person themes provide legal advice, so paralegals are not allowed to Essay example operate independently. Person? Again, low-income people suffer the most from Essay, lack of absurd person themes access to lower-cost alternatives. In the construction industry, unions block the use of preassembled parts on construction sites. This eliminates a close substitute: factory assembly. Again, this hurts the poor the most, as they buy houses that use such materials. Schmitz (2016) provides many more industries and much more analysis. Adversaries and allies: Low productivity, few substitutes.

U.S. Steel is often cited as a classic example of Exploring Essay a monopoly. The company controlled a large share of the steel business and used this control to drive up prices. But it is also a good example of the what, new theory, illustrating the bigger picture of the costs its monopoly imposes on the economy. Exploring Example? The monopoly’s subgroups act both as adversaries that reduce productivity and as allies that eliminate competition from the onion, substitute products. The U.S.

Steel monopoly was composed of many subgroups, including shareholders, managers and hourly employees, as well as the United Steel Workers of America, the union that organized the entire steel workforce. Exploring Essay Example? I’ll sometimes refer to what the monopoly as the USS-USW monopoly. In some settings, these groups were fierce adversaries. In others, they were strong allies. Consider their adversarial roles. Given that the monopoly was generating significant profits, at least at Exploring Glanders example, first, subgroups had an incentive to increase their share of the pie and certainly to protect their share from other subgroups. The subgroups developed mechanisms to protect their share of profits, mechanisms that essentially committed the groups to not compete with each other.

Unions and management agreed on absurd singular themes restrictive work rules that helped to Exploring Glanders example protect jobs, but led to inefficient production. Executives ignored technological innovations, such as continuous casting of steel, that could have produced steel at much lower cost, but would have disrupted the bargain between the firm and its workers. All of Runner by Khaled Essay these compromises between adversaries harmed the company’s productivityand because the company so dominated the steel industry, the Glanders Essay, entire industry was less productive as a result. Next consider the subgroups in their roles as allies. The competitive vacuum that allowed the USS-USW monopoly to survive while being unproductive was no accident. Indeed, it was a situation that USS-USW worked hard to create and maintain. The issue is not merely that U.S.

Steel bought up and maintained control of health and social care diploma competing steel companies within the example, United States, as monopolists always do, or that the USW successfully organized the entire steel workforce. If subgroups USS and USW had done only those two things, they still would have faced significant competition from apa website, foreign firmscompetition that would have forced them to raise productivity and take on new, better technology. But USS-USW used its political clout to lobby for tariffs that protected it from Exploring Essay example, foreign competition. That is, U.S. Steel worked to restrict the output of foreign steel, a close substitute for steel made domestically. These restrictions meant that the demand for absurd themes, domestic steel was higher than it would have been otherwise, allowing U.S. Steel to increase its output, even as it increased prices. These artificially inflated prices injured any U.S. Glanders Example? buyer of steelbe it a car manufacturer or an oil drillerand ultimately hurt the consumer. For decades, the theoretical understanding and empirical analysis of monopoly have themselves been monopolized by a dominant paradigmthat the costs of monopoly are trivial.

This blindness to new theory and analysis has impeded economists’ understanding of the of The Kite by Khaled, actual harm caused by monopoly. Rather than inflicting little actual damage, adversarial relationships within monopolies have significantly reduced productivity and economic welfare. And in many industries, subgroups within monopolies collaborate to eliminate competition from Glanders Essay example, low-cost substitutes. This lack of what competition in the marketplace has a disproportionate impact on poor citizens who might otherwise find low-cost services that would meet their needs. I’ve described this as a “new” theory, but in truth its roots go back decades, to the ideas of Thurman Arnold. Arnold ran the Antitrust Division at the Department of Exploring Glanders Essay Justice from 1938 to 1943, taking aim at absurd person, a broad range of targets, from automakers to Hollywood movie producers to Exploring Essay example the American Medical Association. 10 He argued that lack of competition reduced productivity and that monopolies crushed low-cost substitutes, hurting the poor.

Arnold supported his arguments through intensive real-world research. He and his staff undertook detailed investigations of monopolies, examining the on-site operations of many industries and documenting the absurd singular themes, productivity losses and destruction of substitutes caused by monopoly. Arnold began his work at a pivotal timein the midst of the Great Depression, just after the Exploring Glanders example, United States had experimented with the cartelization of its economy. Faith in summer winter competitive markets had reached such a low that cartels and monopolies were thought to be, perhaps, better alternatives. His work and ideas played a big role in reinvigorating confidence in competitive markets. He mounted an aggressive campaign to protect society from monopoly. The campaign had two parts: forceful prosecution of Exploring Glanders example monopoly through the wikipedia the onion, courts, accompanied by an array of speeches and articles to educate the general public about its costs.

Economists gradually forgot Arnold and his ideas, convinced by Harberger’s empirical work and the introspection of economists, leading to, for example, the logic provided by Stigler and others. Scholars and regulators who studied monopolies focused on prices alone and found little to worry about. But as shown by the research reviewed in this essayand an expanding body of empirical workthe problems caused by monopoly are significant, and still pervasive. My hope is Glanders that this paper will open a new era of discussion about monopoly and its costs, and ultimately lead policymakers to encourage greater competition for the benefit of apa website all. 1 The author thanks Ann Harrington for Glanders Essay example, her valuable suggestions on the content and organization of this essay. The views expressed here are those of the author, not necessarily those of others in the Federal Reserve System. 2 Schmitz (2016) contains more detailed discussion and references to the material in this article. 3 Stigler (1988) presents the familiar logic behind this assumption.

4 The history of this industry, and the rise and of The Kite Runner, fall of monopoly in it, is Glanders Essay beautifully described in Northrup (1990). A quantitative analysis, on which the following discussion is based, can be found in Dunne, Klimek and Schmitz (2016) 5 Quoted from the Voice (Oct. Person Themes? 1978, p. 86), a monthly publication of the CLGW union. 6 Machinery in the Finish Grind department was idle (broken) for longer than was necessary. Machines in Glanders Essay other departments also may have had to be slowed.

7 Kiln fuel was being burned even if the plant was not able to produce cement. 8 For Thurman Arnold, who directed the what is remoteness, Antitrust operations of the Justice Department from 1938 to 1943, size was not the decisive factor in determining a monopoly, but whether the Glanders example, monopoly reduced efficiency. Bridgman, Ben, Shi Qi, James A. What? Schmitz Jr. 2015. Example? “Cartels Destroy Productivity: Evidence from the New Deal Sugar Manufacturing Cartel, 1934-74.” Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Staff Report 519. Dunne, Tim, Shawn Klimek, James A. Schmitz Jr. 2016. “Monopoly Stifles Productivity, Competition Spurs It: Evidence From Post WWII U.S. Cement Manufacturing.” Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Staff Report, forthcoming. Harberger, Arnold C. 1954. “Monopoly and Resource Allocation.” American Economic Review 44 (2): 77-87. Kolasky, William. 2013. “Thurman Arnold: An American Original.” Antitrust 27 (3): 91-92.

Montgomery, Royal E. Of The Kite Runner By Khaled Hosseini? 1926. “The Landis Arbitration and Award.” University Journal of Business (University of Chicago Press) 4 (3): 260-93. Northrup, Herbert R. 1990. “From Union Hegemony to Union Disintegration: Collective Bargaining in Cement and Related Industries.” Journal of Labor Research 11 (3): 360. Schmitz, James A. Jr. 2016. “The Costs of Monopoly are Large and Inflicted Disproportionately on Glanders example the Poor.” Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Staff Report, forthcoming. Stigler, George J. 1988.

Memoirs of an Unregulated Economist . University of summer fall winter Chicago Press.

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essay on persona Home » Articles » An introduction to personas and how to create them. Before embarking on any intranet or website design project, it is important to understand the needs of your users. Exploring Glanders Example. It is summer fall then possible to identify the features and functionality that will make the intranet or website a success, and how the design can support users with different goals and levels of skill. There are many ways to identify the needs of users, such as usability testing, interviewing users, discussions with business stakeholders, and conducting surveys. However one technique that has grown in popularity and acceptance is the use of personas: the development of archetypal users to direct the vision and design of a web solution. This article explains what personas are, benefits of using personas, answers to common objections about personas, and practical steps towards creating them.

It is meant as an introduction to personas, and provides enough information to start creating your own. If you want to know more, there are lots of resources available, particularly the work of Glanders, Alan Cooper and colleagues at Cooper Interaction Design. Alan is credited with having created the apa website reference, first persona for software development purposes back in the early 1980s. Personas act as stand-ins for real users. Personas are archetypal users of an intranet or website that represent the Exploring Essay, needs of what, larger groups of users, in Essay example, terms of their goals and personal characteristics. They act as ‘stand-ins’ for real users and help guide decisions about An Analysis Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini functionality and design.

Personas identify the Glanders Essay, user motivations, expectations and goals responsible for driving online behaviour, and bring users to life by giving them names, personalities and often a photo. Although personas are fictitious, they are based on health and social care knowledge of real users. Some form of user research is conducted before they are written to ensure they represent end users rather than the opinion of the person writing the personas. Below is a sample persona for an intranet project. Exploring. This persona describes Bob, a 52 year old mechanic that works for a road service company. From Bob’s persona you can start to get a feel for the onion his goals when using the new intranet.

He wants to Exploring Essay, avoid feeling stupid, would like to retain his status as a mentor to his younger colleagues, whilst seeing the potential of the intranet to make him more informed when interacting with customers. Bob is 52 years old and works as a mechanic with an organisation offering road service to customers when their car breaks down. Absurd Person Singular Themes. He has worked in Essay, the job for the past 12 years and knows it well. Many of the younger mechanics ask Bob for advice when they meet up in the depot as he always knows the answer to tricky mechanical problems. Bob likes sharing his knowledge with the younger guys, as it makes him feel a valued part of the team. Bob works rolling day and night shifts and spends his shifts attending breakdowns and lockouts (when customers lock their keys in the car). About 20% of the wikipedia the onion, jobs he attends are complex and Glanders Essay, he occasionally needs to refer to his standard issue manuals. Reference. Bob tries to avoid using the Exploring Glanders Essay example, manuals in front of customers as he thinks it gives the impression he doesn’t know what he’s doing. Bob has seen many changes over the years with the company and has tried his best to move with the times. However he found it a bit daunting when a new computer was installed in his van several years ago, and now he has heard rumours that the computer is going to summer fall and spring, be upgraded to one with a bigger screen that’s meant to Essay example, be faster and what is remoteness, better. Bob’s been told that he will be able to access the Exploring, intranet on the new computer.

He has heard about the intranet and saw once in an early version on health and social diploma level 3 answers his manager’s computer. He wonders if he will be able to find out want’s going on in the company more easily, especially as customers’ seem to know more about the latest company news than he does when he turns up at Exploring example a job. This can be embarrassing and has been a source of frustration for Bob throughout his time with the company. Bob wonders if he will be able to cope with the new computer system. He doesn’t mind asking his grandchildren for help when he wants to send an email to his brother overseas, but asking the guys at spring summer winter work for example help is another story. Personas enable intranet and website teams to stand in their users’ shoes. They focus the design effort on supporting user goals, rather than being driven by the ideas of team members or senior executives. Introducing personas into your intranet or website project will bring a number of benefits: users’ goals and needs become a common point of focus for the team the team can concentrate on designing for a manageable set of Kite Runner by Khaled, personas knowing that they represent the needs of many users they are relatively quick to develop and replace the need to canvass the whole user community and Exploring Essay, spend months gathering user requirements they help avoid the trap of building what users ask for rather than what they will actually use design efforts can be prioritised based on the personas disagreements over design decisions can be sorted out by referring back to the personas designs can be constantly evaluated against the personas, reducing the frequency of large and expensive usability tests. Although personas have many benefits, they alone will not ensure the success of your intranet or website.

The goals of the business must also be considered, because if the website or intranet does not meet business needs, then the solution is not a viable one. For example, an intranet may aim to reduce organisational costs and increase staff efficiency, while an ecommerce website aims to make sales. Personas also support rather than replace other user-centred design activities. There is apa website still a need to conduct task analysis to understand the Essay, detailed tasks your intranet or website is to accommodate. There is still value in usability testing the site, and many user-centred design activities are conducted to gather input into the personas, such as user interviewing and observation. Roadblocks to introducing personas.

Introducing personas for what is remoteness the first time is not always a smooth ride. You may come across any one of these objections. Personas are no different from market segments. Market segmentation is an invaluable tool for identifying the groups of Exploring, people most likely to use a website and why. However market segmentation is not designed to provide insight into how the website needs to work and how it is best designed.

Market segmentation might identify that 37% of women aged 25-35 want to book their next holiday online, and that competitive prices and access to quality accommodation will affect their purchasing decision. A persona, on the other hand, would show that Sally aged 27 wants to wikipedia the onion, book her next holiday online, but is concerned that the accommodation she chooses won’t look the same as the brochure, that they won’t be close to restaurants and bars, and that her online booking might not be accepted when she arrives. Sally also wants to be assured that she can cancel her booking 60 days prior to her departure date without penalty. Market segmentation is a great input into persona development and can help identify the types of users to profile. However it rarely provides the richness required to write personas. A good article on the difference between market segmentation and Glanders Essay, persona development is Reconciling market segments and personas by Elaine Brechin from Cooper Interaction Design. Personas have no place in the serious world of IT. Personas make some people feel uncomfortable. Talking about An Analysis Runner hypothetical users with real names and personalities can be too much for some, and Exploring Essay example, the storytelling nature of personas just does not fit with some organisational or team cultures. In this case you don’t need to reference, abandon personas, instead you can write then in a less threatening way.

Here are a few tips: Initially eliminate or minimise the amount of personal details about a persona, including the photo. You can introduce these later on if people start to warm to the concept. Give the persona a title rather than a name. For example, Bob’s persona introduced at the beginning of the article could be referred to as the ‘expert mechanic’ persona. Exploring. Write the persona as a list of bullet points rather than a narrative.

Keep the bullet points to spring fall, short statements about the user’s goals, behaviours, likes and dislikes. An example of Exploring Essay example, how Bob’s persona can be modified is shown below. Of The Kite Runner By Khaled Hosseini Essay. Although this does not have the richness of the Exploring Glanders, narrative persona, it still does the job of and social care diploma level 3 answers, focusing the team on the needs of the user. Shares technical tips with younger, less experienced mechanicsLikesBeing seen as the expert and sharing technical tips with less experienced mechanicsDislikesBeing unable to Exploring Glanders example, find out what is happening in the company before customers do. Learning new technology and the potential of looking stupid in apa website, front of colleagues. Using technical manuals in front of customers for more complex jobsGoalsStay informed about the Essay example, company. Dont look stupid. Retain status of expert. How can a small set of personas represent the user population. When explaining for spring summer and spring the first time that an intranet or website can be designed around only a handful of personas, some people will look at you with disbelief. How can two, three, four or even five user profiles encapsulate the requirements of the entire user community?

Traditionally user-centred design involved researching the needs of as many users as possible and collecting all of their requirements. Exploring. This resulted in a long list of needs with no sense of priority. This lack of direction typically translated into designs that tried to person singular themes, serve all users but ended up serving no user particularly well. For example, you may have interviewed 50 people around the organisation about their intranet needs. You have compiled a list of Glanders example, requested content and some ideas about the functionality users’ desire, such as a phone book linked to the organisation chart and the ability to check how much annual leave they have left.

You also know that the call centre users need access to a range of information very quickly if their call response times are not to be adversely affected. Finally, you’ve realised that the remote sales teams will be getting a new network in the next few months and will finally be able to access the intranet. What do you do with all these needs? Do you design the intranet so it meets the needs of the call centre staff? After all, they are the is remoteness, ones with the strictest productivity requirements. If you do this, how will the example, sales staff get to the information they need when they are face-to-face with customers? And, what about head office staff, such as the technical team that accesses only a small amount of distinct content? Personas cut through this confusion. They allow you to identify discrete sets of users and spring winter and spring, create typical users to represent each group.

Design for the personas and the users with similar goals and needs will also be satisfied. Design for a discrete set of personas and satisfy all users with similar goals. By defining primary and Essay, secondary personas you can also work out who to design for first and whether you need to design more than one user interface. The needs of apa website reference, a primary persona will not be met if you design for someone else, whereas others are likely to be satisfied with the Exploring Essay example, primary persona’s interface. For example, if you design for the call centre staff, the remote sales staff and the head office technical team might also be satisfied. However if you design just for wikipedia the onion the head office technical team, the Essay, call centre and sales staff are unlikely to be happy. The call centre staff persona is An Analysis of The Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini Essay a primary persona, whereas the head office technical team is Glanders Essay example a secondary persona. The secondary persona is happy with the absurd person, primary persona’s interface with a few specific additional needs. So, in this case, you would begin designing for the call centre staff persona. This is a lot easier than facing a 10 or 20 page list of user requirements.

Interview real users and business people that interact with users. The purpose of the research is to identify trends or patterns in Exploring Glanders example, user behaviours, expectations and motivations to form the basis of the personas. One of the best ways to gather this data is to interview real users. This is usually achievable when designing intranets but becomes harder when you need access to users of and social care diploma, a public website. If you have access to users, decide who to interview by listing the Exploring Glanders Essay, groups of health care diploma, people that might use the intranet or website. If you are doing a redesign project, think of Exploring, current users as well as potential users. Trends are usually seen after talking to around 10 or so users, however you may need to speak to more if there are a lot users with vastly different needs. Once you hear the same thing over and over again, it’s time to winter and spring, stop.

If you really can’t get access to users then attempt a combination of the following research methods. Try not to rely on Exploring Glanders Essay a single method, rather use at least two avenues of research. Also, if you interview users, consider supplementing the interviews with one of the winter, research methods below. This will produce richer data and can verify your interview findings: Interview business stakeholders that interact frequently with users.

These people have had hundreds if not thousands of interactions with end users and Glanders example, are already conscious of users’ behavioural patterns. Respect the wealth of knowledge your business stakeholders hold and get them involved early on in the is remoteness, persona research. This helps to build their buy in to the persona technique. Review market research and interview your organisation’s market research specialists. Once again these people have frequent interaction with end users and are trained to pick up patterns in attitudes and behaviours. Exploring Essay Example. They may not have created personas before, but if you ask the of The Kite Essay, right questions you’ll gather useful information to add to your research data. Survey users and business stakeholders using quantitative methods. This is a good way to gather large amounts of demographic data and to identify trends in skill levels and tasks performed. However it cannot replace direct interaction and observation with interview subjects as there is no way to tap into the users’ subconscious beliefs and attitudes. If you are designing a web site, talk to friends and family that are users of the current website or potential users of the new website.

Chat to Essay example, people over dinner parties or at what is remoteness the pub. This is not rigorous research, but some research is better than none. Conduct interviews in the user’s environment. Now that you have decided on your research methods, carry out the research. If conducting interviews, plan to Exploring, spend about one hour per interview. Reference. If this is not possible, 30 minutes will still uncover behavioural trends, but the personas may not end up as detailed as you might like. Interviews with users are best conducted in the environment in which they will use the Glanders, intranet or website.

This provides the opportunity to absurd singular themes, observe what users do as opposed to what they say they do. Stay away from asking opinions about the design of the intranet or website, or asking users what they want. Rather gather information about the areas listed in the table below. The table lists slightly different areas of investigation for intranets and websites. Job responsibilities and what a typical day looks like. Tasks that take the longest, are the Glanders Essay, most critical or are performed most often. Major frustrations with the what, job and the organisation.

What the person likes best about their job. What teams or people within the Exploring, organisation the health diploma 3 answers, person interacts with most. Skill levels relating to the job as well as technology. How time poor or rich the example, person is. Goals, attitudes, beliefs (conscious and subconscious) What a typical day looks like. Common questions or tasks in relation to the website’s domain. Major frustrations when trying to achieve goals related to the website’s domain. For example, if it is a travel website, what frustrates the person most about researching and booking travel (online and offline)

What the person likes best about the website’s domain. For example, what does the interviewee like best about travel. Who does the person interact with most when completing tasks. For example, does the person rely on the travel agent for advice or do they like to make their own travel decisions. Skill levels relating to tasks as well as technology. How time poor or rich the person is. Goals, attitudes, beliefs (conscious and of The by Khaled Hosseini Essay, subconscious) Prepare a list of Exploring Glanders, interview questions, however, remain open to an alternative path of questioning if it leads to uncovering user attitudes and behaviours.

Also, don’t ask questions like ‘What are your goals when using the intranet/website?’. You will need to apa website, infer the Exploring Glanders Essay example, goals from questions like ‘What things frustrate you the most?’, ‘What makes a good working day?’, and ‘What will help you. to do your job better?’ Examples of questions relevant for intranet projects can be found in our article Stakeholder interviews as simple knowledge mapping. Practice active listening, adopt open body language and make appropriate eye contact. Most of An Analysis of The Runner, all respect the opinions the user is providing. They are talking about their world, and this is the world they bring with them when using your website or intranet. Your respect will build trust and openness, and this is when the example, true motivations, attitudes and beliefs of the user are revealed.

Stay tuned to what the user is not saying – take notice of body language and tone of voice. Analyse research data and identify persona set. Review all the research data and look for patterns in attitudes and An Analysis of The Hosseini Essay, behaviours. Exploring Glanders Essay Example. For example, if you interviewed people about travel, you might find patterns like users who are price driven as opposed to quality driven, users who travel frequently as opposed to reference, infrequently, and users who prefer to research their holiday rather than asking others for suggestions. For an intranet project, users who need to access information under strict time pressures, users who spend a large amount of their time researching, and Glanders, users who like to be seen as the experts in the organisation. Whilst listing these patterns, you will begin to of The Runner by Khaled Hosseini, see clusters of Glanders example, attitudes and behaviours that make up different personas, such as the frequent traveller that is absurd person singular themes skilled in researching holidays and finding the best prices.

This persona is motivated by Glanders Essay example, keeping the cost of each holiday down so they can travel more in the future. The persona’s goal is to by Khaled Hosseini Essay, go on as many holidays as possible. Once you have defined these clusters of attitudes and behaviours, give each persona a brief description, such as ‘independent traveller’ or ‘bargain hunter’. There is no ideal number of personas, however try to keep the set small. Exploring Glanders Essay. Four or five personas work as effective design tools, whilst over ten personas may introduce the same confusion as a large user requirements document. Start writing the spring summer fall and spring, personas by adding details around the Exploring example, behavioural traits. Care Diploma. Select details from Exploring, your research, such as working environment, frustrations, relationships with others, skill level, and some demographics. The Onion. Give each persona a name and a photo, unless your organisational or team culture is better suited to the more generic personas, like Bob’s persona listed as a series of example, bullet points. Here are some tips to follow regardless of health, whether you write your personas as narrative or bullet points:

Keep your personas to one page, so they remain effective communication tools and can be referred to quickly during design discussions. Add personal details but don’t go overboard. Include goals for each persona. Example. This can include experience goals as well as end goals. In the case of Bob, the expert mechanic, an experience goal would be to ‘not look stupid’, whilst an apa website reference, end goal would be ‘remain informed about the company’. To find out Exploring Glanders example, more about writing goals, refer to summer and spring, the article: Perfecting your personas Identify the primary and secondary personas (explained earlier on in this article) to help direct design priorities. Once your personas are written, review them to ensure they have remained realistic and based on your research data. Exploring Glanders Essay. Check that you have a manageable number of personas, and if two personas seem close in An Analysis, behaviours and goals, see if you can merge them into one persona.

Finally, to ensure you have a polished product, ask someone to review the personas for accuracy in spelling and grammar. There are many and varied ways that personas can be used. This will depend upon the nature of your project and Exploring, the needs of the design team. Here are some common ways to use personas: identify the features, functionality and content to develop for an intranet or website release, ensuring that value is delivered to reference, users from day one of the release determine whether one user interface will meet the goals of all users, or whether there needs to be two or more user interfaces developed communicate to Exploring Essay example, senior executives the apa website reference, vision for Essay example the new intranet or website and how it will meet the needs of the staff or customer base make design decision about care diploma level 3 answers how a piece of functionality will work or about the creative design of the web solution guide the content development so that content supports the goals of the Glanders Essay example, users and answers their common questions focus additional user analysis activities, such as task analysis guide an expert usability review of the existing intranet or website develop scenarios for what is remoteness usability testing contribute to the marketing efforts for Exploring Essay the intranet or website. Understanding the level 3 answers, needs of users is one of the most critical success factors for any intranet or website project. Understanding these needs in a rapid fashion has arisen as project timelines have shortened and Essay, the pressure has mounted to deliver value early and often. Personas allow you to identify and communicate user needs efficiently and effectively. By developing ‘stand in’ users, based on real user data, the design team can concentrate on designing for these archetypal users with the apa website reference, confidence that the needs of the broader user base will be meet. Personas are a useful tool to use throughout the project, from Glanders, deciding upon health and social care diploma level 3 answers the functionality to include in a release to evaluating the end product. Teamed up with other user-centred design tools and techniques, such as task analysis and usability testing, personas will place you in good stead to deliver a useful and Exploring Glanders, usable solution.

Published March 2, 2004. Putting information to wikipedia, work: the five purposes of modern intranets (free) And stay informed about our news and events. Say hi and let us know how we can help. Step Two are the world's intranet experts. Exploring Example. With 15+ years of experience under our belt, we've worked with clients around the globe, to determine strategies, design sites, and establish governance.

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