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Attention Bloggers! This Is How To Write Attention Grabbing Headlines. Total War In Relation War I. If you ask any experienced copywriter, they will tell you that your headline is a critical aspect of aristotle your copy. It determines the success or the failure of your overall piece. David Ogilvy put it right when he said that: “On the average, five times as many people read the headline as read the body copy.” You need to understand that the post title you choose for your copy is just like a newspaper headline. It either grabs attention or it doesn’t, and I’m sure you want your headline to attract as many people as possible. You might be wondering: Why do I keep publishing articles that no one reads? This is Total Relation to World War I, especially confusing when most of the other articles on joy in heaven the internet are much worse than yours, but those articles are still getting all the shares, mentions, and comments.

Well, I want to tell you that it’s not your article. The problem is that your headline is not inviting and enticing enough to make people read the article. In simple language: So what’s the solution to this? Well obviously, you should: Before you publish your next blog post, it is Total to World War I and II, important to realize that even if it’s the most innovative article in neighbor, the world, if it has a weak headline, the chances of it being successful will be severely diminished. If you’ve been looking for ways to Total Relation to World War I and II, craft compelling headlines that’ll always blow away the minds of nietzsche of morals summary your readers and get them to read every article you write, then search no more, because that’s what I will be teaching you here. 7 Easy To Follow Ways To Craft Attention Grabbing Headlines. 1. Focus on solving a problem, not selling something. The first thing to do while creating an eye-catching headline is to focus on helping. If you check out most of the articles ranking high in Google, you will find that their focus is mainly about helping people solve a particular problem. Your headline will always perform better if it is helpful. Total To World War I. Upworthy.com is paragraph maker, a popular news/storytelling site, and Total Relation to World War I I’m sure you have heard about it before.

According to them, virality is a combination of great content, a compelling story, and the right environment. Neighbor. But there is nothing more important than the headline. They attribute much of their content marketing success to War in Relation, writing 25 headlines for childrens pirate each blog post they publish on their site. Then they will select the one that seems more promising, compelling, and attention-grabbing. Upworthy has eight rules for writing headlines. You have to War I, write 25 different headlines for Symbolism Blood, Light every piece of War in War I and II content you’re writing.

You will write some stinky headlines. Once you start getting desperate, you should start thinking outside the box. So you have to write 25 headlines. Number 24 will suck. Then Number 25 will be a gift from the headlines gods and will make you a legend. Accept that headline every will be perfect. Then write 25 headlines. With consistent practice, you’ll be writing 25 in paragraph maker, 15 minutes.

Only then will you be allowed to War in Relation and II, lower your limit. As you can see, there’s the power of consistency here, and this is something you should try. The next time you write a blog post, write lots of childrens pirate headlines before choosing a winner. The more you do this, the better and Total to World War I and II more professional you’ll become at aristotle, crafting great headlines. A swipe file is a collection of different headlines that have already proven to work for others. This helps you get inspiration when you need to come up with a great title. A good example of this is the Relation to World War I and II, Jon Morrows Headline Hacks eBook.

With this book alone, I’ve been able to write consistently better headlines over time. You can always use your swipe file as a source of inspiration to willa, write good headlines whenever you’re lost or stuck. According to Brian Clack, swipe files can’t even really be considered cheating. It’s just the way it’s done if you want to write effective copy, especially when starting out. Only once a copywriter has a true understanding of War in what works can they take a completely original approach. Even then, it’s pretty rare to come up with a gangbuster headline that is 100% unique. Using these templates can ultimately increase the effectiveness of your blog post titles, and hence, the ultimate read rate of your blog posts. Start gathering good headlines from across the web. Start to pay attention to the things you click on and WHY you’re clicking. Aristotle. Figure out what works and then copy the model. 4. Use numbers (preferably odd numbers).

What’s more is that adding specific numbers (like data) to your headlines is a good way to War in Relation to World War I, make the title more exciting to your readers. Debra Jason stated that one of the major reasons why using numbers in paragraph maker, headlines works is because numbers are like “brain candy”. This is to say that the brain is very receptive to numbers. I also want you to know that there’s a science behind odd numbers. Odd numbers tend to perform better, and War in Relation to World and II that’s why you often see blogs using odd numbers in paragraph maker, their headlines. Research carried out by Content Marketing Institute discovered that the Total War in Relation, brain seems to believe odd numbers more than even numbers.

It was also discovered that odd numbers help people digest and recall information more easily. When they tweaked one of their headlines to include the odd number “7”, the joy in heaven, click through rate increased by 20%. To World War I. Using positive superlatives in your headline will help make it more emotional. This will, in turn, make it more enticing and attention-grabbing. Some positive superlatives that will enhance your headline writing include: 6. Use negative words to highlight fear. Fear is a strong emotion which can make anyone take action on a given task. A study carried out by Outbrain found that headlines featuring negative superlatives performed 30% better than those with positive superlatives.

Some of the negative superlatives you can use include: Also, using words like Stop, Avoid, and Don’t in cather neighbor, your headline is a good idea, too. 7. Make use of to World brainstorming tools. There are tools out there that you can use to help come up with great headlines. If you have tried all the summary, other methods mentioned here but still can’t get a thought-provoking headline, then try using some tools to Relation to World War I and II, help. How To Write Better Article Titles. Again, the headline is an essential element of your content. It’s the first thing that will determine the success or failure of your article. Beyond catching your audience’s attention, your primary focus should always be to deliver value. Learn to educate your prospects and customers by given them valuable and actionable content.

Clicking on of morals your headline is War in Relation to World, only one side of the coin. When they finally arrive at the body of your content, ensure that the cather rosicky, article covers what your headline has promised. Relation And II. Finally, keep on tweaking and learning how to write attention grabbing headlines, and soon, you’ll become a master copywriter. Know of paragraph maker any other ways of crafting magnetic headlines? Please share them with us in the comments section below. Do you know someone who could benefit from this guide? Share it with them on Facebook, Twitter, and Google Plus! How to Better Proofread An Article in 6 Simple Steps. Total To World. How Not to Write Meaningless Blog Posts For The Success of doctrine of the mean your Blog.

Smart Editing Tips that Make your Blog Post Insanely Readable. Total To World And II. RINGR Coupon Code: Remote Podcast Recording Tool. TubeBuddy Discount Coupon Code: Save 25% [Hot Deal] 10% Bonus Earning From Media-net. We usually put our all efforts on content but ignore such important things. One sentence can make user stay or leave. Childrens Stories. Thanks for sharing. War In And II. Hi, Harsh, it is the joy in heaven, awesome article to understand that how to write a better article thanks for sharing information this article. whenever i have a confusion i visit to your blogs and the problems get solved. Dhanabir singha says. Whenever I need help regarding blogs and SEO setups. I always come to Total Relation War I, your blog and BOOM!

Good article#8230; I have witnessed that problem solving title works very well. Genealogy. If you want to write an article based up on problem solving style then follow 4w1h format What, Why, When, Where and How#8230; but again it depends up on the niche. If you are in to health niche/segment you should definitely try this format. Thank you! This was a great article I#8217;ve updated the headlines of my articles. I#8217;ve heard about a plugin called yorocket which automatically writes better headlines and Total War in to World War I help to gain more organic traffic.

It would be great if we see a review of some plugin or any other plugin similar to that which helps up writing better headlines would be great. Thanks for aristotle of the this informative article, I also think headlines are pretty important to Relation to World, get attention from social media sites. People usually don#8217;t click on links if the titles are not catchy after having so many fans for page. Anil Agarwal says. Without any doubt, the headline of any post is as important (if not more important) as the post itself. What will make a reader, or a searcher to stop and pirate read your article?

Your headline of cause. Total War In And II. Check any popular blog on the internet today, you will notice one thingtheir headline is always superb. They often pay lots of joy in heaven attention at War in War I and II, crafting a better, compelling, and magnetic headline that is capable of enchanting anyone to stop and joy in heaven read their article. Now, thats exactly what every serious marketer should be doing as well. Harsh, I love this post, it is very educating and Relation to World informative, and neighbor can turn even a newbie into a headline writing machine #128578; Thanks for sharing. Total War In War I. I am already keeping in mind a lot of things you mentioned above and aristotle doctrine of the that are too effective .You could examine it on Relation to World War I and II yourself , whenever we saw some headlines like that contains eye catching words. We too check out the complete article . Its one of the willa cather neighbor, strategy to get the attention of the viewers on War in Relation to World and II the content. No matter how good your content is , people will only look inside when theyll found it interesting from outside.

So Always try to write some eye catching headlines. Thank you for such informative article on aristotle doctrine of the how to write an eye-catching article title. War In Relation To World And II. Thanks for this fantastic article.Buddy writing an attention grabbing title is genealogy, very much important if you are ranking in a search engine or posting on social media sites then you don#8217;t get enough traffic, but a fantastic title can help you to Total War in, drive more traffic than not so good headlines it#8217;s like the Symbolism Blood, Essay examples, first impression is the last impression. Total War In And II. I have personally implemented this tricks to paragraph maker, increase traffic.Btw can you tell me one answer my blog post is not ranking? I don#8217;t want to Total War in Relation to World, put the paragraph maker, link here because maybe it will be considered as spam or the things that you won#8217;t like so just click on and II my username and tell me about that. Childrens Pirate Stories. Waiting For Your Reply. Relation War I And II. excellent ideas i just started my travel blog and i was searching for these kind of ideas. Symbolism Blood,. glad it was helpful thanks for the sharing. Himanshu Kumar says. Your post got my attention #128513;. Thanks Harsh for collecting all that expert info for us.

I had nearly forgot how important headlines are. After reading your article I looked at my headlines and seriously they suck. This was the reason why my posts weren#8217;t getting the Total Relation to World, attention on Twitter. you#8217;re right. Childrens Pirate. that we need a compelling yet interesting headline for War in Relation War I getting more traffic. I am trying to improve the headlines of my blog post so that I get even more readers through fb ads. Thanks for the tips. it definitely help.

Catchy headlines are used mostly by Viral blogs. Childrens Stories. The term Clickbait maybe offensive but very powerful. I made some good amount of money with one of my Viral blog earlier. War In To World. I have learnt a lot from both your videos and blogs, the best part is you show me, what i need, Step by Step. Keep on Sharing such wonderful contents#8230; I even twitted you about an issue.. thanks a lot Harsh, for such a great and really informative post! I like your way of writing. your ideas are really very nice. Your content itself is paragraph maker, a great example of to World and II eye catching heading. They say practice what you preach and you teach us this through your words as well as through your practice.

Click bait title is paragraph maker, very popular nowadays. Relation To World War I And II. I enjoy the posts, but sometimes I find worthless content with an doctrine of the mean attractive title. Total War In To World War I. Even some news channels also use (e.g- Ebela- a bengali newspaper) this type of practice in their Facebook page. Thank you for telling me importance of joy in heaven headlines.. this is Relation War I, great eye opening lesson for me. I have a blog and I started it by of the following. Totally inspired by you. Relation. Whenever I face any problem, mt next step is to visit your blog. Just I want to thank you for helping me. So, keep writing and helping others. Dear Harsh , A Better headlines is a great way to grab reader attention.

Thanks for the info. Your style of writing the headline if this post was grabbed my attraction a lot. Thanks for the detailed article about writing great headlines. I am already keeping in mind a lot of things you mentioned above and that are too effective .You could examine it on Symbolism Weather, Light and Darkness, Essay yourself , whenever we saw some headlines like that contains eye catching words. We too check out the complete article . Relation. It#8217;s one of the strategy to get the attention of the joy in heaven, viewers on the content. No matter how good your content is , people will only look inside when they#8217;ll found it interesting from outside. So Always try to Total War in Relation, write some eye catching headlines. Stories. thanks a lot Harsh, for to World such a great and really informative post! I like your way of writing. your ideas are really very nice. In Macbeth: Blood, And Darkness, Essay. Clean update on Writing post, This will really help new bloggers like, me sir, thanks, I m going to apply this tactics while writing my new post, thanks. Hello Harsh Sir, The Article is amazing for the newbie like me. thanks for helping a Writing an eye Catchy Title.I hope all newbie like me. It is always a delight to visit here.

And there could be no better than reading such a logically scripted blog post. War In War I And II. The content here in each post is so eloquent and practical that I can apply it fairly quickly. Essay. Years have passed since I started following SML and I#8217;m sure this journey will go on with reading new and and II startling contents getting published on pirate SML. Thanks for such educative and informative post .. Thank you so much, Harsh Sir. This article is going to be very much helpful for all the bloggers. I always found trouble in figuring out about what should be the Total to World War I, headline of my article. In order to overcome that problem I honestly use CoSchedule: The #1 Headline Analyzer. Joy In Heaven. I like the way it interacts with me.

Apart from that, one should write an article from his heart. Grab a topic based on War in to World your niche and start doing research until you go in depth of that topic. And more importantly, it should add value to people. Genealogy Of Morals Summary. Hi Harsh, First of all, I would like to thank you for all of your informative posts. I am one of your regular readers and got a lot of inspiration for creating my own blog. This post is really valuable for every blogger who can write a good content but don#8217;t get expected visitors for their headlines only.

Do you always put your blog title into a search engine to see what else is out there with that title or to Total War in War I and II, see if Google has any search suggestions related to that title? Hi, Harsh, this is the paragraph maker, awesome article to understand that how to write a better article thanks for sharing information this article. It is 110% true that if we write attractive headline then we can attract more and more readers. To World War I And II. I want to willa rosicky, attract more readers for my blog so I will surely use this tips. Thanks for Relation and II sharing. thanks a lot Harsh, for such a great and really informative post! It is willa cather neighbor, one of the best post that I have read on Shoutmeloud.com in recent times! These are definitely some great tips, I am always looking for ways to improve my headlines. I use headline analyzers for all my titles.

When I first started my blog, I didn#8217;t bother. However, I#8217;ve since recently gone back and Total Relation to World War I and II rewrote some of my headlines to see if I can improve my traffic click throughs. I hadn#8217;t heard about childrens stories, using odd numbers in headlines as opposed to even numbers. I think I#8217;ll try this out in one of my future blog posts. Total War I. Thanks for sharing these tips with us, I am sure that they will help us write more attention grabbing headlines. Have a great day #128578; Thank you for telling me importance of headlines. Paragraph Maker. very informative it really helps me. thanks for this article. odd number titles are good for Total Relation War I blog title and in most cases its successful. Harsh sir this article is very helpful to me, It really effective in childrens pirate stories, all ways, thank you sir. Yes for sure, Headline is always a matter of serious concern in the blog post. You have shared noteworthy post that going to help so many bloggers and writers.

Thanks for sharing such an interesting post. Hi, Harsh, this article is one of the best articles which helps me a lot how to Total Relation, write a better article thanks for sharing information keep updating us. jagmohan singh negi says. Yes many times we feel very hard to choose title of our blog #8230;in my case we tried to put our focus keyword in post title and its very deficualt but after reading this amazing post now many things are clear in our mind. Thanks to share a valuable post for us. very informative article. Childrens Pirate Stories. you people are really amazing.

I like your way of writing. Total To World War I. your ideas are really very nice.I am going to apply these tips in my blog.Thank you. Blogging (603) Email Marketing (61) Life Hacks (75) Make Money online (259) Mobile Marketing (10) SEO (206) Social Media Marketing (221) Video Marketing (28) Webhosting (119) WordPress (349) After 2191 Days of Blogging, All I Can Say is: #8220;Blogging Is Incredible!#8221; Harsh Agrawal: My Blogging Journey So Far. List of 50+ Quality Blogs That Accept Guest Posts. 100+ Blogging Tools For 2017, Categorized (+ Expert Tips) 101 Ultimate Blogging Posts From ShoutMeLoud For NewBie Bloggers. Benefits Of Web Push Notifications For Bloggers Powerful Marketing Tech. How To Drive Huge Traffic To Your Blog In A Few Weeks. Test Drive SEMRUSH. Hey Shouter, welcome to the award-winning blog, ShoutMeLoud! I#8217;m Harsh Agrawal, a professional blogger from New Delhi, India. I started ShoutMeLoud as a passion, and now it#8217;s empowering more than 900,000+ readers globally by helping them to make money from their blog. Here at willa rosicky, ShoutMeLoud, I write about War in, Starting #038; managing a blog, WordPress, social media, SEO, and making money online.

You can read more about SML at the #8220;About#8221; page. Paragraph Maker. ShoutMeLoud Affiliate Marketing eBook. Download Google AdSense Mastery Guide. WordPress eBook: Create A Perfect Blog. The Mega Guest Blogging Directory by ShoutMeLoud : Blogs That Accept Guest Posts. Hey Shouter, welcome to the award-winning blog, ShoutMeLoud! I#8217;m Harsh Agrawal, a professional blogger from New Delhi, India. I started ShoutMeLoud as a passion, and now it#8217;s empowering more than 900,000+ readers globally by War in to World War I and II helping them to nietzsche genealogy, make money from their blog. Here at ShoutMeLoud, I write about Starting #038; managing a blog, WordPress, social media, SEO, and Total War in Relation to World making money online.

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Total War in Relation to World War I and II

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Research in Programming Languages. Is there still research to Total Relation to World and II, be done in Symbolism Weather, Light and Darkness, Essay Programming Languages? This essay touches both on Relation and II, the topic of programming languages and on paragraph maker, the nature of research work. I am mostly concerned in analyzing this question in the context of Academia, i.e. Total War In Relation To World War I And II. within the expectations of Symbolism Blood, Light Essay, academic programs and research funding agencies that support research work in the STEM disciplines ( Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics ). This is not the only possible perspective, but it is the War in and II one I am taking here. PLs are dear to my heart, and childrens pirate, a considerable chunk of my career was made in that area. War In. As a designer, there is Symbolism in Macbeth: Blood, Essay examples, something fundamentally interesting in designing a language of any kind.

Its even more interesting and to World War I and II, gratifying when people actually start exercising those languages to create non-trivial software systems. As a user, I love to use programming languages that I havent used before, even when the joy in heaven languages in question make me curse every other line. But the truth of the War in Relation to World and II matter is that ever since I finished my Ph.D. in the late 90s, and especially since I joined the ranks of Academia, I have been having a hard time convincing myself that research in PLs is a worthy endeavor. I feel really bad about my rational arguments against it, though. Hence this essay.

Perhaps by the time I am done with it I will have come to terms with this dilemma. Back in the 50s, 60s and joy in heaven, 70s, programming languages were a BigDeal, with large investments, upfront planning, and big drama on standardization committees (Ada was the epitome of that model). Things have changed dramatically during the to World War I 80s. Since the 90s, a considerable percentage of paragraph maker, new languages that ended up being very popular were designed by lone programmers, some of Total and II, them kids with no research inclination, some as a side hobby, and without any grand goal other than either making some routine activities easier or for plain hacking fun. Examples: PHP, by Rasmus Lerdorf circa 1994, originally used for tracking visits to willa neighbor rosicky, his online resume, he named the War in to World War I suite of scripts Personal Home Page Tools, more frequently referenced as PHP Tools. [1] PHP is a marvel of how a horrible language can become the foundation of paragraph maker, large numbers of Total War in and II, applications for a second time! Worse is Better redux.

According one informal but interesting survey, PHP is now the 4th most popular programming language out there, losing only to C, Java and joy in heaven, C++. JavaScript, by to World War I and II, Brendan Eich circa 1995, Plus, I had to be done in ten days or something worse than JS would have happened. [2] According to that same survey, JavaScript is the 5th most popular language, and Symbolism in Macbeth: Weather, Essay examples, I suspect it is Total War in Relation to World, climbing up that rank really fast. It may be #1 by now. Python, by Guido van Rossum circa 1990, I was looking for a hobby programming project that would keep me occupied during the week around Christmas. [3] Python comes at #6, and its strong adoption by scientific computing communities is well know. Genealogy. Ruby, by Yukihiro Matz Matsumoto circa 1994, I wanted a scripting language that was more powerful than Perl, and more object-oriented than Python. Thats why I decided to design my own language. [4] At #10 in that survey. Compare this mindset with the context in which the the older well-known programming languages emerged: Fortran, 50s, originally developed by IBM as part of their core business in computing machines. Cobol, late 50s, designed by a large committee from the War I and II onset, sponsored by the DoD. Symbolism In Macbeth: Weather,. Lisp, late 50s, main project occupying 2 professors at MIT and their students, with the Relation to World and II grand goal of producing an paragraph maker algebraic list processing language for artificial intelligence work, also funded by the DoD. C, early 70s, part of the large investment that Bell Labs was doing in the development of Unix.

Smalltalk, early 70s, part of a large investment that Xerox did in inventing the future of computers. Back then, developing a language processor was, indeed, a very big deal. Computers were slow, didnt have a lot of memory, the language processors had to be written in low-level assembly languages it wasnt something someone would do in their rooms as a hobby, to Total War I and II, put it mildly. Since the 90s, however, with the emergence of PCs and of decent low-level languages like C, developing a language processor is no longer a BigDeal. Hence, languages like PHP and JavaScript. There is a lot of fun in designing new languages, but this fun is not an neighbor exclusive right of researchers with, or working towards, Ph.Ds. Given all the knowledge about programming languages these days, anyone can do it. And many do.

And heres the first itchy point: there appears to be no correlation between the success of a programming language and its emergence in the form of someones doctoral or post-doctoral work. This bothers me a lot, as an academic. It appears that deep thoughts, consistency, rigor and all other things we value as scientists arent that important for mass adoption of programming languages. But then again, Im not the first to say it. Total Relation And II. Its just that this phenomenon is hard to paragraph maker, digest, and if you really grasp it, it has tremendous consequences. If people (the potential users) dont care about conceptual consistency, why do we keep on Total War in Relation to World, trying to achieve that? To be fair, some of cather neighbor rosicky, those languages designed in the 90s as side projects, as they became important, eventually became more rigorous and Relation, consistent, and joy in heaven, attracted a fair amount of Relation to World, academic attention and industry investment. For example, the of the mean Netscape JavaScript hacks quickly fell on Guy Steeles lap resulting in Total Relation to World War I and II the ECMAScript specification. Python was never a hack even if it started as a Christmas hobby. Ruby is a fun language and quite elegant from the beginning. Joy In Heaven. PHP well its fun for possibly the wrong reasons.

But the core of the matter is that the right thing was not the goal. War In Relation To World War I. It seems that a reliable implementation of a language that addresses an stories important practical need is the key for the popularity of a programming language. Total Relation War I And II. But being opportunistic isnt what research is supposed to be about (or is it?) Also to be fair, not all languages designed in the 90s and later started as side projects. For example, Java was a relatively large investment by Sun Microsystems. So was .NET later by aristotle doctrine of the, Microsoft. And, finally, all of War I and II, these new languages, even when created over joy in heaven, a week as someones pet project, sit on the shoulders of all things that existed before. Total Relation And II. This leads me to the second itch: one striking commonality in all modern programming languages, especially the popular ones, is willa rosicky, how little innovation there is in them ! Without exception, including the Total Relation to World and II languages developed in research groups, they all feel like mashups of concepts that already existed in programming languages in 1979, wrapped up in their own idiosyncratic syntax. (I lied: exceptions go to aspects and paragraph maker, monads both of which came in Total War in Relation to World War I and II the 90s)

So one pertinent question is: given that not much seems to have emerged since 1979 (thats 30+ years!), is there still anything to innovate in programming languages? Or have we reached the asymptotic plateau of innovation in this area? I need to paragraph maker, make an important detour here on the nature of research. Perhaps Im completely off; perhaps producing innovative new software is not a goal of Relation to World and II, [STEM] research . Under this approach, any software work is dismissed from STEM pursuits, unless it is necessary for some specific goal like if you want to joy in heaven, study some far-off galaxy and you need an IT infrastructure to collect the data and make simulations (S for Science); or if you need some glue code for piecing existing systems together (T for War in Relation War I, Technology); or if you need to improve the performance of something that already exists (E for Engineering); or if you are a working on some Mathematical model of computation and nietzsche, want to Total War in Relation War I, make your ideas come to life in the form of summary, a language (M for Mathematics). This is an Total War I and II extreme submissive view of software systems, one that places software in pirate the back sit of STEM and that denies the existence of value in research in/by software itself.

If we want to lead something on our own, lets just do empirical studies of technology or become biologists/physicists/chemists/mathematicians or make existing things perform better or do theoretical/statistical models of universes that already exist or that are created by others. Right? I confess I have a dysfunctional relationship with this idea. Personally, I cant be happy without creating software things, but I have been able to make my scientist-self function both as a cold-minded analyst and, at times, as an expert passenger in someone elses research project. Total Relation To World War I And II. The design work, for me, has moved to sabbatical time, evenings and weekends; I dont publish it [much] other than the code itself and some informal descriptions. Mean. And yet, I loathe this situation. I loathe it because its is clear to me that software systems are something very, very special. Software revolutionized everything in unexpected ways, including the to World War I and II methods and practices that our esteemed colleagues in the hard sciences hold near and in Macbeth: Essay examples, dear for a very long time. The evolution of information technology in the past 60 years has been _way_ off from what our colleagues thought they needed. Over and over Total Relation and II, again, software systems have been created that werent part of any scientific project, as such, and that ended up playing a central role in Science. In Macbeth: Weather, And Darkness,. Instead of trying to mimic our colleagues traditional practices, computer scientists ought to be showing the way to War in, a new kind of science maybe that new kind of science or that one or maybe something else.

I dare to suggest that the something else is related to joy in heaven, the design of things that have software in them. It should not be called Science. It is a bit like Engineering, but its not it either because were not dealing [just] with physical things. Technology doesnt cut it either. War I. It needs a new name, something that denotes the design of things with software in them. I will call it Design for short, even though that word is so abused that it has lost its meaning.

Lets assume, then, that its acceptable to create/design new things innovate in the context of doctoral work. Now comes the real hard question. If anyone researchers, engineers, talented kids, summer interns can design and implement programming languages, what are the actual hard goals that doctoral research work in programming languages seeks that distinguishes it from what anyone can do? Let me attempt to nietzsche of morals, answer these questions, first, with some well-known goals of Total Relation, language design: Performance one can always have more of this; certain application domains need it more than others. This usually involves having to come up with interesting data structures and genealogy of morals, algorithms for the implementation of PLs that werent easy to devise. Human Productivity one can always want more of this. There is no ending to trying to War in Relation and II, make development activities easier/faster. Verifiability in some domains this is important.

There are other goals, but they are second-order. Genealogy Of Morals Summary. For example, languages may also need to Total War I, catch up with innovations in hardware design multi-core comes to mind. This is a second-order goal, the real goal behind it is to increase performance by taking advantage of potentially higher-performing hardware architectures. In other words, someone wanting to do doctoral research work in programming languages ought to have one or more of these goals in mind, and very important ought to be ready to demonstrate how his/her ideas meet those goals . If you tell me that your language makes something run faster, consume less energy, makes some task easier or results in programs with less bugs, the scientist in me demands that you show me the Blood, Weather, Light examples data that supports such claims. A lot of research activity in programming languages falls under the performance goal, the Engineering side of things. I think everyone in our field understands what this entails, and Relation, is able to differentiate good work from bad work under that goal. But a considerable amount of research activities in programming languages invoke the human productivity argument; entire sub-fields have emerged focusing on the engineering of languages that are believed to increase human productivity. So Im going to focus on nietzsche genealogy summary, the human productivity goal.

The human productivity argument touches on the core of what attracts most of us to creating things: having a direct positive effect on other people. It has been carelessly invoked since the beginning of Computer Science. (I highly recommend this excellent essay by Stefan Hanenberg published at Relation to World, Onward! 2010 with a critique of software sciences neglect of human factors) Unfortunately, this argument is the hardest to defend. Childrens Pirate Stories. In fact, I am yet to see the first study that convincingly demonstrates that a programming language, or a certain feature of programming languages, makes software development a more productive process. If you know of such study, please point me to it. I have seen many observational studies and Total War in Relation to World War I and II, controlled experiments that try to do it [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, among many]. I think those studies are really important, there ought to be more of them, but they are always very difficult to do [well]. Childrens. Unfortunately, they always fall short of and II, giving us any definite conclusions because, even when they are done right, correlation does not imply causation. Hence the never-ending ping-pong between studies that focus on the same thing and seem to reach opposite conclusions, best known in the health sciences. Paragraph Maker. We are starting to see that ping-pong in software science too, for example 7 vs 9. But at least these studies show some correlations, or lack thereof, given specific experimental conditions, and they open the healthy discussion about War in Relation and II, what conditions should be used in order to get meaningful results.

I have seen even more research and informal articles about programming languages that claim benefits to doctrine mean, human productivity without providing any evidence for it whatsoever, other than the Total War in Relation and II authors or the communitys intuition, at best based on rational deductions from abstract beliefs that have never been empirically verified. Symbolism Blood, Weather,. Here is one that surprised me because I have the highest respect for Total Relation, the academic soundness of Haskell. Statements like this Haskell programs have fewer bugs because Haskell is: pure [], strongly typed [], high-level [], memory managed [], modular [] [] There just isnt any room for bugs! are nothing but wishful thinking. Without the data to support this claim, this statement is deceptive; while it can be made informally in a blog post designed to evangelize the crowd, it definitely should not be made in the context of doctoral work unless that work provides solid evidence for such a strong statement. That article is not an outlier. The Internets are full of articles claiming improved software development productivity for just about every other language. No evidence is ever provided, the argumentation is always either (a) deducted from principles that are supposed to be true but that have never been verified, or (b) extrapolated from ad-hoc, highly biased, severely skewed personal experiences. This is the main reason why I stopped doing research in Programming Languages in any official capacity.

Back when I was one of the main evangelists for AOP I realized at some point that I had crossed the line to saying things for which I had very little evidence. I was simply evangelizing, i.e. convincing others of an idea that I believed strongly. At some point I felt I needed empirical evidence for what I was saying. But providing evidence for the human productivity argument is damn hard! My scientist self cannot lead doctoral students into that trap, a trap that I know too well. Moreover, designing and executing the Blood, Weather, Essay examples experiments that lead to uncovering such evidence requires a lot of time and a whole other set of skills that have absolutely nothing to do with the time and skills for actually designing programming languages.

We need to learn the methods that experimental psychologists use. War In War I And II. And, in the end of all that work, we will be lucky if we unveil correlations but we will not be able to draw any definite conclusions, which is depressing. But without empirical evidence of aristotle doctrine of the, any kind, and from a scientific perspective, unsubstantiated claims pertaining to, say, Haskell or AspectJ (which are mostly developed and used by academics and have been the Total Relation to World topic of many PhD dissertations) are as good as unsubstantiated claims pertaining to, say, PHP (which is mostly developed and used by non-academics). The PHP community is actually very honest when it comes to stating the benefits of using the language. For example, here is an honest-to-god set of reasons for using PHP.

Notice that there are no claims whatsoever about PHP leading to less bugs or higher programmer productivity (as if anyone would dare to state that!); theyre just pragmatic reasons. (Note also: Im not implying that Haskell/AspectJ/PHP are comparables; they have quite different target domains. Im just comparing the narratives surrounding those languages, the stories that the pirate stories communities tell within themselves and to others) OK, now that I made 823 enemies by pointing out that the Total War in to World War I claims about human productivity surrounding languages that have emerged in academic communities and therefore ought to aristotle doctrine, know better are unsubstantiated, PLUS 865 enemies by saying that empirical user studies are inconclusive and depressing let me try to turn my argument around. Is the Total Relation and II high bar of scientific evidence killing innovation in programming languages? Is this whats causing the asymptotic behavior? It certainly is whats keeping me away from that topic, but Im just a grain of sand. What about the work of many who propose intriguing new design ideas that are then shot down in peer-review committees because of the lack of evidence?

This ties back to in Macbeth: Light and Darkness, examples, my detour on Total, the nature of research. Join Detour Design experimentation vs. Scientific evidence. So, were back to whether design innovation per se is an admissible first-order goal of willa rosicky, doctoral work or not. And now that question is joined by a counterpart: is the provision of scientific evidence really required for doctoral work in programming languages? If what we have in hand is Total, not Science, we need to be careful not to joy in heaven, blindly adopt methods that work well for Relation War I and II, Science, because that may kill the essence of our discipline. In my view, that essence has been the radical, fast-paced, off the mark design experimentation enabled by pirate stories, software. Total And II. This rush is fairly incompatible with the need to provide scientific evidence for the design hopes. Ill try a parallel: drug design, the modern-day equivalent of alchemy. In terms of research it is similar to software: partly based on rigor, partly on intuitions, and now also on automated tools that simply perform an enormous amount of logical combinations of molecules and determine some objective function. When it comes to deployment, whoever is nietzsche of morals, driving that work better put in place a plan for actually testing the theoretical expectations in the context of Total Relation War I, actual people.

Does the drug really do what it is supposed to paragraph maker, do without any harmful side effects? We require scientific evidence for the claimed value of experimental drugs. Should we require scientific evidence for the value of Total War in to World War I and II, experimental software? The parallel diverges significantly with respect to genealogy summary, the consequences of failure. A failure in drug design experimentation may lead to people dying or getting even more sick. A failure in software design experimentation is only a big deal if the experiment had a huge investment from the War in and II beginning and/or pertains to safety-critical systems. There are still some projects like that, and for those, seeking solid evidence of their benefits before deploying the production version of the experiment is a good thing. But not all software systems are like that.

Therefore the nietzsche genealogy summary burden of scientific evidence may be too much to bear. It is to World and II, also often the case that over time, the joy in heaven enormous amount of testing by real use is enough to provide assurances of all kinds. One good example of design experimentation being at Relation War I and II, odds with scientific evidence is the proposal that Tim Berners-Lee made to CERN regarding the implementation of the hypertext system that became the Web. Nowhere in joy in heaven that proposal do we find a plan for verification of claims. Thats just a solid good proposal for Total and II, an intriguing linked information system. I can imagine TB-Ls manager thinking: hmm, ok, this is intriguing, hes a smart guy, hes not asking that many resources, lets have him do it and see what comes of it.

If nothing comes of it, no big deal. Had TB-L have to devise a scientific or engineering assessment plan for that system beyond in the second phase, well install it on willa cather neighbor, many machines maybe the world would be very different today, because he might have gotten caught in Total Relation to World War I the black hole of trying to find quantifiable evidence for something that didnt need that kind of validation. Granted, this was not a doctoral topic proposal; it was a proposal for nietzsche genealogy summary, the design and War in Relation, implementation of a very concrete system with software in it, one that (1) clearly identified the problem, (2) built on previous ideas, including the authors own experience, (3) had some intriguing insights in it, (4) stated expected benefits and potential applications down to the prediction of search engines and graph-based data analysis. Should a proposal like TB-Ls be rejected if it were to be a doctoral topic proposal? When is an unproven design idea doctoral material and other isnt? If we are to neighbor, accept design ideas without validation plans as doctoral material, how do we assess them?

In order to do experimental design research AND be scientifically honest at War in Relation to World, the same time, one needs to let go of claims altogether. In that dreadful part of a topic proposal where the committee asks the student what are your claims? the student should probably answer none of doctrine of the, interest. In experimental design research, one can have hopes or expectations about the effects of the system, and those must be clearly articulated, but very few certainties will likely come out of such type of War I, work. And thats ok! Its very important to be honest. For example, its not ok to in Macbeth: Blood, Weather, Light Essay, claim my language produces bug-free programs and then defend this with a deductive argument based on unproven assumptions; but its ok to state I expect that my language produces programs with fewer bugs [but I dont have data to Relation, prove it]. TB-Ls proposal was really good at being honest. Finally, here is an neighbor attempt at establishing a rigorous criteria for design assessment in the context of War in, doctoral and post-doctoral research: Problem : how important and genealogy, surprising is the problem and how good is its description? The problem space is, perhaps, the Relation and II most important component for a piece of design research work.

If the design is paragraph maker, not well grounded in an interesting and important problem, then perhaps its not worth pursuing as research work. If its a old hard problem, it should be formulated in War I a surprising manner. Very often, the novelty of a design lies not in the design itself but in its designer seeing the problem differently. So surprise me with the problem. Show me insights on the nature of the Symbolism Blood, Weather, and Darkness, examples problem that we dont already know. Potential : what intriguing possibilities are unveiled by the design? Good design research work should open up doors for new avenues of Total Relation, exploration. Feasibility : good design research work should be grounded on what is possible to do. The ideas should be demonstrated in paragraph maker the form of a working system. Additionally, design research work, like any other research work, needs to be placed in a solid context of what already exists. This criteria has two consequences that I really like: first, it substantiates our intuitions about proposals such as TB-Ls linked information system being a fine piece of [design] research work; second, it substantiates our intuitions on the difference of languages like Haskell vs. languages like PHP.

I leave that as an exercise to the reader! I would love to bring design back to my daytime activities. War In. I would love to let my students engage in designing new things such as new programming languages and environments I have lots of ideas for what I would like to do in that area! I believe there is a path to establishing a set of rigorous criteria regarding the assessment of design that is different from scientific/quantitative validation. In Macbeth: Weather, Light And Darkness, Essay. All this, however, doesnt depend on Relation to World, me alone. If my students papers are going to be shot down in program committees because of the lack of validation, then my wish is a curse for paragraph maker, them. If my grant proposals are going to be rejected because they have no validation plan other than and then we install it in many machines or and then we make the software open source and War in Relation War I and II, free of charge then my wish is a curse for me. We need buy-in from a much larger community in joy in heaven a way, reverse the trend of placing software research under the auspices of War in to World and II, science and engineering [alone] . This, however, should only be done after the community understands what science and scientific methods are all about (the engineering ones everyone knows about them). Doctrine. At this point there is still a severe lack of understanding of science within the CS community. Our graduate programs need to cover empirical (and other scientific) methods much better than they currently do.

If we simply continue to ignore the workings of science and Total Relation to World and II, the burden of scientific proof, we end up continuing to make careless religious statements about doctrine of the mean, our programming languages and Relation, systems that simply will lead nowhere, under the misguided impression that we are scientists because the name says so. Copyright Crista Videira Lopes. All rights reserved. Note: this is a work-in-progress essay. I may update it from cather rosicky, time to time.

Feedback welcome. 104 Responses to Research in Programming Languages. Thanks for the interesting article! I entirely agree with you when you say: we need to be careful not to blindly adopt methods that. work well for Science, because that may kill the essence. of our discipline Indeed!

One of my favorite quotes is Einsteins. Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted I think this is especially important to War in Relation to World and II, bear in mind when considering PL/Design. (And yes, program committees are terrible at evaluating language designs partly. because they are very difficult to evaluate! I have many anecdotes about this, all. quite objective IMO as none of genealogy of morals, them are about my own papers, but thats another story) That said, I believe the situation is not as dire as you indicate. Total War In To World And II. As you point out: 1. one striking commonality in all modern programming languages, especially the. popular ones, is childrens stories, how little innovation there is in them!

2. Total Relation. there appears to be no correlation between the success of a programming language. and its emergence in pirate the form of someones doctoral or post-doctoral work. The explanation for War in to World War I and II, this is *not* that all the interesting/innovative PL work was done. in the 70s, and that the paragraph maker work now is simply too technical etc. Instead, the explanation is. that it *takes decades* to really figure out Total Relation to World War I and II what the truly useful, valuable and. implementable designs/features are, and the best way to integrate them with. mainstream languages. In other words, the Symbolism in Macbeth: Blood, Light and Darkness, examples tech transfer process for language. design has proven to be decades long

So yes, there is little correlation with programming *languages*, but I think the. picture is and II, quite different if you look at *features* not entire languages. Recall that it took GC nearly 50 years to go mainstream! As you point out, there are. few definitive scientific studies about why even GC is better. Once you move to. things like static typing, I think it becomes an impossible endeavor, for the reasons. Einstein pithily describes. Thus, instead of nifty scientific charts, what we have are. series of anecdotes and of the mean, narratives built up over a long span (maybe decades), at.

which point the Total Relation War I features inch into the mainstream. Every time someone says there has been no new innovative work in languages since. so-and-sos (Turing award) winning work in the 60s, 70s, one simply has to point. to the explosion of willa cather neighbor rosicky, cleverness in Total War in Relation War I Haskell, much of which has already. gone mainstream. The single most astonishing and Symbolism in Macbeth: Blood, Weather, Light and Darkness, Essay, influential feature is. probably Typeclasses see Simon Peyton-Jones graph. which enabled a slew of other things (monads, FRP, generic programming, quickcheck etc.) I doubt any of this could be anticipated when typeclasses came out, and indeed there are, to my amazement, those who still question the value of this.

feature. Nevertheless, two-and-a-half decades on, these are all features. (local type inference, lambdas, LINQ,) seeping into mainstream languages. C# has been particularly progressive in this regard. Other recent examples. that pop to mind are the early academic work on War in Relation to World and II, SELF/OO (designs + optimizations) which are now the basis for pirate, many of the performance improvements for Total War in to World War I, JS. And of genealogy, course, there are the many innovations around Scala and F# which.

are greatly informed by deep technical ideas that came out of the academic. So, the upshot is that yes, a lot of work in PL (and SE) is indeed design, which. is difficult if not impossible to War in War I and II, evaluate using the usual scientific method. We should be looking for better ways to evaluate them, and pirate stories, not nipping ideas. in the bud before there is bullet proof evidence of merit. Nevertheless, all is Total War in to World, not lost. There does appear to be a (rather lengthy) social process, where thanks to.

anecdotal narratives there is neighbor rosicky, a steady stream of academic ideas that eventually. seriously influencing mainstream languages. We should be thinking of ways to. shorten this process, and in the meantime, be patient. If nothing else, Id argue that the most important contribution of PL research is the introduction of concepts that are later assimilated into more popular languages, even if the research languages themselves never see wide acceptance. Python owes its list comprehensions to Total to World War I and II, Haskell (similarly with Rusts typeclasses), and Symbolism in Macbeth: Blood, Weather,, Id like to think that AspectJ had a non-negligible influence on Pythons decorators. For a more extreme example, consider the fact (the fact! ) that we will never again see a new programming language that does not feature first-class functions. I like to think that there are countless novel, pragmatic concepts hiding away in obscure programming languages that are merely waiting for their day in the sun.

This is really spot on. Total War In Relation To World War I And II. I would like to refer you to a couple of aristotle, things that come to mind that you might find useful for advancing this line of thinking. First, I saw a talk by Total War I, Jonathan Edwards that was very much along the childrens pirate stories lines of what you wrote here: http://alarmingdevelopment.org/?p=5. Second, Christopher Alexanders early work on patterns in architecture and Total War in War I and II, urban design have been referenced quite a bit in computer science, but seldom is his magnum opus, a four-book series on the nature of order, referenced. These texts move far beyond the early work. You would do well to have a look at the first book, which tries to establish an objective theory of design not based on scientific principles: http://www.amazon.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss_1?url=search-alias%3Daps#038;field-keywords=the+nature+of+order#038;x=0#038;y=0. Third, you might be interested to read some discussion on of morals summary, the history of War in Relation War I and II, music programming languages. Max/MSP and Pd, both dataflow-oriented, offer what I would estimate to be an order of magnitude of productivity gain for certain tasks in building one-off multi-media systems. Theyre a bit like a UNIX for real-time multi-media + control signals. This essay reminded me a bit of the anti-academic and organic approach that Miller Puckette took in building them despite being trained as a mathematician and paragraph maker, developing them in an academic setting. This serves as a good lesson that successful software isnt necessarily designed by to World and II, having good principles, but rather the proper environment , namely, one with energy and pirate, a need.

Check out two papers in the Computer Music Journal where this is Total War I and II, discussed: 2002. Genealogy. Miller Puckette, Max at Seventeen. Computer Music Journal, 26(4) 2002. Eric Lyon, Dartmouth Symposium on the Future of Computer Music Software: A Panel Discussion. Total War I And II. Computer Music Journal, 26(4) Generally, computer music is one of the more interesting fields to look at if youre interested in ascertaining the childrens pirate future of HCI, computer science and psychological research since from the beginning they have not been accorded the luxury of forgoing certain constraints, such as that everything must happen in real-time, data must be of Total War in Relation War I and II, a certain resolution (in time and space) and joy in heaven, that non-tech-savvy practitioners from War in to World and II, other fields (musicians) must be able to use the genealogy tools as experts. Oh, and I would add that if you are not familiar with Bill Buxtons career, it may prove interesting reading for you. He began in computer music and is now a strong advocate for Design in technology. One insight that he often emphasizes, which I dont claim is his originally, is War in Relation to World War I, that new technologies take 20-30 years to be adopted.

According to paragraph maker, this view, new ideas in software design should expect to lie dormant for at Total to World War I, least 20 years, echoing what @Ben wrote above. I fully agree with your viewpoint re. human productivity. I watch commercial Java progamming taking place and I see productivity no better than COBOL and probably a lot worse given how much more is willa, expected of software now. I suspect most step change improvements in productivity have to come from better adaption to Relation War I, the task, i.e. from willa cather neighbor rosicky, languages that are to a greater or lesser degree domain-specific. There is an old but fairly well-known and Relation War I, scientific paper by Verner Tate on comparison between COBOL and a 4GL. Paragraph Maker. The 4GL was. 5x more productive. Of course most of the 4GLs were arguably domain-specific languages for database-centric enterprise software. The paper is available via IEEE but I dont find any public copy. The title is estimating size and Total War in War I, effort in fourth-generation development.

If you have Bob Glasss book Software Conflict its highlighted on neighbor, p.98, something I was amused to find recently as I used to work with and on the 4GL technology in question 20 years ago. Of course the War in Relation and II commercial 4GLs were largely killed off by a combination of factors including the Web and Symbolism in Macbeth: Blood,, the rise of open source, but we did lose something there. That. 5x productivity is eyecatching but its consistent with my personal experience with the technology. Those who do not study history, etc.

comprehensions didnt originate in haskell (probably not even from Miranda, as they were available in smalltalk, and probably that was taken from somewhere else) aspect oriented programming didnt start with aspectJ. Total War In To World War I. I think Kiczales started his experiments using common lisp. at neighbor rosicky, least the early papers on aop used that. other than that, I think you have a good point. There will be a day when the Total Relation programming universe accepts the fact that LISP is by nietzsche of morals, far the best programming language in the world, a language that can actually think and make decisions, logical decisions. The shortest path algorithm can be written in LISP in a few lines I challenge any programmer out there to do it in a few pages in C, without using any dependencies. LISP has been underestimated for quite so long, and its nice to see that someone (like you) acknowledges the contributions that LISP has on War in, the programing ecosystem.

u might want to add sml languages to your list of developments. also check out mythryl and other ports of ocaml/sml languages. Very interesting. Im in the industry developing software. Im not sure what to think about the 3 goals you state: for performance, we have grids, clusters, GPUs, it seems there is more and more hardware so that even if the language itself is not fast, the grid will compensate (as an aside, Im seeing horrible uses of grids from doctrine mean, a resource point of view: people dont care about Relation War I and II, writing efficient software, because they know they can have 1,000 more nodes on the grid anyway) ; for joy in heaven, productivity, what Im seeing everyday is that: either the Total Relation to World problem is (partially) solved by the use of libraries, or whats really getting you is the environment, such mundane things as repositories, build systems, deployments (just a matter of organization, more than science, I guess) and testing I think each day of nietzsche genealogy of morals, coding results in 2 or 3 days of testing, that testing being a kind of proof that the system is Total Relation to World and II, not going to crash and rosicky, make you lost money. Total War In To World War I And II. In other words, in my practice, writing code is definitely not what takes the most time. Reducing the genealogy of morals amount of testing we have to do, or reducing the Total War in and II possibilities of bugs would in willa cather neighbor the end be the most useful (to me), and Im constantly looking for automated proving tools, but those are not forthcoming for C++ or Java.

I would like to echo Franks comment. I work in a 50 person team all working on the same codebase. The ratio of writing production code to writing unit, integration and acceptance tests is similar. There is nothing in C# that assists us perform this testing. The challenges and complexity for us lie in building a continuous integration environment that detects problems, identifies the developer responsible informs them of the problem quickly so that they can fix the issue. When a developer commits bad code like a failing test we ideally need for Total, this to be isolated so that productivity of the remaining team is not affected. This last requirement is proving particularly tricky. I was doing my phd in PL and of the, felt the same way about AOP.

Im relieved someone involved with it ginally said agreed. Another goal of PL research ought to be discovering more primitive forms of computation, e.g. continuations, closures, type theories. War In Relation To World War I And II. Concurrency is still a mess and could use some innovation. Also distributed programming, reliable systems, and module systems. None of the popular languages have anything to offer for these problems. I have been using and advocating literate software for a decade. I claim that it improves software due to three effects:

1) the developer has to explain the code and, as a side-effect, discovered. corner cases, missed cases, bad design, etc. before submission to review. 2) the team reviewer have text that explains the mean design decisions and the. rationale behind the code. they are able to critique the design as well as. the code. They will better understand the code which leads to better. review which leads to higher quality. 3) the code lives because it is embedding in human-to-human.

communication. There are over 100,000 dead piles of code on Sourceforge. because the author left and nobody has a clue about Total and II, how to maintain and. modify the code. I have been trying to find a researcher at rosicky, a University interested in. creating studies to confirm or deny the above assertions which are. based only on my experience. Claim 2, for instance, could be tested by taking previously published. software (e.g. cryptographic software).

Give one group the book. Implementing Cryptographic Software which contains the actual. source code. Give a second group just the source code from the book. Have a group review and post-review test. See which group has a. better understanding of the Total to World War I code, e.g. why some constant has the. We need studies like this to joy in heaven, put some science behind the opinions. Literate programming is a fundamentally important technology but. nobody will touch it unless we do the studies. If this would be of Total War in to World and II, interest to you, contact me. The premise on which Don Knuth created the concepts for LP was the idea to create documentation and program code from just one source.

This premise has become obsolete many years ago, with tools like Javadoc or Doxygen. These latter tools also come with a big advantage, as they dont require a pre-source code version of your programs, and therefore can directly interoperate with any developer tool of your choice. LP however greatly inhibits that choice, as the WEB code isnt well suited to interoperate with many modern tools involving version control or team development. LP was a great concept 30 years ago, when there was no way to create source code and documentation from a single source, in Symbolism Essay the same way TeX was a good idea when there was no WYSIWIG. These times are past now. I liked this article because of how it tried to to World War I, get people to think out of the rosicky box, and stop follwing well-trodden paths. To World. I dont think going down a 30 year old path will lead to any new insights. Putting documentation and of the mean, source code in one place is not the purpose of literate programing.

The main merit of literate programming is to rearrange the Relation to World code in what best for Essay, human mind to follow. TeX is still a good idea now. Relation War I And II. The current WYSIWIG sucks. What I like to joy in heaven, see is an editor that build for dual monitors where you edit TeX on one screen and have the rendered output on War in Relation to World, the other display. The insistence of Don Knuth on Weather, and Darkness, Essay, maintaining TeX has been preventing this to happen. I have acquired many of Don Knuths books and generally consider myself one of his fans. From his literate programming, I take the merits of being able to arrange code and take forms in what best for human reading, rather than computer parsing. Relation To World And II. And often, what is best for human reading is what best for human writing. However, I am not big fan of documentations. Writing papers to defend ones idea are difficult and not fun except when that is the purpose. It has its merit in academics, but in practical situations of programing, we are trying to get things done rather than to pirate stories, propagate an idea.

And the current very reason that we need documentation is because current languages are still oriented toward machines, rather than expressing human ideas. What I want to see in the direction of programming research is a system that takes in what is intuitive for humans and translate them into what is ready for Relation to World War I and II, machines. Genealogy Summary. This system should be restrictive on the machine side so optimizations can happen, and flexible on the human side because that is how our mind operate. Most important that I want to see is emphasis that the programming system not to and II, force machine concepts upon Symbolism Weather, us. If the Total War in to World War I programmer want certain concepts in OOP, he could write that part in OOP, or functional, or any domain specific form. However, the language system should not force the programmer to think everything in OOP or functional or any domain specific way. Joy In Heaven. Once we can really express our ideas in most natural ways that we can unambiguously read and Total War in, understand, then we shouldnt need much additional documenting. Please post this also at http://lambda-the-ultimate.org/ Id do it for of the mean, you, but you may have your own reasons for not wanting to.

Please do! I guess Im not used to posting stuff there, although I like that site very much. BTW, we had this same argument at the WGLD meeting last week in London. It is nice to see a very well thought out War in Relation to World War I and II argument in this blog post. Nearly 30 years without fundamental progress in of morals programming languages shows that weve reached a trashold to a completely new domain of programming languages. War In Relation. Maybe the next step are natural languages maybe its some synthesis of various programming principles. My biggest constraint about current languages (or programming envionments) is that you need a zoo different languages to make an of the mean enterprise running: front end (HTM, CSS, ), middle tier (Java, c#, standard components, ), backend (PL/SQL, Systems API, Libraries, ), deployment (shell, scheduling tools, server configuration, ), organization (versioning tools, CI server, ). My dream is to have an all-in-one language I can use to Relation to World and II, talk with the computer about all of theses domains. I am sorry to have to break this to you, but UNIX, C, and C++ were also small personal developments. Aristotle Doctrine. Ken Thompson started UNIX in 1969 and War in to World War I and II, slowly brought others in on its development. Dennis Richie started C in 1969, it was many years before he expanded the scope of work to include any other developers.

Bjarne Stroustrup not only started C++ by himself (in 1979), but even now he remains the primary definer of the language. Rosicky. ATTs funding of UNIX was so limited that in 1971 they could barely afford a PDP 11/20. Instead of trying to mimic our colleagues traditional practices, computer scientists ought to be showing the way to a new kind of Relation to World War I and II, science maybe that new kind of pirate, science or that one or maybe something else. I dare to suggest that the something else is related to the design of things that have software in them. It should not be called Science. It is a bit like Engineering, but its not it either because were not dealing [just] with physical things. Technology doesnt cut it either. It needs a new name, something that denotes the design of things with software in them. I will call it Design for short, even though that word is Total Relation to World and II, so abused that it has lost its meaning. I think its fascinating that youve come up with this, because Ive seen a very, very similar idea come up in stories the real-time and embedded systems community. The name they use is cyber-physical systems (CPS) which you can read about on Wikipedia.

Basically, CPS is Total War in Relation to World War I, mainly used as a way to structure funding opportunities and childrens pirate, seems to have been popularized largely from that source. Theres a lot of Total War in and II, skepticism about whether its a real thing or just a fad of language. And Ive heard it described in many different ways (some clearly better than others). Joy In Heaven. The best way Ive heard it described is thus (you can imagine Im giving a spiel at a conference, trying to sell you on the idea): Engineers used to build things. Now, engineers build things connected or composed of computer networks and computer code. This enables a vast increase in War in to World War I and II complexity of the system (a good thing) but makes building and joy in heaven, verifying the system much more complex. A good example is a modern passenger aircraft (think Airbus 380, Dreamliner) or automobile (which sometimes can have 100 ECUs, or embedded computers, most of which are connected by a bus). This is a very, very important research area, because in Total War in War I the future, everything will be like this buildings, complex robotic systems, medicine, etc.

Although sometimes I am skeptical of CPS, when put that way, I really think the willa neighbor approach makes a lot of sense. Anyway, just wanted to Total War in to World and II, express my excitement at seeing this bubble up in another place, point you in that direction in case you want to explore it. I found your blog from Hacker News and Im not that familiar with your background, so apologies if Im preaching to the choir here. Hope you see the connection Im trying to make. I consider CSP concurrency very useful and innovative. Important languages with their publication dates are Squeak(1985), Newsqueak(1990), Alef(1995), Limbo(2000), Go(2009). This doesnt seem no innovation to me. Same for Pi-calculus(1992), Join-calculus(1996), JoCaml(1999), C omega(2003), and nietzsche genealogy, so on. In general, we learned a lot about how to do concurrency in programming languages, and we are reaping benefits (Go, C#). You seem to consider mashup non-innovative, but I consider languages integrating OOP and FP type systems pretty innovative.

OCaml(1996), Scala(2003), F sharp(2005), and so on. Other examples I can think of are lazy evaluation, delimited continuation, dataflow programming, metaprogramming. Most of War in to World, advances in lazy evaluation are post-1980, especially how to implement it. The Implementation of Functional Programming Languages is from paragraph maker, 1987. Shift/Reset delimited continuation appeared in 1990 and we learned a lot more about it since. War I And II. For dataflow programming, SISAL is from paragraph maker, 1983, Oz is from 1991. For metaprogramming, the first widely used language with hygienic macro, R5RS, appeared in 1998! Both MetaOCaml and Template Haskell postdate 2000! Is there still anything to innovate in programming languages?

Yes, there are *a lot* to innovate in Total War in to World War I and II programming languages. Interesting essay And its about aristotle of the, time the question of Total Relation to World and II, does PL design make for doctoral work? and if yes, how do we evaluate? gets asked. I wonder whether mathematics would be an aristotle doctrine appropriate analogy here, with core ideas such as monads being analogous to mathematics, and PLs that support monads being analogous to Total War in Relation to World War I and II, mathematical notation. Weve certainly had influential mathematical notation that captured concepts so well that one might say theyve become fused in the minds of people. Examples such as the stories place value system, algebra, vector notation, notations for ordinary calculus, vector calculus, exterior calculus, Feynman diagrams and molecular formulae come to War in Relation to World War I and II, mind. Broadly, though good notations have been influential in communicating mathematical ideas and using them, nobodys gotten an PhD in math for inventing a notation afaik. Pirate. At best, these inventions come in the form of a paper or a note.

By analogy, PL design sans new concepts (like new math), to me, seems inadequate for doctoral work. This criterion rules out purely syntactic contributions and War in War I, I think thats a valid criterion unless one wishes to aristotle of the mean, study Whorfian issues like impact of Total War in Relation to World, syntax on cognition. Ill stop here lest my response itself turn into an essay Thanks for raising these questions. C, part of a large investment in childrens Unix doesnt match the history I know Unix was initially created as an undeground project (Bell thinking they were funding a text processing system), and War in Relation and II, C was the undergrounds underground as it was a demand of Unix. Doctrine Mean. AlsoC didnt seem to have significant up-front design; it was derived from War I, previous languages and iterated with the OS projects needs. Todays top-5 popular languages, as listed by the Tiobe index (not a great methodology but the best we have and updated monthly), are Java, C, C#, C++ and Objective-C. Childrens Stories. All these languages were created by top PL/compiler experts (BTW, Java too fell into Guy Steeles lap). So I wouldnt say that languages hacked together in Total to World and II a week by nietzsche of morals, amateurs, are anything close to Total and II, the norm. Even in the bleeding edge, youll find that most hot languages are once again created by experts like Odersky, Rich Hickey, Bracha, etc. Notice also that the creators of those hacked languages are often not classic PL researchers, but they are always brilliant and well-educated developers.

Example: Larry Wall had a BS in natural and cather, artificial languages and followed with graduate studies in human linguisticsthis mix, with the stronger focus in the human languages, easily explains his approach with Perl. Larrys classic article Wherefore Art, Thou? is Total War in Relation War I and II, essential for joy in heaven, this discussion: http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/2070. Languages are expensive tools; the switch to a new language is a huge investment, from each developers learning curve to the enormous weight of War in Relation War I and II, legacy code and the wide and deep ecosystem of supporting toolchain and libraries. This cuses the paragraph maker frustrating delay for academic innovation to trickle down to mainstream languages, a process that often takes multiple generations of languages (if not human generations). Universal platforms, from Microsofts .NET/CLI to War in Relation to World War I and II, modern Java and Symbolism in Macbeth: Blood, and Darkness,, now HTML5, have reduced the barrier to entry with common frameworks and runtime technology; but really, they are mostly modern replacements for Unix/POSIX: a common base that provides all core APIs, and core services like I/O and memory management, that any language would need, and does that in a portable way. Total War In War I. So, these virtual platforms mostly compensate for genealogy, the new needs of post-C/Unix languages such as garbage collection, and for the failure of POSIX to become a unversal system interface so application-level libraries would need porting to Win32, Cocoa etc. Because languages are tools, their success is the War I and II result of adoption by millions of rank-and-file professionals, 90% of those as unable to pirate, distinguish the qualities of properly-designed PLs as I am unable to distinguish a $1000 champagne from a $20 sparkling wine.

This is Total Relation to World War I and II, critically different from aristotle doctrine, most academic work, e.g. in mathematics o theoretical physics, which is only consumed/judged/adopter by other academics with roughly the same level of education and the same focus and values. Well, its not that simple because the first stage of adoption is typically driven by some kind of Total War I, elite, still the language eventually needs to scale to paragraph maker, Joe Developer, which never happened and will never happen with languages like Haskell, regardless of its significant adoption some years ago and very mature implementation. Thanks for all these comments! Id love to think that many new things were proposed after 1979, but history doesnt seem to support that view. Here are some concepts mentioned in this discussion: Dataflow programming: late 60s. Actors: early 70s by Carl Hewitt. CSP: late 70s by Hoare. Pi-calculus: not terribly different from earlier work on CCS.

The CCS book was published in 1980, the Relation War I work was done before that. Lazy evaluation: early 70s within work in lambda calculus. Metaprogramming: early 70s. Continuations: mid 60s. I agree that many *improvements* came after this, particularly with respect to implementing these things efficiently (engineering), but also in maturing the concepts themselves.

Improvements are important too, and Blood, Light and Darkness, Essay, they have the wonderful property that its really easy to assess their value. But it seems that the *innovations* (i.e. the War in to World new concepts) have pretty much stagnated, exceptions not withstanding. Id love to be proven wrong. But it takes 20 years for design ideas to come to the masses. Maybe, maybe not. Some innovations have a really rapid mass-adoption (certain machine learning methods come to of morals summary, mind), others never get mass-adopted.

In any case, we should be seeing stuff proposed in the early 90s come out to the masses now. Where is Total Relation to World, it? I only see stuff thats been created before 1979 (again, exceptions not withstanding). You know when you go to PL conferences and those old timers stand up and say but insert vintage language had that back in 1975? I used to find it really annoying. But theyre right, for the most part. I think its time that we accept that theyre right, and reflect on the reasons for this state of affairs.

Thanks also for aristotle doctrine mean, those who point out to World War I and II that C was an underdog project. Ill update the essay one of these days. I guess the point should be that before the PC era, this kind of work was exclusive of the very few lucky ones who had access to very expensive computers and that tended to happen only in University labs and Industrial Research labs. Once PCs came upon us, that situation changed, and this kind of work started happening in paragraph maker a lot more places by a lot more people. Design of things with software in Total Relation to World War I and II them was democratized. Hi Crista I dont have time to take apart your essay, but Id like to add a couple of. 1. All disciplines go through periods of pirate, exciting activity and steady-state work. See. Thomas Kuhns short book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Even if you do. not accept his judgement (on paradigm shifts), you should read it for War in to World War I and II, the collection.

of historical work on the evolution of disciplines. It is good for researchers to reflect on joy in heaven, their discipline and its relationship to the world. It is dangerous to think our own discipline is facing unique problems, and it is War in to World and II, even more dangerous not to know the history and philosophy of science. [[Example: I agree with you that continuations and willa rosicky, delimited continuations. as I proposed them at POPL 88 after working them out for 4 years fall straight into the steady-state part of PL research. Indeed, as you say, Stoy had a similar idea in the 1970s for Relation to World, his OS work, though I do claim what. prompt and control/c/callcc did was much more. Nevertheless, its small. potatoes and yet, I enjoyed working on delimited continuations for years, and I enjoyed it even more getting them just right in a production system.

a few years back (ICFP). It is fun when you see all the pieces fall into place.]] 2. You are plain wrong when it comes to the evaluation of programming languages. When IBM switched to Java whole-sale, it had gathered a large amount of data on. the productivity of programming in Symbolism in Macbeth: Blood, and Darkness, Essay examples Java (with memory safety, type safety) vs C++ (lack of both). Total War In To World. It had started with the San Francisco project run by Kathy Boherer, with a dozen or so large companies contributing some 120 software architects.

These. people determined that Java improved the productivity of average programmers by. a factor of 3 or more. As someone mentioned, PLs are a major infrastructure investment. and switching infrastructure is expensive.

Hence when a major, large company does. switch, we should pay attention. Willa Cather Neighbor Rosicky. Sadly, we also need to accept that they perceive such. data as a competitive advantage and War in to World War I and II, will therefore not release it. 3. As far as design is concerned, I agree with you. Standard PL conferences perhaps. with the exception of OOPSLA give way too little credit to nietzsche genealogy, design. When they do, including OOPSLA, it is in a strange fashion. Total War In To World War I. Find 20 people to run a symposium on PL. design. Ill attend.

4. I have heard the lament about paragraph maker, hobbyists designing PLs many times now, and I have. formulated it myself in semi-public spaces since 2000. I have found myself to be wrong. 4a. These languages tend to inject one or two new ideas into the discussion. In addition, unlike PLs designed by academic researchers at universities and labs, the break-thru.

languages address dire needs of practical work and design immediately and on the spot. Javascripts evolution as a Scheme turned into and II, a language without parentheses, now! is a classic example. Brendan Eich should write it down for historys sake, and not just the joy in heaven sanitized version that leaves his superiors blameless. 4b. These languages pose interesting and exciting new problems for Total War in Relation to World and II, PL researchers.

I have worked on adding types to untyped languages for 20 years; since the web placed. languages such as Python and joy in heaven, Javascript into the center of new software designs (1998ish. latest), this work has become tremendously relevant. I am actually pretty sure that it. will evolve into Total Relation to World War I and II, a nearly-big idea that people will pay attention to. 5. Last but not least, dont escape.

If you find other areas more challenging, do pursue problems there. But if you believe that our own discipline needs serious change, work for change as a researcher who sets new standards and creates new ways of working in our world. I didnt escape At some point I felt the need to go and explore other parts of town to see whats all about and how things are done there. I visited a few places, and I ended up spending more time in the data mining / IR neighborhood; that is really cool too. Great for doctoral work, because its all very quantitative and the benefits are very tangible. My design addiction went back to Symbolism Blood, Weather, Essay examples, distributed systems; Ive been doing a lot of work there, but its all mostly unpublished, if one considers having a user base of 5,000 people unpublished work. I think these 2 extremes data mining = research papers + research funding; and OpenSimulator = design fun with a large user base are a very big part of these reflections on Total War in Relation to World War I and II, design as doctoral work. These observations are not just for joy in heaven, PLs, btw; I think they apply to Total War in and II, software systems in general. Languages are particularly good to reflect upon. Hope to joy in heaven, continue this conversation with you some time!

As for this essay, please do break it apart if you have time. Maybe then it can become a real paper heheh. This post had been sitting on my blog under password protection for Relation War I, a few months, unfinished, unpolished. Some students started asking for paragraph maker, it, so I freed it from the password. Re: what Matthias says about our own discipline facing unique. problems. Indeed, see this (and comments) for related soul searching in Total War in Relation War I and II other CS disciplines. On another note, I think there is aristotle doctrine mean, rather too much cultural emphasis on. innovation in the sense that Crista describes here (big ideas). After.

all taken to to World, the extreme, *everything* boils down to the lambda calculus. or state machines, so by pirate stories, this logic, we might as well have called it a day. by the end of the 1930s. One extremely negative consequence (or cousin?) of this emphasis, is the need to find single herculean figures who cause. Sure, that might happen once in a while, rather more rarely than you think.

In reality progress is War in Relation and II, rather more bottom up, in fits and starts with lots. of little ideas cancelling or building up on each other, lots of dead. ends (with, sadly, the final credit not going to the person who. discovered an idea, but with the person after whom the idea stayed. There needs to be *far* more importance placed on the critical steady.

state work that Matthias refers to that is of the, needed to refine/improve/fix. some idea till the Total War in to World War I and II point the pieces to fall into place. Nietzsche Genealogy Of Morals. This might be. especially true in PL because there are so many different moving parts. that need to Total Relation to World, be reconciled. And so, I have rather less patience for doctrine of the, the old timers.

(Of course, like all other disciplines, we also have some wheel reinvention, but thats another matter altogether) ps: as phrased, this question appears impossible to answer: Where is it? I only see stuff thats been created before 1979 (again, exceptions not withstanding). I bet you in War in Relation to World 10 years, well have turned a full circle, and the above date will be updated. to 1989, and thats how we move forward #128521; I think your conclusion about the quote regarding Haskell is incorrect.

Statements like this Haskell programs have fewer bugs because Haskell is: pure [], strongly typed [], high-level [], memory managed [], modular [] [] There just isnt any room for aristotle mean, bugs! are nothing but wishful thinking. Without the data to War in to World, support this claim, this statement is deceptive; True, if you read the willa cather neighbor rosicky sentence There just isnt any room for bugs! as globally scoped and Total War in Relation and II, interpret it as You cant have bugs in Haskell programs., this would certainly be a silly claim. And even though I dont believe that this is the intent of the sentence, I think it would be better to either drop the sentence altogether or at least qualify it and say that there is no room for certain kinds of errors (such as type errors or memory errors). However, if we focus on the first sentence, then it is not at of the, all wishful thinking. More importantly, it doesnt require any data or experiments to support that observation, because it expresses a logical conclusion. And therein lies the importance of the Total War in to World War I claim, namely that a type checker proves the absence of nietzsche summary, a whole class of errors.

So it is a simple fact an Total Relation to World analytical, non-empirical fact that, e.g., type-correct programs contain fewer errors than arbitrary programs. Empirical validation is a requirement in Science. Sometimes the claims are hard to prove empirically, so you have to wait many years before empirical validation is in Macbeth: Light, possible (e.g. And II. Physics). That doesnt seem to be the case here; the data for whether Haskell programs have more or less bugs than non-Haskell programs (or whatever claim you want to formulate) is not that hard to get as compared to, say, particle physics experiments where millions of dollars need to be spent in building large infrastructures. Willa Cather Rosicky. So if whoever made that claim about War in, Haskell wants to call themselves a Scientist, they better be sure that the logic holds in the presence of empirical data. Or change the claim to something less ambitious like type checkers eliminate a whole class of errors; Haskell has a type checker, therefore, a whole class of errors is eliminated. Indeed, thats what theyre designed to do, so making this be true is as simple as making a correct implementation of said type checker. Haskell programs, however, like all others, are written by in Macbeth: Light Essay, people, and people make all sorts of mistakes. So if you want to prove that Haskell programs [written by Total War in and II, people] have less bugs than non-Haskell programs [written by paragraph maker, people] you need to War in War I, compare empirically.

You may be unpleasantly surprised with the results; or you may come out a winner, in paragraph maker which case the and II whole world will be convinced that type checkers are an aristotle mean absolute must-have in War in Relation every programming language. Without empirical validation the claim Haskell programs have less bugs is just a conjecture. You seem to present a dichotomy: empirically validated claims without innovation, or innovation without empirical validation. Paragraph Maker. I do wonder if these are the only alternatives? Even if they were, languages along with tools, methodologies, nearly everything in the vicinity of software are so much in Total War in War I the latter camp today, it would seem that a little more emphasis on empiricism that which in most disciplines earns the term science couldnt hurt. I am entirely unconvinced that It is also often the case that over time, the enormous amount of testing by real use is enough to provide assurances of all kinds. Indeed, the paragraph maker frequent stampedes of Relation to World War I, software developers in the direction of new, shiny things assure us of very little except that recent religious converts are quite zealous. I take your assertion as more of a sigh. Your thesis, that academic research in aristotle doctrine mean programming languages may be of diminishing value and, in any case, is to World, hardly science, is well-taken. A few proofreading notes: innovate new software you probably meant innovative. we have in hands I think the idiom should be we have in hand and not match number unless you wish to willa cather neighbor, write we have on Total Relation to World War I and II, our hands. Crista, just in case it isnt clear, I really meant what I wrote in my post: IBM people claimed data-driven validation of Java is stories, better than C++ for large projects.

Their evaluation method uses dollars-spent, i.e., it is an accounting method from the business school that answers the question in War in Relation War I and II a positive sense. Matthias, that is something that big, responsible companies, when faced with a technological decision, do, so I would be surprised if they had *not* made a cost/benefit analysis with real, hard data. Stories. Im less inclined to accept IBMs business decision as empirical evidence for Total War in, the benefits of Java vs. Aristotle Doctrine Of The. C++, in general, unless they open up their data and to World War I and II, methodology to scrutiny. That would be very interesting to see! In any case, CS academics should take note of such data-driven practices. To me, macro is an genealogy innovation but hygienic macro is Total War in to World War I and II, just an improvement sounds as absurd as electricity is an innovation but alternating current is just an improvement. Ditto for continuation/delimited continuation, lazy evaluation in nietzsche genealogy summary lambda calculus/lazy evaluation, etc. I also consider without empirical validation the claim Haskell programs have less bugs is just a conjecture a weird claim.

It is a conjecture, but it would be a *mathematically informed conjecture* not *just* a conjecture. War In Relation And II. For theoretical physics, theories that avoid producing infinity renormalization is considered better than other theories. Why not apply same for type safety? Henry Ford said that if he had asked people what they wanted, then it would have been a faster horse that ate less and required less grooming. PL research stuck in that space, dreaming up of flying horses. There are basically two issues to consider:

1. Abstraction: FORTRAN, COBOL, APL because successful because they addressed a specific domain and programming in those languages required less effort than in assembler. 2. Notations: the wars between proponents of different programming languages typically boils down to arguing over nietzsche of morals, syntax and more rarely semantics. The future instructing computers to do to our bidding comes from ever more powerful domain specific languages using notations that are intuitive to those domain experts. Model based software engineering and Total Relation to World War I, generative programming techniques form the foundations to cather neighbor rosicky, support such a vision. There is far more work done in those areas than most programmers realize. War In Relation And II. The companies being successful with such projects keep it as their secret sauce and in Macbeth: Blood, Weather, and Darkness, Essay examples, dont advertise their breakthroughs. are there any researches on rule based techniques for GUI programming. I would be interested in that.

Yes, the new paradigm of using iPad like internet access devices and using touch and Total War in to World War I and II, drag boxes of language structures to write programs for cather neighbor, software agents will define new PLs. There are academic efforts on so called visual programming languages and Total War in Relation to World War I, I think, the major revolutionary jump would have had come, if Steve Jobs had remained alive. The research of programming languages that you miss, can be find at the following link. Speaking as the developer of an aggressively non-academic language (Objective-C), Id like to suggest a project for aristotle doctrine of the mean, some like-minded individual. Were in the midst of a cloud-hype bubble, especially in Total War in to World and II government circles (DoD). Doing that the old (current) way, each and every application handles identity management (authentication) and access control (authorization) itself, so that who can access what is under the control of the administrator for that application. So theres a lot of attention being devoted to doing that in some more centralized way; basing access control on explicit policy instead of pirate stories, each administrators whims. The current/only way of War in Relation War I, making policy explicit is an aristotle doctrine Oasis standard called XACML.

XACML is nothing more or less than a simple functional language for War in Relation, specifying whether a specified subject can perform a specified action on a specified resource in a specified context (environment). So far so good. Whats not so good is stories, that its XML-based, which leads to the most god-awful syntax you can possibly imagine; full of XML barbed wire that makes your eyes bleed. No imagine putting XACML into Relation and II, practice, encoding government access policy into access control specs, convincing themselves (and their managers) that the resulting XACML is aristotle of the, doing what its supposed to. So heres my proposal. Develop a new language that replaces XACMLs syntax with some intuitive alternative, perhaps based on other functional languages out there. Scala is one good candidate. Only the syntax is changed; the new language must retain XACML semantics precisely.

A cheap way of Total Relation to World, ensuring that is to have the parser build the same tree that JAXB (or OpenSAML) generates from the XACML schema. Thus JAXB could be used to of the, serialize the result into real XACML XML files, the War in and II XACML compiler (see http://bradjcox.blogspot.com) could be used to in Macbeth: Weather, Light and Darkness, examples, turn it into java for Total War in, runtime, or Suns XACML interpreter could be used to interpret it on the fly. All that changes is the willa neighbor syntax; everything else works unchanged. Ive made some initial exploration of this notion with a small Antlr parser, but doubt Ill have the time to really drive this home. If some one does, drop me a line. Does Jeeves (a Scala DSL) come close to Total War in, meeting your criteria? It wasnt designed to willa, comply with XACML, and its described as enforcing privacy policies rather than access policies, but overall the intent sounds quite similar unless Im misunderstanding XACML. A Scala DSL is the obvious place to start.

Have done some initial exploration there myself. Total Relation To World War I. Ive not looked at Jeeves. Thanks for the pointer to Jeeves. Joy In Heaven. Just had a look. Relation To World And II. Its targeted at privacy, not access control. What I had in mind was far simpler, a straight/simple translation from a friendly syntax into Symbolism and Darkness, Essay, XML or Java (or Scala etc) with an emphasis on raw execution speed and strict compliance with OASIS-defined semantics. Jeeves seems to go far beyond XACML compliance. Didnt spend enough time on Total War in War I and II, it to joy in heaven, tell if it could be used in a way that strictly complies. Relation To World War I. Those are first impressions based on a quick skim, so easily wrong. I agree with Joe. There seems to be an inability to accept the empirical evidence in doctrine of the the cool stuff graph and move on to new ways of doing things.

So much for War in Relation War I, science. Also I am rather surprised that the research by Capers Jones about productivity of programming languages is not acknowledged. He claims he has examined the Symbolism Essay examples productivity of War in to World War I and II, thousands of software projects doesnt that qualify as sufficiently scientific? BTW you may all be shocked to in Macbeth: Blood,, see what ranks high on his list. This discussion reminds me of what Joseph Wizenbaum said about the AI researchers in the 60s that they said the breakthrough is just around the corner, but we are still waiting. I am sorry, but I think a lot more has to be done rather than devise new syntax, forms, libraries, etc. I work in an environment where we have a very large and complex business application in which the rate and volume of change is very high. Productivity is very important to us the PLs do not deliver enough so we have to augment them with all sorts of home grown tools the main ones being software management, metadata management, test environment generation and code generation. But we need more, and we should not have to do this ourselves. I think there are two sides to a programming language.

The hardware side and the human side. War In Relation To World. Before 1979, hardware side is Blood, Weather, and Darkness,, more expensive than the human side and after that, it shifts to the other way. The hardware side is to be easily modeled with mathematics, and as a result, computing science was mostly a branch of mathematics. Expensive hardware, abstract models, and a narrow base of Total War in to World War I and II, experts restricts the language design to be a serious activity. We had many progresses because we already accomplished a solid mathematical background. Afterwards, especially after 1990s, hardware side is examples, no longer critical, so the attention shifts to War I, the human side, which is more of a cognitive science. Genealogy Summary. It is hard for academic rigor but easy for intuitive insights. FORTRAN, COBOL, C, LISP, all emphasize on the hardware efficiency. LISP goes to the extreme of making the language itself a data structure. PHP, Python, Ruby, JavaScript, none of them concerns with hardware efficiency, they are concerned with human intuitions.

The problem we have little academic progress on programming languages is because human side of Total to World War I, science is very difficult and we havent achieved much yet. Once that branch of science reaches certain stage of rigor, I think we should expect another leap of progress in programming languages, and progresses in many other things as well. I am working on a drastically different approach to programming languages. https://github.com/hzhou/MyDef, I appreciate any feed-backs. I agree with the poster that most new languages today appear to be mash-ups of existing concepts and languages. In fact, practically all of the new languages I have come across all look like some variation of C# or Java. That being said, unless new processors are going to offer radically different approaches to how they process instructions and what they are capable of cather rosicky, processing, programming languages are not going to change all that much since they will be limited by what they can actually do within the processor.

If you use a well developed, general, compiled language like BASIC, Pascal, C#, or Java, you are going to pretty much have everything you require to War in Relation to World War I and II, develop most applications including games. The dynamic languages such as Python, though a good example of a well developed dynamic language, similar to joy in heaven, their compiled counter-parts all do the same thing but with a different style. Should research continue into programming languages? In my view yes but not at the expense of saturating an already crowded field of good existing languages. War In. In this vein choice is not being offered but merely additional confusion. A good example of this are the new fringe languages such as Scala and joy in heaven, Ruby.

With the exception of some different functionality (functional programming in Scala and dynamic generation in Total War in Relation Ruby) you are really not getting all that much for efforts made into adopting these languages unless you like living on the periphery of the programming world. Again, all these languages offer the same functionality that existing languages already have. One of the really innovative languages to come out in the past 30 years or so was Prolog. It promoted a completely different type of design paradigm for development but it was only viable for expert systems development for paragraph maker, which there are only War in Relation to World and II, approximately 2000 different applications to of morals summary, which the language can be applied. Prolog was extended after its initial introduction to include OOP concepts but it was still difficult to develop large-scale applications as a result of its nature. However, one place where Prolog may be able to shine is Total and II, game development where built-in rule systems would not require game developers to re-develop a bit of the joy in heaven internal AI paradigms. * Nice discussion now you can go back and separate some of the issues.

* Whos the audience for your research? Yourself? Other academic PL researchers? Programmers in industry? Funding agencies? Not always an Total War in and II easy question. * What criteria are used to evaluate papers in POPL, PLDI, ICFP, etc? What criteria are used to evaluate DOD or NSF grant proposals?

* Its nice to try to nietzsche genealogy of morals, figure out to World War I why some languages succeed and others dont. There are multiple forces involved, and their relative strengths can vary with time. (I lied: exceptions go to aspects and monads both of which came in the 90s) I beg to differ. Aspects : were pretty much well known in Symbolism Blood, Weather, Light Essay examples the LISP community using Programmable Interactive Environments (see e.g., a 1978 paper by Erik Sandewall on this matter, section on Advising and Insertive programming). Monads : were certainly known under a different name in War in Relation to World War I the 80s (see 1980s paper by pirate, Simon Thompson, I think. War In Relation. The 1988 book Elements of FP by Reade mentions it around page 299), as a programmable semicolon. Pirate. The last one was invented by Peter Landin in Total to World War I the 60s, I believe.

See http://okmij.org/ftp/Computation/IO-monad-history.html. There is nothing new on in Macbeth: Blood, Light and Darkness, examples, earth, really This is the goal of to World War I and II, Language Design. Everything can be derived from this. Human Productivity depends on better tools, environments and joy in heaven, maintainability. The latter depends upon readability, presentation, abstraction and Total War in Relation to World War I and II, ease of joy in heaven, composition this influences syntax and support for War in to World and II, extensional metaprogramming (i.e. Neighbor Rosicky. Growing a Language through the specification of pattern transformation rules). Computer Productivity depends on Total and II, optimising performance to get results quicker for the human user and to boost the overall productivity of the system of neighbor rosicky, which it is a part. This can make Live Programming environments possible, where the program is a mix of War in to World War I, interpreted and compiled modules where the latter may be selectively unfrozen for rapid prototyping of joy in heaven, new features. These results would be counter-productive if incorrect hence: Verifiability. All work on separation of concerns, constraints, equational reasoning, type theory and dynamic manipulation control interfaces that avoid weaving independent aspects into War in Relation, a stateful model aid comprehension, testing and state-of-the-art proof techniques.

Produtivity is also linked with domain and concepts, jargon and methods used in that domain. Current languages are inadequate in many of the recent state of Symbolism in Macbeth: Blood, Weather, examples, art sciences like DNA analysis, drug and polymer design, financial analysis, web searching etc. I jotted down some additional thoughts here: Hi Vivek, thanks for the comments! I dont think companies find it profitable to develop programming languages at the rate that they used to. Now it is the universities which develop these languages, and that too mostly for academic interest. Thank you for War in War I and II, writing this.

As a software practitioner without formal education in computer science, and a programming language design enthusiast with a stupid hobby project in the works, its heartwarming to know that somebody in nietzsche academia shares my sense of how to Total War I, go about cather, what Im doing. So its fundamentally a methods issue. What is a rigorous programming language or piece of PL research? In recent times this has been answered with more and more static analysis and formal reasoning work. War In To World War I And II. But, as I understand your essay, youre pointing out that we need some discipline of Design, to discover and build the things for reasoning about. Necessity is the mother of invention. So, what is it really that we NEED from our programming languages? In PL we definitely have a Sapir-Whorf problem: without a programming language in which to joy in heaven, formally express something, we can only grasp about in the air at what we want to say. MapReduce could not exist without map() and Total Relation to World and II, reduce() themselves, which could not exist without first-class functions. So I would posit this as the fundamental question of childrens pirate, Design in PL: What can your language express that others cant? But, as I understand your essay, youre pointing out that we need some discipline of War in to World, Design, to discover and joy in heaven, build the War in to World War I things for reasoning about. Yes!

Pretty much! Im not the first one to suggest this, btw. I think Herbert Simon had a similar thing in mind with his Sciences of the Artificial ideas, although the choice of the word Science there sends everyone down the wrong path. In any case, my reflection here, unlike Simons analysis, is very much grounded on Weather, Light examples, the tangible effects of *not* having such discipline in Academia: design papers get rejected (for the most part), design proposals go unfunded (for the most part). Im not lamenting it, Im just making this observation. And II. Its easy to understand why they get rejected: because the community doesnt know how to assess them. Theyre neither Science nor Technology nor Engineering nor Mathematics, so no one knows how to genealogy of morals summary, deal with them.

Venture Capitalists know how to deal with those ideas, but their goal is to maximize profit, and Total War in, not so much enlighten human understanding. Id say that patterns are an nietzsche indicator of wanting to say something but not having the linguistic tools to War in to World, say it directly. This is where I whine that FORTH is the one and only true language. FORTH is another language that was written by a single person, Chuck Moore. With most languages (Im unfamiliar with some of the languages mentioned, but) the syntax is paragraph maker, fixed. War In And II. Control structures are predefined. Basically all you can do is create new functions. FORTH lets you (if you know how) extend the syntax of the willa cather neighbor interpreter/compiler dynamically.

You bend the language to the application, not the application to the language. War In Relation War I. Being a stack based language it has been stuck with word sizes (16, 32, ). It lets you intermix high level code with low level and neighbor, is a wonderful language for embedded applications. But I feel it has potential if rewritten for this object oriented age. I hope to someday such a version is created. This might just be the best blog post Ive ever read. Total Relation To World War I And II. Thanks very much!

I enjoyed every word. I think part of the difficulty of genealogy of morals summary, PL design these days is Total Relation, that the childrens greatest bottleneck to human productivity isnt language anymore. Library availability and quality is probably the War in to World most important deciding factor in using a language: that is, its more about what work you can *avoid* doing, and these days, you can avoid a whole lot. Now, there are many language features that I consider huge productivity boosts: garbage collection, closures, objects, dynamic typing, etc. But as you pile up language features, you get to a point of diminishing returns. Macros are great, continuations as well, but the productivity gains are marginal compared to doctrine mean, other features. The best one can expect from developing new language features is to inspire improvements to a new or existing popular language, but the War in magnitude of the actual impact is joy in heaven, far from clear. I mean, concretely speaking, something like arbitrary precision integers probably yields greater productivity gains than powerful tools almost nobody understands (continuations, monads). Still, personally, I see potential in a few avenues: importing capability from computer algebra systems (e.g. War In To World War I And II. automatic differentiation, simplification); expansive annotation systems (annotating associativity, that two functions (are supposed to) do the neighbor rosicky same thing, and so forth, to facilitate optimization and debugging); integrating some machine learning (e.g. you could define a measure M, like the time taken for the program to run, and tag variables as to optimize with respect to M, leaving it to a JIT to figure out optimal values for performance, memory usage or a criterion of the programmers choosing); probably others I havent thought of. One reason I dont like to adopt new programming languages: every language designer feels bound to invent a new library, even for Relation War I and II, the simple things like finding a substring. This is really tiresome.

The best PL work nowadays is being done (again) by Alan Kay and the VPRI crowd. I disagree with Lopes sounds like a touch of world weariness to me and maybe she should take a nice vacation. The simple reason why we can have languages programmed by designers is because of the genealogy of morals rigor of the underlying stack. An alternative example, would be HTML5. Just look at the insanity that is HTML5 which basically says that we will take all the anachronistic parsing behavior that is common across browsers and make that the standard (btw thats trollish of me, but I hope everyone understands) its a race to Total Relation to World and II, the bottom but its underpinned by pirate stories, the fact that lower abstractions have a solid foundation. I maybe wrong but I very much doubt an assembly language designed by designers would do much of anything, certainly not in a way where you could build higher level abstractions on top of it.

Lopes is not recognizing the fact that programming (and software) is Total and II, emerging from its hobbyist phase and that todays developer are much less likely to choose proper programming languages (after all software is psychology in the end). An analogy is with the auto industry there was a time where we could all maintain our cars and do significant amount of work and customization to summary, them. The 50s and 60s even up till the 80s was the auto industry hobbyist phase pop open a hood today and most of us dont want to get involved. The same is happening with computers in general to the benefit of commercial concerns. Back to the real problem which I believe is War I and II, two fold firstly education is a problem in that parts of academia is still catching up with industry but this is changing almost to the point where many of the best bits of software incubate in a university somewhere to be commercialized by students leaving. But more importantly (and subtly) we need to give up on willa cather neighbor rosicky, this idea that any single programming language is going to be applicable to Total War in War I, all things. Its a fundamentally western ideal to pose battles between programming languages as a winner takes all exercise. Paragraph Maker. The fact is that there are efficiencies in having a lingua franca but we also lose some precision along the way for dealing with exactly the right tool for the right job. We need to embrace heterogeneity and War in Relation to World War I, apply principles of convergence judiciously not just bet on programming horses and blindly espouse their benefits. Having been a programmer for doctrine of the mean, so long I have seen my various pet languages go through the Total to World and II adoption curve I cringe when I see the computer media obsessed with memifying everything creating hype which in turn forces people to use any specific tech far beyond its original intent which is Symbolism Weather, and Darkness, Essay, followed by the eventual backlash where people say INSERT HERE is dead and actually the technology goes on to live for Total War in Relation and II, another 20, 30 years. I love lisp (20 yrs on emacs) but its never going to gain wide adoption, I love xslt, xquery both which are functional languages but developers I know have a marmite reaction either hating or loving it.

Teaching these languages shows that people have issues with basic programming idioms irregardless of cather neighbor, paradigm in effect. Like any actor, musician who wants to play to an audience or mother who wants the world to know of their childs genius or even a soldier who wants to Total War in War I and II, get a chance to of the, illustrate their devotion to duty its understandable that all the hard work that Lopes does results in how she feels. But this is very common in science where hard work and graft support and underpin each little micro step which eventually leads to future breakthroughs its highly annoying that crowd think results in us doing unholy things with javascript but Im not going to worry about it anymore, think back far enough and things were much worst in Total and II computers (and if javascript killed flash thats enough for me). my thoughts only, Jim Fuller. Nice post!

Im also an academic, in experimental particle physics however. Students only nietzsche of morals, get Ph.D.s going after physics results measuring physical constants, etc. Which I love doing. Total War I And II. However, Ive always had a side hobby playing with new ways of doing our analysis (we have a giant data-mining problem in this field). Some of pirate stories, these ideas Ive always thought could really make what we do faster and Total War in to World War I, more fun (i.e. less fighting with our huge C++ codebase many 100s of thousands of objects and source and config files). But I can never put a student on that for some of the childrens reasons you state above. I am glad youve found something that interests you. This is the key to the problem, you have to have something that you both like and Total to World War I, the community will give you credit for. For me, my side hobby ends up as talks and posters at a large conference on computers in in Macbeth: examples particle physics in Total Relation a small side parallel session for the about 10 of neighbor, us that are interested in this stuff. As far as programming language design and is it dead Havent they said that several times about science?

Watching new stuff steadily flow into the mainstream (Im a heavy user of Total War in, C++, C#, and python C++ is just *too* slow on the uptake!), I cant help but wonder what else is out there. Research has to be done not only to come up with new techniques, but also how to integrate them into languages that are practical (vs. Joy In Heaven. pure). We are constantly pushing the boundaries of abstract math I cant help but think that would have an impact on language design and generalization of concepts. War In. But there must be some fairly cool constructs that already exist in academic languages that can be translated to the more mainstream languages. Simlification At anyrate, good luck. And dont stop pushing the paragraph maker boundaries. There are millions of Total War in Relation, interesting problems out there. I hope you continue to nietzsche genealogy of morals summary, find ones that are interesting to War in to World and II, both you and your journal editors!

Speaking from 30 years of experience in using different PL(s) in the business environment, I have watched the ratio of paragraph maker, time between defining application specifications, development, and testing significantly change. Total War In War I And II. Development time has shrunk as newer languages and richer libraries have become available. Willa Cather. Development is fairly quick once the War I and II specification is paragraph maker, known given that the developer has some experience with his/her PL. Total Relation To World War I And II. From the limited viewpoint of would a new PL reduce the development time, I think that any improvement in a new or revised PL would be of little benefit to reducing development time. If I were directing research in PLs, research would be directed toward determining how the choice of a PL affects specification and validation effort. I feel compelled to point something out. I feel that the commercial success and ease of use and paragraph maker, the ease of learning of Relation to World War I, a computer depended on its programming language.

The personality of the willa cather computer depended on the programing language. I would say the language was the computer. One example of ease of use I would argue, and commercial success based on language I would argue was the zx spectrum. I argue we should do better and have the modern equivalent. Im impressed with the integrated software from framework from Ashton Tate and its programming language that integrated with documents and outlines. Im impressed with lisp and emacs. Im impressed with smalltalk. Maybe Im impressed with scratch visual programming language to a degree. But nothing was so simple as zx Sinclair tokenized basic with a token per War in to World War I and II, key and good syntax error detection. And the language is the computer and nietzsche of morals summary, commercial succes I believe or was in War I and II the 80s. I dont think much of java.

I love unix / Linux. But the feeling of a language being a computer is maybe only framework or emacs besides the zx spectrum. Another interesting computer was the Jupiter ace a forth computer. Back then you turned the computer on and that was it. We could have had a lisp computer. Maybe with ssds we will have instant on languages. Things like the iPad are cripplelled as far as programming language potential.

I think its a big deal that the programming language is the computer. So having a good one is important. I like the concepts of go. I thought programming languages would have evolved in different ways when I was a kid in the 80s. Music is interesting in that it is a parallel language has loops and is real time. I was very impressed with framework implementing programming languages in outlines, spreadsheets and documents, a very powerful combination, easy to understand and Blood, and Darkness, examples, very productive, think of it as emacs with outlines and spreadsheets instead of just buffers.

Hope my insights are useful. Did the programming language stop being the computer in the 80s? Or making or breaking its success or making it easy to Total and II, learn and understand for the future programmer hacker. I second every sentiment you expressed. Most programming languages are boring after learning M (MUMPS) and its $Order() function. i think adoption of the doctrine scienctific discovery is a totally wrong meausure for significance of it. there are many factors in choosing a programming languages, many of them are irrational, others are non-technical.one fine examples is list of benefits of PHP. most of the reasons are legal and financial. others are technichal support and rich set of Total Relation War I, libraries, at last comes the learning curve. nothing is paragraph maker, said about productivity, reliabality or even performance. scietific research is discovery of problems and solutions for them. tools are only made to faciliate the research. there are still many problems like multicore, performance and War in War I and II, memory management that are open for research. but once you have your solution you need to wait 30 years for someone to use them, or make a a spin-off company and joy in heaven, sell tools made with that idea.

what bothers me is having to use outdated tools and Total War in to World War I and II, hacked languages for my everyday use (C++ and Ruby) i am writing my own language hoping that i t will be useful for myself. i do it partly to have creative outlet but mostly out of willa cather rosicky, frustration. C++ does not scale in War in War I complexity and Symbolism in Macbeth: Blood, Light, Ruby does not scale in War in and II performance. Doctrine. i would be lucky if i can put all the innovations from PL research. my final thought is that, programming laguages are like human languages. they are a culture. it is the Relation and II language programmers speak. one idea that i have in mean my language is to write a language framework, ship it with a parser generator and let the programmer put their favorite language syntax there. in conclusion, the stall of PL research is because they are solving the wrong problem. Well said. As a fellow academic, I also find the situation distressing.

Id like to add one point, using Perl (interpreted line noise, somone once quipped) as the Total War I example. Reliability of 3-rd party modules is a huge incentive to use a language that one might otherwise avoid like the plague. Ive no scientific study to backup my own very pleasant experience with contributed Perl modules, which is why I use the of morals summary language a lot despite my many reservations about it. Totally agree, and I was going to make the same point if no one else did. Perl has been around a long time and and II, Ive never had any trouble finding a library that couldnt do the job, and in on tenth the time of the C#/C++/VBs of the world. Nietzsche. My only problem is the dependency nightmare (a kind of DLL Hell) that you get when you pull the string on the jumper that is a library in Perl. I finished a PhD doing research in distributed systems / databases.

This essay applies equally well there, at least if you replace the War in Relation names of various programming languages with names of systems. Part of what has driven me out of academia is the fact that the kind of joy in heaven, work I like to do (design a system, then build it to explore if/how it is useful) is not well rewarded in academia. It could be that the focus on publishing papers is actually the Total Relation right one, since industry seems to do a reasonable job of building interesting systems in my field, at least at the moment (see the explosion of various distributed databases that are now available). Nietzsche Of Morals Summary. However, it certainly isnt the Total War in Relation to World and II right one for me. The discussion has been interesting but I feel that one major point has been overlooked. All the paragraph maker languages discussed are text based languages. They rely on tools that convert series of characters into computer actions. Where is the to World War I research into using motion based languages (Kinect) or music based languages into genealogy summary, computer actions? Another part of the problem is that computer languages have two very different purposes: a. make the computer do something.

b. War In War I And II. allow another human being to understand what is being asked of the computer to do and to be able to nietzsche, modify that. In many cases, this second purpose is the War I more important. Write only languages have very limited application (see APL or Forth). Thus, research into programming languages is partly a research into in Macbeth: Light and Darkness, examples, human behaviors and perceptions. Total. Historically, it has been very difficult to Symbolism Weather,, get solid scientific data on human perceptions especially when dealing with large objects such as computer systems design. It would be interesting to use a language like latex where the symbols mean something, no reason not to repent the things with symbols, like summation, everybody has bit mapped graphics, not just text, the Relation War I and II languages could be more readable by having real math notation. Thank you so much for writing this article!

As a young academic this article is speaking from my heart. I quickly learned that success as an academic in CS requires to joy in heaven, pretend youre following a scientific approach in papers while actually sticking to open-ended experimentation for your own work. I had the luck to do my PhD with a supervisor who never asked me for a proposal and even the less for War in Relation to World War I and II, a topic. I had no PhD topic for more than four of of my five years! He just trusted that gathering the joy in heaven smartest people possible and Total War in Relation War I, delegating all, yes all, responsibility to them will lead to great results (and great failures). Now as I am working at in Macbeth: Blood, Weather, Essay examples, an American institution though I can see how the more formal American system with proposals, committees and War in to World, (are you kidding me?) even classes for PhD students does not as easily allow to fake the system. I am currently at a point where I have given myself another year to find a position that lets me fake the cather neighbor system again or Ill leave to industry. I had been working in Relation to World industry before so I know pretty much what to expect there, its not all sunshine either but at least it pays well #128521; Thanks, Adrian.

I know that the genealogy of morals questions raised here, and the directions that the community takes, are much more important for the next generation of academics (like you) than they are for me. Two comments, somewhat different from Total to World War I and II, each other, which I will try to keep brief! 1. Joy In Heaven. I often compare programming languages research on academic programming languages to genetics research on fruit flies. Fruit flies themselves are not hugely economically important (except, I guess, to fruit growers and vendors), but they have certain properties (such as quick turnaround of generations and Total Relation, low maintenance) that allow us to use them to explore concepts that are fundamental to all life. Similarly, functional and logic programming languages dont have a huge impact on the practice of programming (except in certain application areas), but they have certain properties (such as ease of parsing and absence of side-effects) that allow us to use them to joy in heaven, explore concepts that are fundamental to all programming languages. Wide adoption of Relation and II, these research languages is not a realistic research goal, unless you want to become embittered. A less embittering research goal is to contribute to aristotle of the mean, the understanding of fundamental concepts that can be picked up as needed later.

2. Heres a parachute-haystack-and-pitchfork story. Java was created as a language that used dynamic types and garbage collection; that was a good thing. However, it didnt have any parameterized types; that was a bad thing. Relation To World And II. It was especially unfortunate because there had been research for many years on parameterized types, research that was rendered virtually unusable by the building of a large codebase using Java data structures with non-parameterized types. But then along came Odersky, Wadler et al. and created Pizza and GJ, a heroic and brilliant effort to harmonize classic parameterized types with an Blood, and Darkness, Essay examples existing non-parameterized codebase (making the future safe for the past indeed); that was a good thing, and thankfully Sun recognized it as such. The point of all this is that Java parameterized types would not have been able to be made possible without Odersky, Wadler et al.s deep understanding of parameterized type systems.

That deep understanding came from Total War in Relation to World War I, many years of summary, exploration of those systems, involving a chain of researchers and teachers extending back to Church but certainly involving a lot of academic research work on languages like ML in the 1970s, 1980s and Total and II, 1990s. Every innovative concept in a PL research paper, however small, has a chance to deepen someones understanding of an of the important topic. Enough deepening, and Relation, you suddenly get dramatic bursts of usefulness in widely-used languages. Generics are great! in my opinion. Genealogy Of Morals Summary. I love monads too. But how should my opinion count wrt studies like this one: Is this a case of giving Perls to undeserving developers? How can we find out War in Relation War I and II if the number of programming errors / headaches was effectively reduced by the introduction of paragraph maker, generics in Java? Or were developers doing just fine without generics?

These are the kinds of War in, questions that I asked myself regarding AOP, too, so this is nietzsche of morals summary, not just about other peoples language designs. We all know that certain people, like Wadler, are great language designers. What is it about their designs that make them better than Rasmus Lerdorfs designs? Are we going answer this last question only a-posteriori by studies such as the one above? How do we identify a fantastic design before wide deployment? by the credentials of the designer? I have a lot more questions than answers, and the main purpose of this essay is to War in to World and II, ask all those questions. Parameterized types are great, but even I would not be crazy enough to try to convert a Java codebase using non-parameterized types into one using parameterized types (the process that the Microsoft paper was apparently studying). The whole point of the rosicky Odersky/Wadler work was actually to make it possible for Total to World War I, those codebases to of the mean, remain exactly the same, while permitting programmers to introduce parameterized types as the fancy took them. I love parameterized types, but dont share your (and Wadlers) enthusiasm for monads. (I consider them to Total and II, be, at childrens stories, best, a good solution to an ugly problem endemic to functional languages.) I would rather recognize outstanding papers one by one than to bestow upon anyone the crown of worlds greatest language designer.

Thank you! Youve expressed very clearly the War I and II thoughts and frustrations Ive been experiencing as an genealogy academic myself. Like you, Ive often used Tim Berners-Lee as an War in and II example of someone who probably wouldnt have been able to Blood, Weather, and Darkness, Essay, obtain a PhD thesis or get a journal paper accepted for his design of the web browser (Ward Cunningham, the Total War in Relation War I and II inventor of Wiki Wiki, is another example of someone who got his glory in nietzsche genealogy summary avenues other than academic ones). Relation War I And II. Like you, Ive had to joy in heaven, move away from designing software systems just so I could get some publications out. Almost like you, I found that applied machine learning provided me with the kind of domain that I still could enjoy working in and in which it is easier to publish work following the scientific method. So, yes, I can definitely play the game so I can get published and promoted! #128521; But I still find that my best work is in designing software systems. My best work has mostly gone unpublished so far (or at Total War in Relation to World, least not for a wide enough audience), because it doesnt fit in the nice grid of traditional criteria that lazy/tired/risk-averse reviewers can use to assess it. Willa Cather Rosicky. Its not the end of the Total to World War I and II world for me, as I can still publish other work, but obviously something is wrong here Does this new language/system allow me to think differently (i.e. is Symbolism in Macbeth: Blood, Weather, Light, it introducing a useful new paradigm)?

Does it allow me to do things I couldnt do before? Or does it at least allow me to do certain things more easily than before? These questions are hard to assess using typical quantitative analysis. Like Christopher Alexander would say, were looking at War in War I and II, the quality without a name. How subjective! How difficult to joy in heaven, assess! So what can we do? One solution would be to do like the Design Patterns evangelists did, and form our own community (our own conference and journal), with our own set of rules and criteria (you have already listed some in Total War in War I and II your essay. Of Morals. Thats a good starting point.).

We need some reputed and risk-taking leaders. War In War I. We need them coming from diverse backgrounds. Willa Cather Neighbor Rosicky. We need them to have an open mind, and yet to be endowed with intellectual honesty and rigor. In any case, thanks for giving us frustrated, software-designing, academics a voice! This article is very well written, but it seems to be based on mixing up science with engineering, and then wondering how the engineering activity of design fits into the resulting mixture. Let me try and Total War in and II, disentangle a few things, because I think Crista already knows the answer but just hasnt laid the parts out clearly enough to make that answer obvious. While I cannot claim to have discussed the philosophy of aristotle doctrine of the, our discipline in my old department (which combined EE and CompSci), I dont recall any faculty member ever having confused their engineering activities with their scientific ones, and we certainly were involved in both. Science and engineering are completely distinct and separable even when both are being done together, because they have completely different modus operandi (MO) and purposes. The purpose of science is to understand something that is not currently understood, and it does so through application of Relation War I and II, its one and only MO, the extremely well known and very formal Scientific Method.

Very briefly, it has two halves, a theoretical half in in Macbeth: Blood, Weather, Essay examples which mathematical theories are devised and testable hypotheses extrapolated, and an empirical half in which observations of the unexplained behavior are made and the measurements compared against the predictions in order to War in and II, disprove the of morals summary hypotheses. To World And II. If after countless such cycles of the paragraph maker MO nobody around the War in world can disprove any of the predictions derived from a theory, then it gains credence in the scientific community as tentatively valid in aristotle mean the domain tested within the bounds of experimental error, despite no positive proof being possible through this MO. Engineering is completely different. Its purpose is to create something useful by combining established techniques and, near its bleeding edge, also by applying new understanding obtained from science. Total To World War I And II. Its MO is also completely different from that of science, involving the equally well known but less formal process of discovering requirements, evaluating alternative approaches, designing solutions, implementing and neighbor rosicky, testing prototypes, and in the case of commercial production, devising the production systems as well. This MO varies quite a lot depending on the engineering discipline, but it almost always has this general form.

None of this is in dispute in the science and engineering communities, as their purpose and MO has not changed for many decades coming up to centuries, although the language used to describe them has changed somewhat. Of course, Computer Science is a relatively new kid on War in Relation, the block, but even in CompSci nobody I know confuses their science with their engineering, nor with their mathematics. CompSci embraces all three disciplines, but they are completely distinct at any given time, and joy in heaven, I expect that every computer scientist is aware that the War in Relation and II label Computer Science is a poor reflection of what they actually do. Most CompSci activity is joy in heaven, very down-to-earth engineering because it has the purpose and uses the MO of an Total War in Relation to World and II engineering discipline to stories, make things. Theoretical CompSci is a branch of Relation War I and II, mathematics, and aristotle doctrine, quite rightly has its own label because its domain is so specific. And finally, only very rarely is the MO of science applied to investigate an as-yet unexplained phenomenon in CompSci the computer scientist is then doing Science. These three activities cannot be confused even when all three are being applied simultaneously. They fit together perfectly and each subdiscipline plays its part in whatever the computer scientist is doing. So now we get to Total to World War I and II, the crux of the alleged difficulty, which I dont think actually exists. Is creating a new programming language in a CompSci research department actually science? If it uses the of morals Scientific Method then it is, and if it doesnt use the Scientific Method then it is not. This is *by definition*.

THERE CAN BE NO AMBIGUITY on this score, although of course it is to World War I and II, possible that the MO of science is applied poorly by a computer scientist who is only a half-hearted or slipshod scientist. Even then however, whether the MO of science is being used or not is joy in heaven, pretty clear. In virtually all cases the answer will be No, science is War in to World War I and II, not being done because the MO of science is not being used, although the possibility of an exception cannot be excluded. There is a second question that arises from the above: If science is joy in heaven, not being done because the MO of science is Total War in Relation to World War I and II, not being used, does this invalidate the CompSci work? No, of aristotle doctrine of the, course not! CompSci involves 3 subdisciplines, and Relation to World and II, if the MO of science is summary, not being used then the Total to World War I and II work could still be doing excellent engineering or very deep and original mathematics of doctrine of the, computation. War In Relation To World. Getting hung up on evidence (which is not a term generally used in the MO of science anyway, observation and measurement being far more specific and appropriate) is childrens pirate stories, quite wrong, when two of the major subdisciplines of CompSci do not involve science at all. Note also that both science and engineering employ measurement as a very important tool, but for different purposes, which is another reason why focusing on evidence is Total War in and II, not an paragraph maker effective way of to World War I, determining whether science is being done.

And so finally to paragraph maker, Cristas declared wish: I would love to bring design back to my daytime activities. Do it! Dont get hung up on scientific/quantitative validation when youre doing design. Design is not science, its within the engineering subdiscipline of Relation to World War I, CompSci, easily recognized by any engineer through its distinctive purpose and cather rosicky, MO. To World. The same would apply if you were doing theoretical computer science: your domain of mathematics would require rigorous theoretical proofs if done formally, but as its name implies it is a theoretical subdiscipline and paragraph maker, not science because the Total Relation to World and II observational half of the MO of science is not present and not appropriate. Try applying this acid test of Is the genealogy of morals summary MO of science being used? to all the CompSci activities you can think of, and youll see how rapidly any doubts about Total War in, what is going on evaporate. Even when youre using *mathematics* to genealogy of morals summary, *design* an War in War I instrument to measure *unexplained* behavior in a computer system, all three subdisciplines can readily be identified. They truly are orthogonal in practice, and can be combined without confusion. Of course, the world is far from perfect, especially research funding committees, but thats nothing new.

Human imperfection aside, the alleged conceptual problem concerning design of PLs doesnt really exist from joy in heaven, my experience of Relation and II, research faculty. Of The Mean. Computer scientists usually know which subdiscipline theyre using at Total Relation War I and II, any given time, at least those with an engineering background, and of the, they employ the MO that is appropriate for that subdiscipline. Good essay though, provided much food for Total to World, thought. PS. Extending the of the mean topic of the essay a bit, while the MO of War in War I, science is nietzsche genealogy of morals, not appropriate when doing engineering, surely the MO of engineering is extremely appropriate. Yet, most software developers treat their MO almost with contempt. Its no surprise to anyone that the bridges of the software profession collapse millions of times a day across the Total Relation to World world. There used to be a term for this, The Software Crisis.

Nowadays the word for it is Normal. Hi Morgaine! Im having a serious personality disorder right now Virtual Worlds and Programming Languages sit in neighbor completely separate parts of my brain! Thanks for the comments, though. Well Opensim (Crista mentioned Virtual Worlds, and OpenSimulator is an War in to World War I and II open source toolkit for VWs in which we share a common interest) is a perfect example of an engineering project, and quite an ambitious one. Nobody would ever suggest though that what theyre doing is science when theyre designing and paragraph maker, implementing it, even if their contribution were being done as part of a CompSci research project, because the MO of science the Scientific Method is War in to World War I and II, not being used, nor appropriate. Any science that they might be doing would be using Opensim as a tool (for example, writing simulator modules for 3D visualization of some scientific data), and their design and stories, implementation work is engineering, even if completely original, because it has the War in to World and II purpose of engineering and willa neighbor rosicky, uses the to World War I MO of engineering within their project. These aspects of what a computer scientist is doing are completely separable. Below, Ant [March 8, 2012 at 2:51 pm] elaborates further on this separability of joy in heaven, disciplines by their respective MOs. Its a powerful tool for determining what a computer scientist is doing at War in War I, any point in time. I agree with comments by Richard and Joe that we can still gain.

(major) improvements with domain-specific languages as then the language fits. better to the job we are solving. Paragraph Maker. The challenge is then still how to study if a. particular language works better: Companies who develop their in-house. languages often do not have time to do that, albeit some exceptions exist (e.g. Perhaps one interesting area for War in Relation War I, the language research (programming. or modeling) is aristotle mean, then to study the fit to the task. 1) There is no external incentive. Moores law (the hardware industry) took charge of the advancement of computing. Society do not differentiate software from hardware and perceives that computing advances. So it does not perceive that software is not advancing. There is Total War in to World and II, no need of software to nietzsche of morals summary, advance.

There is no need of the War in War I software industry to advance. There is no need of CS to advance in software. There is no need of PL research. 2) There is nietzsche genealogy summary, no internal incentive. Academic research is driven by fashion and career advancement.

PL faded as fashion since the 70s. Academic PL research is middle term to long term research. Above 5 years, with a decade being normal. PL is long term. It is War in to World War I and II, a professional suicide. The field is stories, composed by Total Relation and II, vocacional researchers and enthusiast mostly. 3) Interdisciplinary and pure.

Interdisciplinary research is fashion and get the funds. Is more fashionable than pure reserach and genealogy summary, PL research so it is quite more fashionable than pure PL research. Interdisciplinary funds attract non-CS to relabel their research. projects as computational simulations, so CS is full of research for the sake of other fields. The computational non-CS fields advance greatly. Pure CS advance slowly. For instance bioinformatics.

In other words, the subdisciplines of CS that advances are. the ones that serves other disciplines. CS does not have the aim of producing scientific knowledge. of its own discipline for its own purposes. Sarcastically CS is just the tech support of the rest of the sciences. For instance a PL research project will get funds. for GPU computing support PL features. 4) Applied and basic.

Replace the word Interdisciplinary with Applied, and pure with basic in the section above. it is more quite fashionable than basic PL research 5) Academia is conservative. Even with the multicore challenge craving for Total War I and II, a paradim shift. PL reserarch groups do not take big risks. and play safe bets with short term projects. Projects that start from childrens pirate stories, scratch ignoring. pre 90s concurrent PL research. 6) Polishing and Cocktail. PLs are created constantly. The usual methodology employed by a PL designer.

is to take his/her favorite PL and add some features from War in, other PLs. Essentially it polishes a PL, it completes what is missing. More knowledgeable PL designers prefer to base their new PL. on many PLs so just put them all in a blender and synthesize a cocktail PL. The nature of the methodology employed implies that no new. PL paradigm will be created.

The resulting PL will be of the same paradigm of the original PLs. The features of PLs are memes. 7) Language scale and Paradigm scale. The Academic PL design field can be analyzed at the language level. or at the paradigm level. So it would be convenient to consider the innovation of PL paradigm research. along the stories innovation of PL language research posed by Total War in Relation to World, Crista. Imperative paradigm 1842 (Ada Byron, Charles Babbage) Functional paradigm 1930s (Alonso Church) 1958 (LISP McCarthy) OO paradigm 1963 (Simula 63 Nygaard Dahl) Logic paradigm 1972 (Prolog Colmerauer)

Relational paradigm 1972 (Prolog Colmerauer) 1970 (Codd) 1976 (Chen) The last profoundly new paradigm appeared in 1972 with Prolog, a language of the rosicky logic and Total War in to World and II, relational paradigms. From the willa neighbor rosicky PL paradigm scale perspective: that not much seems to have emerged since 1979 is related to Relation, the question of: In order to genealogy of morals summary, something new to emerge are new PL paradigms necessary? In this case the word paradigm would correspond exactly. to the sense it is used in Thomas Kuhn The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (mentioned previously by Felleisen). So applying the Kuhns perspective to the PL scenario the War in Relation to World and II exploration ended.

in the cather neighbor rosicky 70s and it will not be unlocked until the next paradigm revolution. 8) The scientific method. The study of the scientific method is done by the philosophy of science. Epistemologically the Total Relation to World success of the industrial society rests in the availability of technology. Technology is produced by engineering. Epistemologically the discipline of engineering is the solution of willa, problems. by the Total War in Relation to World application of Symbolism Blood, Weather, Light, science and mathematics. Science lets engineers understand and predict their solutions. Mathematics lets engineers express their solutions and calculate (parameters, predictions, etc.).

Epistemologically science and math are disciplines that study objects, so their aim is to Relation to World War I and II, produce theories, i.e. Aristotle Doctrine. scientific or mathematical knowledge about. The object of study of a science is concrete, i.e. it exists in Total to World the natural physical reality. The object of study of mathematics is in Macbeth: Blood, Weather, Light examples, abstract. It is a pattern that manifest in the reality. The nature of the object of study determines the methodology. The methodology of Total and II, science is experimental verification. The scientific theory should correspond to the natural physical reality (experiments). The methodology of mathematics is proving theorems. Epistemologically software engineering is not an engineering, it is a craftsmanship because there is no science of software. There is no theory of childrens pirate stories, software in CS. Suppose that a scientific theory of sofware of the kind needed by.

software engineers exist, then their would be widespread adoption. and use by the software development community. As Parnas points out in his article Really Rethinking Formal Methods, it didnt happened yet. The rest of the War in Relation to World War I and II engineerings are successful because they count with the. sciences and mathematics that they need, so they can.

understand and predict the behaviour of their systems. We software developers cannot understand even less predict. the behaviour of cather neighbor rosicky, our systems and Total War in Relation to World and II, the corpus of knowledge of CS and SE. does not aid in to childrens pirate stories, getting the profession close to the rest of the engineerings. 9) Back to the PL and Crista blog. Some questions that arise contrasting the brief epistemological framework with Cristas blog. Cristas blog considers that academic PL research has industrial and Total War in Relation War I and II, applied aims. Most academic PL research so far was restricted to industrial and applied aims.

Her viewpoint as most PL reasearchers in childrens stories academia restric to Total Relation to World War I, industrial and willa cather, applied aims. Should academic PL research be restricted to industrial research and produce technology? Is this restriction what stops PL research of evolving? The restriction of focusing on doing doctoral work that produces technological results. More specifically in Cristas blog it refers to widespread adoption of a PL language. The success of an industrial PL should be judged by this criteria.

But should a research PL language be judged by the same criteria? The aim of PL research should be to produce technology. and satisfy the War in to World needs of the industry? or to produce theories of PL, scientific knowledge that lets us. understand PL better and more deeply? 10) Academic PL research does not have an joy in heaven exploratory agenda since the 70s. The agenda was dictated by Relation to World and II, the hardware evolution through the. demands of aristotle of the, continual adaptation of PL to succesive new generations. So far the Total War in War I continual patching of PLs worked and was enough.

Hardware evolution is still insufficient incentive for joy in heaven, further. exploratory PL research. Exploratory research is conducted marginally as a hobby. For instance in an academically unrespectable site like. Cats Eye Technologies page about esoteric PLs. PL names like brainfuck or funge will shun many. academic PL researchers.

11) Academic PL research never had a (epistemologically) scientific agenda. One that is Total Relation War I, not restricted by industrial or applied aims. But this is part of a general situation, that CS research never had a scientific agenda or producing scientific. knowledge about genealogy of morals summary, software. A discipline uninterested in producing a theory of software following. the scientific method will not produce a theory of PL. Just because CS has the word science in it does not make it.

a science in the epistemological sense. In Cristas blog the Total to World War I word scientific is used in scientific evidence, but it is not scientific in the epistemological sense. In Cristas blog the purpose of a doctoral work is to produce technology. So the evidence is about technological success, its effectivenes. Epistemologically a scientific evidence validates experimentally. a scientific theory or some piece of it. 12) In other sciences there is an of morals internal agenda of the discipline. and an external agenda.

The internal agenda is to advance the state of scientific. knowledge of the discipline and War in Relation, the external agenda. is to apply its results in benefit of the society. CS does not have an internal agenda in general. Specifically in PL research there is no internal agenda. In Cristas blog the agenda is external and it is about doctoral proposals.

fitting in ths STEM goal. The lack of internal agenda means that epistemologically. CS does not have scientific goals and CS does not follow the scientific method. Perhaps it is natural in childrens Cristas words that not much seems to have emerged. In the most mature sciences (epistemologically) like physics. most scientists are devoted to produce or verify scientific knowledge. and a minority to apply it and produce technology.

On the other hand CS is devoted to produce techniques. or technologies but not scientific knowledge (about computers, or software or PL). In the and II theoretical side, theoretical CS is pure mathematics. They are mathematicians that write theorems and follow. the mathematical method: theoretical CS prove theorems. So theoretical CS is not producing scientific theories. On the other hand the most mature sciences and engineering. took centuries to develop. Joy In Heaven. CS and Total Relation to World War I and II, SE have about Symbolism in Macbeth: Blood, and Darkness, Essay, half a century.

But the regard or disregard of the scientific method by CS. determines it to be a protoscience or pseudoscience. And the regard or disregard of the engineering method by SE. determines it to be a protoengineering or pseudoengineering. This final post of yours, number 12, is accurate, well reasoned, and to the point.

However, I rather doubt that CompSci is a proto or budding discipline of to World and II, any specific kind. Its a composite discipline, and in 4 decades of paragraph maker, involvement I havent detected any evolution towards it becoming anything other than what it already is. As has always been the case, it comprises engineering, mathematics, and far less commonly, also science when investigating unexplained phenomena by applying the MO of science. Theoretical CompSci continues to be a specific branch of mathematics, and Software Engineering continues to be engineering, despite the term SE coming into disuse in recent times. Youre right that the vast majority of Total War in to World War I, people just dont take engineering seriously when creating software.

Your term pseudoengineering is harsh, but accurate. The saddest part of this for Blood, Weather, Light examples, me is that one might sensibly expect computer scientists to have a strong interest in placing their engineering subdiscipline on a more formal footing, but such activity is almost non-existent in the ranks. This has resulted in the standing of computer science professionals being abysmal outside of pure academia, and Total to World War I and II, rightly so because their ability to perform quality engineering has no solid footing in their discipline. Doctrine Of The Mean. CompSci has really missed the boat on this one. Hopefully one day CompSci will wake up and Total War I, realize that it has failed to feed one of joy in heaven, its babies, and give it the attention it deserves. Total Relation War I And II. Software bridges may then start collapsing less frequently, and genealogy of morals, being a professional in software engineering may then actually mean something. Relation War I. There is no sign of cather rosicky, it yet though. I restricted to present the idealistic perspective. Fortunately you presented the realistic perspective. So it can provide a wider and Total War in Relation, more balanced panorama. The idealistic position is about what CS SE should be.

The realistic position is about what CS SE is actually. The expectations of society and the scientific and engineering. communities are expressed in willa cather neighbor the idealistic position. On the Total War in Relation War I other hand you need to know who you are, where you are and joy in heaven, what are you doing. so the realistic position is War in Relation, necessary as well.

Certainly the discipline in its actual form comprises all M.O. I hope some day CS SE gets closer to neighbor, the rest of the sciences. and engineering but it will take time. It took centuries for the most mature disciplines to develop. to its current state. A simple analogy I consider is Total War in Relation and II, about a craftsman, a mechanic and an engineering. A craftsman understand the item he makes.

He understand it enought to make it work. A mechanic understands an engine so he can diagnose and repair it. But their understandings are partial and paragraph maker, superficial. A mechanic lacks a complete view of the engine as a system. and its subsystems. He doesnt know why each part has the dimension it has.

Nor he has a knowledge about the forces and torques implied. Nor the Relation and II mechanics of the fluids and gases involved, or the combustion process and the thermal dissipation, etc. On the other hand, the scientific knowledge possessed by an engineer let him understand an engine in aristotle doctrine mean a complete and profound way. A mechanic cannot devise an engine. An engineer can. Engineers are happy learning tons of science and math. to make the Total War I and II impossible possible or to improve their creations. The situation of a software engineer is closer to the craftsman and to the mechanic.

A SE understands the cather neighbor software enough to make it work, like a craftsman. A SE understands the software enough to debug it like a mechanic. But this understanding is partial and superficial. The completeness, breadth and depth of Total War in Relation and II, understanding of willa cather rosicky, a system that characterizes mature engineerings are still light years away of Total War in Relation War I, SE. And CS still did not produce the sort of scientific knowledge needed. The question is of morals, what languages have enough depth to War in War I and II, build a massive, complex, real-time, distributed and of the mean, embedded system, complete with any sorts of I/O (and slick user interfaces), and in the process have enough depth to Relation War I, create all of the other languages to boot. I can think of only three, Assembler because of it a necessity, C/C++ because of pirate stories, its proliferation, and Ada because of its expressive power.

Most of the other languages that have appeared over the years have brought very few earth shattering features or concepts to light that cannot be reduced to a mere library. If you what to Total War in and II, know my theory of why we have so many languages today, read Genesis 11:5-9. Unfortunately, this argument is the hardest to defend. In fact, I am yet to see the first study that convincingly demonstrates that a programming language, or a certain feature of programming languages, makes software development a more productive process. It sounds like a copout. You seem to paragraph maker, be biased in that any study around that has good results wont be good enough for you. Well, lets make one then.

Well use 30 people minimum for statistical significance. Get 30 people that know C and Total Relation War I, PHP. Tell them to write a web app where the user types in a sentence the app returns both a list of words in paragraph maker the sentence the number. Measure how quickly each app is produced and how many lines of code it takes. If your view is correct, PHP will provide no advantage due to either its dynamic, scripting nature or ability to easily mix HTML server-side script. Experiment 2. Take another dual set of 30. Half will use Java to code an Total War in and II enterprise web app. The other half will use Suns DASL language and toolkit.

Measure time taken, lines of code, etc. If your position is correct, then the DASL people wont finish way ahead of the Java guys with much less code. (Illustrated: an app of around 8-10k DASL compiles to 200k+ lines of Java, XML, SQL other stuff.) Experiment 3. Have a set of people write an app with certain safety requirements. One group uses C one group uses SPARK Ada. Compare believability of correctness arguments, time to aristotle doctrine of the, produce/test arguments, time to build application, size. Relation War I And II. Do a similar comparison against Eschers Perfect language with auto-generation of C++, Java or Ada. Experiment 4: Two teams design a batch processing app that consumes possibly malicious data performs complex operations on it. Aristotle Of The Mean. It must have high performance and no observed reliability/security issues over a year.

One team uses C++ and one uses Ocaml. Compare the time to produce the app, app size, annual no. of Total Relation War I and II, crashes, annual no. of security flaws, and general bug count over the year. If your position is correct, Ocamls superior design will provide no advantages. Experiment 5: Two teams design an nietzsche genealogy of morals application for processing log files producing a report about them. Relation To World And II. One team uses Pascal and one uses Perl. If your position is correct, Perls dynamic nature powerful built-in regular expressions shouldnt get the job done faster. Anyone thinking thats not fair can do a similar competition with both languages for a standard console app that doesnt rely on either languages specialties. Perl developers will still finish first. Experiment 6: Two teams design a SCM. Paragraph Maker. One uses Java with a good IDE one uses Allegro Common LISP with its platform.

Measure time to produce, compile times, lines of code, ease of database integration where needed, and ease of modifying the Total War in to World and II application. Allegro CL should provide no benefits from dynamic nature w/ optional static performance typing, AllegroCache OODBMS built-in, and incremental compilation. Experiment 7: Two teams do system administration tasks, a business app and a web app using no fancy auto-gen extra tools, although web frameworks are allowed for either. One team uses C++ and one uses Python. Measure time to completion, lines of code, bugs/crashes over a year, cost of IDEs and nietzsche genealogy of morals, time to train developers to War in Relation and II, achieve this. Im betting on Python. Extreme example: Compare assembler to paragraph maker, C/C++ for most apps. Theres no features that the latter language has over the former that aids the software development process? Codasys vs SQL? Prolog vs Mercury? Gypsy vs Coq?

Certain language features and Total War in Relation to World and II, design points definitely help in both general and specific cases. Its beyond obvious. If there isnt a good study proving it yet, then that just shows how poorly academics are doing their studies on the topic these days. Version: GnuPG v1.4.10 (GNU/Linux) As a professional mechanic for six years before attending college, your analogies follow the line of a tool for every job. Or what carpenters would say, when all you have is a hammer, everything looks like a nail. My job is willa neighbor rosicky, writing code for deeply embedded products. The kind of stuff where if it works, no one ever knows that it even exists. Total Relation War I And II. It is all (with the exception of very few lines of asm) written in C. Cather Neighbor. The tools I use to work with my code, are primarily written in Perl, though some are written in Python. The build tools are a combination of make (and the Total Relation to World and II assorted autogen) and Python (SCons).

Configuration is willa rosicky, through XML. War In To World War I And II. Documentation is through plain vanilla html/css. And there are a dozen small bash scripts that automate life for willa neighbor rosicky, me as well. I think that gets to the heart of Total War in Relation to World, your comment. If your only tool is PHP, everything looks like a Web Page.

Youve certainly struck a nerve in pirate stories the PL community. As a reformed academic, I would agree with you that the most successful programming languages are completely uninteresting from a research perspective. As you say, they are all mashups of object-orientation, (usually) dynamic memory management, and algol syntax. Were still working with a dominant paradigm developed in the 70s. As a software business person, these languages are interesting not because of the language itself, but because of the Total to World War I frameworks and target markets that they co-evolve with. Ruby would be just another language without the high productivity Rails framework, and PHP and Javascript would never have happened except that we needed good enough languages to build applications for the web. Academics tend to dismiss this as worse is better, but software business people would rephrase this as good enough today is better, and would recognize this as a trivial corollary of the joy in heaven axiom that time is money. So I agree that in order to do credible programming systems research, you would have to Total War in to World and II, accompany it with controlled experiments that showed efficacy in the form of programmer productivity improvements and better runtime performance.

Unfortunately this kind of work tends to be prohibitively expensive to do in academia, and rarely of joy in heaven, interest in the business world.

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Poverty in India: Causes, Effects and Solutions. Poverty is humiliation, the sense of being dependent on them, and of being forced to Total Relation, accept rudeness, insults, and indifference when we seek help. Latvia 1998. In the simplest term, poverty may be defined as a social condition where individuals do not have financial means to meet the Symbolism Blood, examples most basic standards of life that is acceptable by the society. Individuals experiencing poverty do not have the means to pay for basic needs of daily life like food, clothes and shelter. Poverty also staves people off from accessing much needed social tools of Total War in Relation War I and II well-being like education and health requirements. The direct consequences stemming from this problem are hunger, malnutrition and susceptibility to diseases which have been identified as major problems across the world. Genealogy Of Morals. It impacts individuals in a socio-psychological way with them not being able to afford simple recreational activities and getting progressively marginalized in the society. The term poverty is interconnected with the notion of the Total War in and II poverty line/ threshold that may be defined as the minimum figure of income that is required in a particular country for maintaining the socially acceptable quality of life in terms of nutritional, clothing and paragraph maker, sheltering needs. The World Bank has updated its international poverty line figures to 1.90 USD (Rs.

123.5) per day on October 2015 (based on to World War I, prices of commodities in year 2011-2012), from 1.5 USD(Rs. 81) as a response to the changes in the cost of living across the joy in heaven world as per current economy. The organization estimates that Just over 900 million people globally lived under this line in Total War in to World War I 2012 (based on the latest available data), and we project that in cather rosicky 2015, just over 700 million are living in Total Relation extreme poverty. Poverty is a worldwide cause of concern even in childrens economically stable countries like the USA. Current statistics state that over half the populations in the world, about War in to World War I, 3 billion people, are forced to live on less than 2.5 dollars per day. In India, as per 2014 government reports, monthly per capita consumption expenditure is Rs. 972 per genealogy of morals summary person in rural areas and Rs. 1407 per person in urban areas. This data is currently being accepted as the poverty threshold of the country. As of Total Relation to World 2015, 21.9% of the total population lives below the national poverty threshold, as per neighbor the data of Asian Development Bank, thats a whopping 269.7 million individuals not having enough money. Causes of Poverty in India.

Factors contributing to the persistent problem of poverty in the country are many and they need to be identified in order to be addressed properly. They can be categorized under the following heads. 1. Demographic the War in Relation War I and II main factor that contributes to poverty-ridden state of the country from a demographical point of view is the problem of over population. The growth of population in the country has so far exceeded the growth in economy and the gross result is that the poverty figures have remained more or less consistent. In rural areas, size of the families is bigger and paragraph maker, that translates into lowering the per Total War in to World capita income values and ultimately lowering of standard of living. Population growth spurt also leads to generation of paragraph maker unemployment and that means diluting out of wages for jobs further lowering income. 2. Economic there are a host of economic reasons behind persistence of the poverty problems which are outlined hereunder:- a. Poor Agricultural Infrastructure Agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy.

But outdated farming practices, lack of proper irrigation infrastructure and even lack of formal knowledge of crop handling has affected the productivity in this sector tremendously. As a consequence there is redundancy and sometimes complete lack of work leading to decreased wages that is insufficient for meeting daily needs of a labourers family plunging them into poverty. b. Unequal distribution of assets with the Total War in Relation to World War I economy changing directions rapidly, the earning structure evolves differently in different economic income groups. Upper and middle income groups see a faster increase in earnings than lower income groups. Also assets like land, cattle as well as realty are distributed disproportionately among the willa neighbor rosicky population with certain people owning majority shares than other sectors of the society and their profits from these assets are also unequally distributed. In India it is said that 80% wealth in the country is controlled by just 20% of the population. c. Unemployment another major economic factor that is causative of poverty in the country is the rising unemployment rate. Total Relation War I. Unemployment rates is high in aristotle doctrine India and according to a 2015 survey data, at the all-India level, 77% of families do not have a regular source of income. d. Inflation and Price hike the term Inflation may be defined as an increase in prices of commodities coinciding with the fall in the purchasing value of money. As a direct consequence of inflation, effective price of food, clothing items as well as real estate rises.

The salaries and wages do not rise as much in keeping up with the inflated prices of commodities leading to effective decrease of the per capita income. e. Total Relation War I And II. Faulty economic liberalization the LPG (Liberalization-Privatization-Globalization) attempts initiated by the Indian Government in 1991 were directed towards making the economy more suited to international market-trends to invite foreign investments. Successful to certain extent in reviving the economy, the economic reforms had detrimental effects on increasing the Symbolism in Macbeth: Blood, Weather, Essay examples wealth distribution scenario. Rich became richer, while the poor remained poor. 3. Social The various social issues plaguing the country that contributes towards poverty are:- a. Education and illiteracy Education, rather its lack thereof and poverty form a vicious cycle that plagues the Total War in War I and II nation. Not having enough resources to paragraph maker, feed their children, the Relation to World poor consider education to be frivolous, preferring children to start contributing to the familys income rather than draining them. On the other hand, lack of nietzsche genealogy of morals education and illiteracy prevent individuals from Total to World getting better paying jobs and they get stuck at jobs offering minimum wages. Improvement of quality of life gets hindered and the cycle once again comes into action. b. Outdated Social Customs Social customs like the caste system cause segregation and marginalization of pirate stories certain sections of the society.

Certain castes are considered untouchables still and are not employed by upper caste, leaving very specific and low paying jobs that they can live off. Economist K. V. Verghese put forth the problem in a very lucid language, Caste system acted as a springboard for Relation War I and II class exploitation with the result that the counterpart of the joy in heaven poverty of the many is the opulence of the few. The second is the cause of the first. c. Lack of skilled labour lack of adequate vocational training makes the huge labour force available in India largely unskilled, which is unsuitable for offering maximum economic value. Lack of education, much less higher education, is also a contributing factor towards this. d. Gender inequality the weak status attached with women, deep-rooted social marginalization and long embedded perceptions of domesticity renders about 50% of the countrys population unable to work. As a result the women of the family add to the number of dependents that need to be fed instead of being able to contribute considerably in the family income which might assuage the poverty situation of the family. e. Corruption despite considerable efforts from the War in War I government in the forms of various schemes to Symbolism Weather, examples, mollify the poverty situation, allegedly only 30-35% actually reaches the beneficiaries due to wide-spread practices of corruption in the country. Wealthy people with privileged connection are able to Total War in to World War I and II, acquire more wealth simply by bribing government officials to childrens, maximize their profits from such schemes while the Total Relation to World and II poor remain in a state of neglect for not being able to assert such connections. 4. Individual individual lack of efforts also contribute towards generating poverty.

Some people are unwilling to joy in heaven, work hard or even not willing to work altogether, leaving their families in the darkness of poverty. Personal demons like drinking and Total, gambling also leads to draining of the family income inciting poverty. 5. Political in India, socio-economic reform strategies has been largely directed by political interest and stories, are implemented to serve a choice section of the society that is potentially a deciding factor in the elections. As a result, the War in to World issue is not addressed in its entirety leaving much scope of improvements. 6. Climatic maximum portion of nietzsche India experiences a tropical climate throughout the year that is not conducive to hard manual labour leading to lowering of productivity and the wages suffer consequently. The resounding effect of poverty echoes through various layers of an India citizens life. To World. If we try to have a systematic look at them, we should proceed under the three following heads:- 1. Effect on Health one of the most devastating effects that poverty has is on the overall health of the nation.

The most prominent health issue stemming from poverty is aristotle doctrine mean, malnutrition. The problem of malnutrition is widespread in all age-groups of the country but children are most adversely affected by this. Limited income in larger families leads to lack of access to sufficient nutritious food for their children. These children over time suffer from severe health problems like low body weight, mental, physical disabilities and a general poor state of immunity making them susceptible to diseases. Children from poor backgrounds are twice as susceptible to suffer from anemia, nutrient deficiencies, impaired vision, and even cardiac problems. Malnutrition is a gross contributor of infant mortality in the country and 38 out of every 1,000 babies born in India die before their first birthday.

Malnutrition among adult also leads to Total War in Relation to World, poor health in adults that leaches their capacity for manual labour leading to a decrease in income due to weakness and diseases. In Macbeth: Blood, Weather, And Darkness, Essay Examples. Poverty also causes definite decline in the sanitary practices among poor who cannot afford proper bathrooms and disinfectants. As a result susceptibility to waterborne diseases peak among the poor. Lack of access to as well as means to procure appropriate treatment also affects overall mortality of the population which is lower in War in Relation and II poor countries than developed nations like the USA. 2. Effects on Society poverty exerts some gravely concerning effects over the overall societal health as well. These may be discussed along the following lines:- a. Violence and crime rate incidence of violence and crime have been found to be geographically coincident. In a backdrop of unemployment and marginalization, the poor resort to criminal activities to earn money. Coupled with lack of education and properly formed moral conscience, a poverty ridden society is more susceptible to violence by its people against its own people from a sense of deep-seated discontent and rage.

b. Homelessness apart from a definite drop in the esthetic representation of the country, homelessness affects child health, women safety and overall increase in criminal tendencies. c. Childrens Stories. Stress lack of money is Total to World and II, a major cause of stress among the joy in heaven middle-class and the poor and leads to Total War in and II, decline in productivity of of morals summary individuals. d. Child labour one of the hallmarks of a poverty-ridden society is the widespread practices of exploitation and the worst of it comes in the form of Total Relation to World War I child labour. Large families fail to meet the stories monetary needs of the members and children as young as 5 years are made to start earning in order to contribute to the family income. e. Terrorism proclivity of youth towards terrorism stems from a combination of extreme poverty and War in Relation, lack of education making them susceptible to brainwashing. Terrorist organizations offer poverty-ridden families money in exchange for a members participation in their activities which induces a sense of accomplishment among the youth. 3. Effect on childrens stories, Economy poverty is a direct index indicating success of the economy of the country. War In War I And II. The number of people living under the poverty threshold indicates whether the economy is powerful enough to generate adequate jobs and amenities for its people.

Schemes providing subsidies for the poor of the country again impose a drain on the economy. The measures that should be taken to Symbolism in Macbeth: Blood, Weather, Light Essay, fight the demon of Total War in to World War I poverty in India are outlined below:- 1. Growth of population at paragraph maker the current rate should be checked by implementation of policies and awareness promoting birth control. 2. All efforts should be made to increase the employment opportunities in the country, either by inviting more foreign investments or by encouraging self-employment schemes. 3. Measures should be taken to War in Relation and II, bridge the immense gap that remains in distribution in wealth among different levels of the society. 4. Certain Indian states are more poverty stricken than others like Odhisha and the North East states.

Government should seek to encourage investment in in Macbeth: Blood, Weather, and Darkness, Essay these states by offering special concessions on taxes. 5. Primary needs of people for attaining a satisfactory quality of life like food items, clean drinking water should be available more readily. Improvement of the Subsidy rates on commodities and Total War in Relation to World War I, Public Distribution system should be made. Free high school education and an increased number of functioning health centers should be provided by paragraph maker, the government.

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essay topics toefl TOEFL Writing Topics. 1. Total War I And II? People attend school for many different reasons (for example, expanded knowledge, societal awareness, and enhanced interpersonal relationships). Why do you think people decide to go to willa neighbor school? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

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Should governments spend more money on improving roads and highways, or should governments spend more money on improving public transportation (buses, trains, subways)? Why? Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay. 20. Some people prefer to cook at home. Other people prefer to eat out. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

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Some universities require students to take classes in many subjects. Other universities require students to specialize in one subject. Which is better? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 77. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

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Other people think that friends are the most important influence on young adults. Which view do you agree with? Use examples to support your position. 116. Symbolism In Macbeth: Blood, Weather, Light And Darkness, Examples? Some people prefer to plan activities for Total to World, their free time very carefully. Others choose not to make any plans at all for their free time. Compare the benefits of planning free-time activities with the nietzsche genealogy of morals, benefits of not making plans. Which do you prefer planning or not planning for your leisure time? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your choice. 117. To World War I? People learn in different ways.

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Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 126. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? All students should be required to study art and music in childrens pirate stories secondary school. Use specific reasons to support your answer. 127. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? There is nothing that young people can teach older people.

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Some young children spend a great amount of their time practicing sports. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this. War In And II? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 132. In Macbeth: Blood, Weather, And Darkness, Essay Examples? Do you agree or disagree with the Total War in War I and II, following statement? Only people who earn a lot of money are successful. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 133. If you could invent something new, what product would you develop? Use specific details to explain why this invention is needed.

134. Symbolism In Macbeth: Weather, Light And Darkness, Essay? Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A person's childhood years (the time from birth to twelve years of Total War in and II age) are the most important years of pirate stories a person's life. Relation And II? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 135. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Children should be required to nietzsche of morals help with household tasks as soon as they are able to and II do so. Use specific reasons and examples to mean support your answer.

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It is better to be a member of a group than to be the leader of a group. Use specific reasons and War I, examples to support your answer. 140. What do you consider to Symbolism Blood, Weather, Light be the most important room in a house? Why is this room more important to you than any other room? Use specific reasons and Total War in Relation to World War I, examples to in Macbeth: Blood, Weather, support your opinion. 141. Relation And II? Some items (such as clothes or furniture) can be made by hand or by machine. Which do you prefer items made by rosicky, hand or items made by machine? Use reasons and specific examples to War in and II explain your choice. 142.

If you could make one important change in a school that you attended, what change would you make? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. 143. A gift (such as a camera, a soccer ball, or an animal) can contribute to a child's development. What gift would you give to help a child develop?

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Others say that advertisements tell us about new products that may improve our lives. Which viewpoint do you agree with? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 147. War In To World? Some people prefer to spend their free time outdoors. Symbolism In Macbeth: Light Examples? Other people prefer to spend their leisure time indoors. Total To World War I? Would you prefer to be outside or would you prefer to be inside for your leisure activities? Use specific reasons and Symbolism Blood, Weather, Light and Darkness, Essay, examples to explain your choice. 148. Your school has received a gift of money. To World And II? What do you think is the best way for your school to spend this money?

Use specific reasons and details to support your choice. 149. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Playing games teaches us about life. Use specific reasons and examples to of the mean support your answer. 150. Imagine that you have received some land to use as you wish. To World War I And II? How would you use this land? Use specific details to doctrine explain your answer. 151.

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157. War In Relation? In the future, students may have the choice of studying at home by using technology such as computers or television or of studying at traditional schools. Which would you prefer? Use reasons and specific details to explain your choice. 158. When famous people such as actors, athletes and rock stars give their opinions, many people listen. Do you think we should pay attention to these opinions? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 159.

The twentieth century saw great change. In your opinion, what is one change that should be remembered about the twentieth century? Use specific reasons and summary, details to explain your choice. 160. When people need to complain about War I and II a product or poor service, some prefer to complain in writing and others prefer to complain in person. Joy In Heaven? Which way do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 161. People remember special gifts or presents that they have received.

Why? Use specific reasons and to World and II, examples to support your answer. Nietzsche Genealogy Of Morals? Some famous athletes and entertainers earn millions of dollars every year. Do you think these people deserve such high salaries? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.

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What is one thing you will do to improve your community? Why? Use specific reasons and Total Relation to World War I and II, details to explain your choice. 165. People recognize a difference between children and adults. What events (experiences or ceremonies) make a person an adult? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your answer.

166. Your school has enough money to doctrine purchase either computers for students or books for the library. Total War In? Which should your school choose to buy computers or books? Use specific reasons and examples to support your recommendation. 167. Many students choose to attend schools or universities outside their home countries. Nietzsche Of Morals? Why do some students study abroad? Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer. 168. People listen to music for Relation, different reasons and at different times.

Why is music important to many people? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. 169. Groups or organizations are an important part of some people's lives. Why are groups or organizations important to joy in heaven people?

Use specific reasons and examples to explain your answer. 170. Imagine that you are preparing for a trip. You plan to be away from your home for a year. War I? In addition to clothing and personal care items, you can take one additional thing. What would you take and why? Use specific reasons and details to support your choice. 171. When students move to a new school, they sometimes face problems.

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174. Some students like classes where teachers lecture (do all of the talking) in class. Other students prefer classes where the students do some of the talking. Which type of class do you prefer? Give specific reasons and details to nietzsche of morals support your choice. 175. Holidays honor people or events.

If you could create a new holiday, what person or event would it honor and how would you want people to celebrate it? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 176. A friend of yours has received some money and plans to use all of it either. to go on Total Relation vacation. Your friend has asked you for doctrine, advice. Compare your friend's two choices and explain which one you think your friend should choose. Use specific reasons and details to support your choice. 177. The 21st century has begun. Total To World War I And II? What changes do you think this new century will bring?

Use examples and details in your answer. What are some of the qualities of a good parent? Use specific details and examples to explain your answer. 178. Symbolism In Macbeth: Blood, Weather, Light Essay Examples? Movies are popular all over Total War I and II, the world. In Macbeth: Blood, Examples? Explain why movies are so popular. Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. In your country, is there more need for Total War in Relation to World War I, land to be left in its natural condition or is there more need for land to be developed for housing and industry? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 179. Many people have a close relationship with their pets.

These people treat their birds, cats, or other animals as members of their family. In your opinion, are such relationships good? Why or why not? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 180. Films can tell us a lot about the country where they were made. What have you learned about a country from watching its movies? Use specific examples and details to support your response. 181.

Some students prefer to study alone. Others prefer to study with a group of students. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 182. You have enough money to purchase either a house or a business.

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