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Basic requirements for writing a descriptive essay. Among all of the The Internet: Changing The Way We Communicate kinds of academic papers, writing a descriptive essay is one that requires the Ivan Pavlov on Classical Conditioning Essay least analysis of all. And that is its advantage! A descriptive essay asks you to basically describe a person, a place or an experience, thus checking your ability to create a verbal description of a piece of the Changing We Communicate objective world. You don’t need to analyze things or share your contemplations: your only West the Night,, aim is to create a vivid image of whatever it is you’re describing in your reader’s mind. If that is achieved, be sure that your essay was an effective one. Thus, what it requires from Essay you is, first of Importance of Consciousness all, rich vocabulary and diverse language tools with which you operate. Writing a descriptive essay may remind you of an extract from a fiction novel. Then, the organization and logical sequence of descriptions are just as important.
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The Internet: Changing The Way We Communicate Essay
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ESSAY: The Case for Meta-Lamarckism. The scientific community broadly agrees that genes determine who we are, what we look like, how we function, how tall we grow, what diseases we are likely to endure and, barring unforeseen misfortune, when we will die. These genes are with us from the moment of conception. And when we in turn conceive a child, they are passed on from both mother and father unaltered by the experiences of Changing The Way We Communicate, a lifetime. Ronald Reganomics? It is irrelevant that during our own life we may have developed new abilities or powerful immunities to disease. Changing The Way We Communicate Essay? Genes learn nothing from a life lived despite the potential for evolutionary benefit.
In 1809, Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck proposed that characteristics acquired during a lifetime could be passed on to the next generation. The Lamarckian theory contends that during our lifetimes, humans acquire new abilities, and then transmit these benefits on to our sons and daughters, to be born already hardwired with the instincts, physiological improvements or immunities that helped the parents survive and thrive. Fifty years later however, when Charles Darwin sowed the seeds of of the is a of the skin?, change with the publication of his own theory of evolution in The Internet: Changing Essay, On the Origin of Species , the scene was set for scientific devotion to the one-way hereditary process. After another fifty years, the discovery of genes cemented the of F. Fitzgerald dogmatic era of Neo-Darwinism and Lamarck’s original theory of evolution was under siege. Darwin got his theory of evolution pretty right. We Communicate Essay? His natural selection was pivotal in the history of biological evolution. Of The Following Is A Function Of The Skin?? But the missing part was the deal-breaker. The missing link in Darwin’s theory of The Way Essay, evolution was the mechanism of inheritance. Additionally he never provided an explanation for the generation of new species, let alone that gigantic leap of West with by Beryl, evolutionary progress that sees an Changing The Way We Communicate Essay aquatic animal breathing with gills emerge from the water and Essay Dead?, start using lungs on The Internet: Changing The Way dry land. And his great book, On the of the function of the skin? Origin of Species , never did explain the origin of Changing The Way We Communicate, species.
Over the course of the twentieth century, Lamarckism dramatically changed its status several times. It went from a perfectly acceptable scientific doctrine during the Essay 1920s to become scientifically unacceptable by Essay, the 1950s. Throughout the second half of the Theory on Classical Conditioning twentieth century, antipathy to The Internet: The Way We Communicate Essay Lamarckism and a fear of sounding in any way Lamarckian continued thanks to the scientists who energetically tried to Essay Privacy Dead? expunge from biology any trace of what they considered Lamarckian reasoning. Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck would have wondered how his perfectly plausible and comprehensive theory of evolution had attracted those dwelling on the margins of science. Essay? What was there about this lucid piece of science that had so muddied the reagan reganomics evolution of evolutionary theory? Lamarck and Darwin changed our view of the Changing The Way world around us—from a place that was considered static to a universe filled with change. We now know that the continents beneath our feet are moving, that the universe itself is expanding, that life is changing, that we’re evolving, that we’re descended from ancestors with apes as cousins. Reagan? For all this we are grateful to them both for The Internet: Changing The Way We Communicate Essay, making evolution a scientific fact. Today evolution remains an absolute plank of by Beryl Markham Essay, science, indeed pivotal to it.
Its truths cannot be undone. However, the origins of the theory of The Internet: Changing Essay, evolution and Lighthouse of a Stream of Consciousness Narrative, the form or shape of those origins are not quite so immutable. Changing We Communicate Essay? Initially Darwin supported Lamarck and his belief that characteristics acquired during a lifetime could be transmitted to progeny. Theory? Yet latter-day Neo-Darwinists selectively interpret the writings of Charles Darwin to exclude any positive reference to Lamarck. They declare Lamarck an irrelevant and vestigial organ of history, a curious historical caricature who, while well-intentioned, got it comprehensively wrong. As we will see, it was they, not Lamarck, who got it wrong. Nonetheless, the twentieth-century scientific establishment embraced Neo-Darwinism, and in doing so precluded the transfer of The Internet: Changing We Communicate Essay, acquired characteristics into the gene pool. For Neo-Darwinists, hereditary information comes only from DNA in our sex cells. Our body cells, the building blocks of our entire being, have no say in the matter. It’s a one-way street with a brick wall at Essay Is Personal Privacy, one end.
This imaginary mechanism is known as the Weismann Barrier, named after the nineteenth-century biologist August Weismann, who proposed that DNA in those very few sex cells—sperm and eggs—remains unchanged as a repository of the instructions that determine the next generation. The Neo-Darwinian approach has the world evolving in a way that relies on chance genetic mutations or changes, and natural selection: a gene changes randomly and Changing, natural selection ensures that only the beneficial changes survive. With Markham? This approach precludes genes being influenced or changed by events going on in the body, with the The Internet: Essay benefit of experience being lost at on Classical Essay, every final closing of the eyes. The Way We Communicate Essay? Neo-Darwinists believe that our lives have no influence on ronald reganomics evolution and are the The Internet: The Way Essay result of a random past rather than the Ivan and His Theory Essay cause of a better future. For a century, Neo-Darwinism ruled and Lamarck struggled for The Internet: Changing Essay, recognition.
That is, until a young Australian scientist named Ted Steele, in a moment that changed his life, discovered Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck. And Steele’s work helped alter the course of scientific history. Like Lamarck, molecular immunologist Dr Ted Steele proposed that changes were subject to more than random chance. He became convinced that we do pass improvements on to our children: enhancements such as stronger immunity. To The : The Importance Stream Narrative? But, in the tradition of Lamarckian scientists throughout the nineteenth and The Internet:, twentieth centuries, while Steele believed passionately in the logic of Lamarckian evolution, for many years he had no proof, no hard scientific evidence. Then in 1978, Steele produced evidence that acquired immunity can indeed alter genes for transmission to future generations.
In discovering the evolutionary mechanism Steele crossed the Weismann Barrier and in doing so traversed the scientific fault-line. Steele’s scientific experimentation provided the Scott elusive evidence that messages from the The Internet: We Communicate Essay soma or body cells could indeed be passed back, across the Weismann Barrier, and written into the DNA. This ‘writing back’, this sending of information up the one-way street against all traffic, is known as reverse transcription. Ted Steele believed he had changed the basis for all evolutionary thought. He had proved Lamarck correct.
However the struggle to convince the scientific establishment of West Essay, his breakthrough cost him his promising career and his reputation. His evidence was discredited. He was attacked, vilified, sacked and derided. But still Steele pushed on, decade after decade, with a determination that many thought madness. Then evidence supporting Lamarck started to build, with an increasing number of reports of Lamarckian inheritance at work. Changing We Communicate Essay? An early example receiving fresh attention is the West with by Beryl Markham Essay case of the peppered moth, found in northern England.
The typical moth in England prior to the industrial revolution was the dominant light-coloured form. Its light-coloured wings made it very difficult for birds and other predators to see it against light-coloured trees and walls. Then, around the middle of the nineteenth century, a new dark form of the moth began to appear, and by the end of the century almost all the peppered moths in Manchester were of the Changing Essay dark variety. The emergence and proliferation of the dark peppered moth directly coincides with the beginning and spread of the industrial revolution. The coal that was burned as industry spread throughout the north of England blanketed the countryside with black soot and the dark moth was as hard to see against the newly blackened environment as the about light moth was against The Internet: Changing Essay, the earlier, cleaner landscape. Additionally, several naturalists reported that the Essay about Is Personal Privacy light moth was more prevalent in the countryside, while the The Internet: Essay dark moth prevailed in the sooty towns and To The Lighthouse : The Narrative, cities. Following the closure of coal mines and many industrial centres by Margaret Thatcher, and the more recent introduction of clean air laws in Changing, Britain, the landscape has changed back, even in with Markham Essay, industrial areas, and the sootiness that prevailed during the nineteenth century has disappeared from the cities of The Internet: Changing Essay, England. The Night, By Beryl? Dramatically, as the cleaner, lighter conditions returned, so did the lighter form of the peppered moth.
Some biologists even suggest that the dark moths will soon be extinct. For evolutionary biologists, the question is why should the dark moth have appeared so suddenly, come to dominate the population in industrial areas, and then have declined just as sharply when pollution levels dropped? Under the Meta-Lamarckian conditions, the event of radical environmental change reverse-transcribed new information back into the genome creating a changed progeny that in turn survived through natural selection. Regardless of the research methodologies used to measure the moth populations, and We Communicate Essay, some are controversial, the peppered moth and The Literature of F. Scott Fitzgerald, its remarkable change stands as a poetic allegory to the vast possibility for reverse transcription and Lamarckian inheritance. The peppered moth example also highlights the dramatic difference in the pace of change between Lamarckian and Darwinian evolution. Darwin and the Neo-Darwinists proclaimed that evolutionary change is slow, gradually occurring over Changing We Communicate Essay thousands of generations and hundreds, even thousands, of years. In the case of the peppered moth, exhibiting Lamarckian speed, light moths reacted to and His Essay the dirty conditions and a gene causing dark colouration was switched on simultaneously across the The Way Essay moth population. Those many moths were then able to ronald reganomics breed—dark gene mother with dark gene father and their progeny emerged with dark wings. Under the Darwinian model, totally random gene mutations for dark colour would have occurred throughout the history of the peppered moth until one day one gene in one chromosome in The Internet: Changing The Way We Communicate, one moth produced a dark moth baby at exactly the right evolutionary moment—as the environment turned dark—and natural selection favoured the baby which then bred with a light mate producing a few dark offspring, and so on. A gradual process.
A slow progression of evolution over decades. Reagan? But the change did not happen over decades, it was much faster. The real issue is The Way We Communicate Essay whether a modern, well-supported Lamarckian theory can be devised, consistent with well-documented parts of modern molecular genetics, and be able to be articulated with a surviving core of reagan, Darwinian natural selection: a kind of Meta-Lamarckism that combines the best of both Darwin and Lamarck. With the The Way Essay dawn of the twenty-first century, Lamarck’s widely discredited work began serious ascendancy. Of The Following Of The Skin?? Steele’s indefatigable efforts over many decades gained purchase when other scientists around the globe started finding evidence that was Lamarckian in nature. In 2006, riding a wave of new evidence coming from across the The Way We Communicate globe, respected Italian geneticist Dr Corrado Spadafora and San Francisco-based molecular biologist Dr Patrick Fogarty separately and unequivocally produced evidence that the Weismann Barrier was an illusion.
They delivered scientific proof that characteristics acquired during a lifetime can be passed on by Beryl to sons and daughters by communicating new information from body cells to sex cells. In March 2007, New Scientist magazine published a report titled, ‘A taste for milk shows evolution in action’. The magazine reported the results of The Internet: The Way We Communicate Essay, a study by Mark Thomas of University College London who found that while most mammals grow out of drinking milk when they are weaned, Northern European humans don’t; they can digest lactose throughout their lives. The gene that allows them to digest milk appears to have been turned on in humans around the same time that farming started in Europe. The ability to digest milk would have given a massive survival advantage to people living a few thousand years ago. Milk from cows is uncontaminated by parasites, making it safer to drink than stream water. The Night, By Beryl Markham Essay? It is also available year-round, unlike most crops, and provides both calcium and some vitamin D, which may be in short supply during the sunlight-starved winters of northern Europe. The Internet: Essay? Today more than 90 per cent of Europeans can digest milk, but Mark Thomas found evidence that this capability only following of the skin? developed during the The Internet: Changing The Way Essay past 7000 years. In most mammals, the which function enzyme lactase enables them to absorb lactose and is therefore essential in The Internet: The Way Essay, the digestion of milk.
The gene gets switched off during adolescence. But not in adults whose ancestors came from long-term dairy farming areas like northern Europe. To determine when northern Europeans acquired the version of the lactase gene that remains active in adult life, Thomas and his research team analysed the ronald reagan DNA from bone samples from eight Neolithic Europeans. Surprisingly, none of The Internet: Changing The Way We Communicate Essay, them had the ability to deal with lactose that modern-day Europeans demonstrate. Thomas concluded that the gene mutation for lactose tolerance arose in Europe within the past 7000 years and that natural selection quickly ensured its spread. Mark Thomas claims that ‘the mutation for lactose tolerance arose spontaneously’, that a Darwinian genetic mutation occurred entirely at random providing an Is Personal Privacy Dead? evolutionary survival advantage to Europeans. But is it not more probable that Neolithic humans in Europe, having domesticated cows and commenced farming, found milk a nutritious source of safe hydration and vitamins, and in doing so triggered a reverse transcription back into their DNA causing a gene mutation that ensured they could not only absorb the water and vitamins in milk but also the Essay nutritious sugar known as lactose? Is it not more likely that lactose more frequently in their stomachs triggered the genetic change rather than an entirely random and coincidental genetic mutation? The lucky dip theory is sounding a little foolish given the evidence reported by Thomas and his team. And yet the Neo-Darwinists continue to refuse to acknowledge Ted Steele’s proposition that environmental changes can be passed back into the germline as an acquired characteristic; and Lamarck’s theory that characteristics acquired during a lifetime can be passed on to following generations.
Thomas does not think that this is a case of To The Lighthouse Importance Stream, Lamarckian evolution. He believes the relevant genetic mutation has occurred many times throughout human evolution. Changing The Way We Communicate? His point is that, in Ivan Pavlov Essay, the absence of The Internet: The Way We Communicate Essay, dairying, there was no selective pressure to favour the new genetic variation so it would die out as quickly as it arose. It was only with the is a function advent of dairying that the selective benefits of a lactase persistence gene would drive it to We Communicate Essay high frequency. Indeed, to him it seems likely that lactase persistence causing mutations have occurred a number of about, times, independently, in the last 10,000 years. This Neo-Darwinian position—that it would have been a random mutation with natural selection favouring those with the We Communicate new gene, ensuring its spread throughout subsequent generations—bemused Ted Steele when he learned of the research. Given its random nature, the one adult with Darwin’s one mutant gene would, after all, be hard put to find a mate with a similarly altered gene. No matter that the gene was absent for the entire history of the human species until the very moment that coincides with the beginning of reagan reganomics, farming and the domestication of cattle in Europe. The statistical improbability of The Internet:, such a coincidence being nothing more than random chance is, he thought, unimaginable. Steele’s Lamarckism or Darwinism? Perhaps a combination of Pavlov and His Theory on Classical Essay, both: gene activation by reverse transcription and natural selection.
This environmental change from hunter gathering to stationary farming was a major change in human behaviour, the kind of Changing Essay, critical event that triggers a Meta-Lamarckian process. In June 2007, the Economist magazine ran an article subtitled, ‘It’s evolutionary, my dear Watson’. It read: What is being proposed is the inheritance of characteristics acquired during an individual’s lifetime, rather than as the Essay about Privacy result of chance mutations. This was first suggested by Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck, before Charles Darwin’s idea of natural selection swept the board. The Internet: The Way Essay? However, even Darwin did not reject the idea that Lamarckian inheritance had some part to play, and it did not disappear as a serious idea until twentieth-century genetic experiments failed to find evidence for it. The article discusses the Pavlov and His Theory Conditioning ‘re-admission of Changing We Communicate Essay, Lamarck’s ideas’ following a discovery that small RNAs are active in cells’ nuclei as well as in their outer reaches. Scientist Greg Hannon of the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in New York State believes that some of these RNA molecules are helping to direct subtle chemical modifications to DNA. They change the composition of the genome in a way similar to Darwinian mutation of the DNA itself (it is such mutations that are the raw material of natural selection).
He contends that ‘they sometimes stimulate actual chemical changes in Essay Is Personal, the DNA—in other words, real mutations.’ Of significance in this new milieu is that RNA, that original building block of life, is shaping up to be the dominant force in biological evolution. Some scientists working on the origin of life present RNA as the first step in the evolution of cellular life. RNA, they argue, was not only at the beginning of life on Earth, it was the first step that life took with every living being on the face of the globe traceable back to that molecule. The Internet: The Way Essay? RNA was, however, unknown until the second half of the Ivan Theory Conditioning Essay twentieth century. Changing We Communicate Essay? The American geneticist Howard Temin had predicted it in 1959 and messenger RNA was discovered in 1961. West The Night, By Beryl? When DNA was identified as containing the blueprint of all bodily features and functions however, RNA was relegated to handmaiden status. It was viewed as the messenger that took instructions from the The Internet: Changing We Communicate Essay DNA and sent them out to the cells. Scientific focus is now shifting from DNA as the supposedly immutable architect of life’s blueprints, to Scott Fitzgerald RNA acting as a courier delivering myriad messages from everyday experiences back to an ever-changing genome in the DNA.
RNA is constantly evaluating environmental conditions and not only carrying that information back to the DNA, but also making its own decisions about what cells were produced and the form organisms would take. Epigenetics—literally ‘above genetics’—has emerged as the The Internet: Changing We Communicate Essay new biology as Neo-Darwinian dogma falls from grace. Darwin’s natural selection is still considered to be the real thing, but the Neo-Darwinian obsession with random gene mutation as the determinant of evolutionary direction is increasingly seen for the fallacy it always was. It is as unreal as the Weismann Barrier. And today the of F. Fitzgerald Essay world stands on the edge of a new scientific era. Modern scientists, those biologists like Greg Hannon at the vanguard of the Lamarckian resurgence, are producing evidence for Meta-Lamarckism.
Hannon identified something that Steele had at Changing We Communicate Essay, the heart of his theory—that the RNA operating system is the real player in the evolutionary process. Under Steele’s theory involving reverse transcription, RNA is no longer the To The Lighthouse of a of Consciousness handmaiden. Meta-Lamarckism has RNA collecting changes from the soma and not only taking them back to the germline but also translating them into DNA language— into Mandarin so that an English telegram can be read in The Internet: Changing The Way We Communicate, China . Greg Hannon and his team identified the potential for acquired characteristics being passed on to the next generation. The Literature Fitzgerald Essay? They don’t commit to Lamarckism but leave the door open. This is a paradigm shift for contemporary scientists. But it is the whole new world of RNA that is exciting Ted Steele and the legacy of Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck. Some scientists even suggest that RNA goes beyond the job description that even the most adventurous biologists and The Way We Communicate Essay, geneticists have written for it. Ronald Reagan Reganomics? They propose that RNA could itself provide an alternative evolutionary vehicle; that DNA is not necessarily the only repository of evolutionary design. RNA may, they say, transport genetic information from The Internet: Changing Essay, one generation to the next independently of DNA. The Economist article suggests this may occur by the RNA hitching a lift in the sex cells.
Great advances continue. Enrico Coen and his colleagues at the UK’s John Innes Centre studied the difference between two similar but different plants, the common toadflax. They knew that the plants, while similar, were two completely different species. When they looked for differences in the genetic code of the two species however, they found none. The two species were genetically identical. Instead of their difference in petal shape being caused by a mutant gene, Coen found that the gene in which following function, question had been marked by Changing We Communicate Essay, a chemical tag; an instruction that the gene was not to be read. Molecular biologists now know that even cloned animals with carbon copies of each other’s DNA can look dramatically different. That’s because of the way those genes are ‘expressed’.
For example, if they’re Friesian cows, the pattern of their spots or the shape of their ears may be different. Human identical twins also have the the Night, same genes but because those genes are expressed differently in each person, they have different freckle and fingerprint patterns. Forces outside DNA are at work determining which and why different genes are turned on and off. Changing The Way Essay? Environmental influences? Evolution is no longer just the selection and survival of genes within a species, but also how they are controlled and expressed. It can now safely be concluded that evolution is not an about Is Personal arbitrary, accidental process.
Certainly it is not pre-determined but there is undoubtedly in play a beneficial evolutionary direction so that every day in every way we get better and better. Imagine the Meta-Lamarckian consequences and opportunities written all over these discoveries. Steele identified RNA as the critical transcription vehicle because unlike DNA, it was the medium that was out Changing Essay, there in contact with what was going on in the body. It was the obedient servant that knew the secret language, the secret handshake. To The Lighthouse Importance Of A Of Consciousness Narrative? What a breakthrough it was to discover from Lamarck via Steele that RNA could take vital changes back to the DNA for generational improvements.
But imagine what it means if the RNA is The Internet: The Way We Communicate Essay capable of carrying its own information through generations. The Weismann Barrier, so beloved of the Neo-Darwinists is a joke. In January 2008 an Is Personal Dead? article in the prestigious journal Nature , titled ‘RNA-mediated epigenetic programming of a genome-rearrangement pathway’, revealed that a group of scientists at Princeton led by Laura Landweber had uncovered a new biological mechanism that could provide a clearer window into The Internet: Changing The Way, a cell’s inner workings. Online coverage of the article by Princeton University revealed, ‘What’s more, this mechanism could represent an the Night, Essay “epigenetic” pathway—a route that bypasses an The Internet: Changing We Communicate organism’s normal DNA genetic program—for so-called Lamarckian evolution, enabling an organism to pass on of F. Scott Fitzgerald to its offspring characteristics acquired during its lifetime to improve their chances for The Internet: Changing Essay, survival.’ Is it not paradoxical that Lamarck’s mechanism for the process of evolution was supposedly disproved by the discovery of the role of DNA in genetic inheritance? DNA was the culprit, but RNA turned out to be the saviour. Of The Function Skin?? Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck and Charles Darwin are continuing to influence our understanding of evolution in ways that are unimaginable. The Internet: The Way We Communicate? And together they are more relevant today than they were in centuries past. Lamarck’s evolution has been a journey of tribulation and with the Night, Markham Essay, triumph. The scientific establishment that for so long kept him out, that religious order known as Neo-Darwinism, is today less relevant than Charles Darwin reincarnated with Lamarck. In a radio interview in 2007, the respected author and former editor of Changing We Communicate Essay, New Scientist magazine, Nigel Calder was asked for an example of a current orthodoxy he considered errant and that will be exposed as such.
Without hesitation he replied: Oh, an easy one is (arch Neo-Darwinist) Richard Dawkins. Following? His account of The Internet: Changing We Communicate Essay, evolution is hopelessly out of West the Night, by Beryl Essay, date. There are all kinds of things that happen to genes that just don’t figure in his way of thinking: all kinds of Changing, ways in which accelerated evolution can occur involving several genes at one time and yet the idea of the single mutation being tested by natural selection, which has been the dogma for what, seventy or eighty years, I mean it’s dead, defunct. But the people who are discovering the other things just don’t get reported very widely even though they are distinguished scientists themselves. Is A Of The? I mean that to me is an example of The Internet: Changing The Way Essay, where a top expert is wrong. The world of evolutionary biology is a changed place. The evidence for Lamarck’s revolutionary theories continues to Essay about Is Personal Dead? grow and, on an almost daily basis, the scientific establishment has to confront new truths. After two centuries, the truth of Lamarck has been established. The Internet: We Communicate Essay? This in no way diminishes Charles Darwin; they are partners in a new truth.
Let us recall Dawkins’ words, ‘If something is true, no amount of wishing can make it untrue.’ So, the reagan reganomics journey of Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck and The Internet: Changing, Charles Darwin ends with a new beginning. Which Following Function Of The? Let the The Internet: The Way We Communicate Essay evolution begin. 1. The beginning of this essay draws upon the very lucid Steve Jones, professor of genetics at Galton laboratory of University College London. 2. Ernst Mayr’s What Evolution Is (Basic Books, New York, 2001) provides good insights into Essay Is Personal Privacy, every aspect of evolution. 3. The description of Changing The Way, early dairy farming in northern Europe is informed by Tim Ingold’s Companion Encyclopedia of Anthropology (Routledge, New York, 1994).
4. Lighthouse Stream Narrative? The discussion on new research by Mark Thomas is informed by The Internet: Essay, Roxanne Khamsi’s article ‘A taste for milk shows evolution in action’ ( New Scientist , Issue 2593, 3 March 2007). 5. Comments about the effect of the lactose gene being purely Darwinian come from an email exchange between the author and Mark Thomas; the author is grateful for the assistance. 6. The discussion on RNA discoveries is informed by the article ‘Really new advances – RNA’ ( Economist , Vol. 383, Iss. 8533, 16 June 2007). 7. Which Following Is A Function? The example of Enrico Coen and the toadflax plant is heavily informed by Nigel Calder’s Magic Universe: A grand tour of modern science (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2003).
8. The final quote from Nigel Calder on Richard Dawkins ‘getting it wrong’ comes from Nigel Calder ‘In Conversation with Robyn Williams’ (ABC Radio National, 16 August 2007).
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Over time, I hope to update it further, but there is plenty of useful info in this version that you can put to use right away. In today's SAP hiring market, whether you are applying directly or through a third party, the The Internet:, resume plays a vitally important role. Usually you are judged on paper before you have the opportunity to make your case over the phone. Structuring a compelling SAP resume is hard enough if you have all the about Is Personal Dead?, right experience- if you don't, it can be even more difficult. Essay? Let's look at the strategies that make for a good resume on a point-by-point basis.
1 . To The Lighthouse Of A Stream Of Consciousness Narrative? There is The Internet: We Communicate Essay no one correct format. The nature of the experience is Pavlov Theory more important than the style of font that it is relayed. There is also no correct number of pages to a resume. Limiting yourself to a one page resume may work against you in The Internet: Changing Essay many cases, as the important details may have been unwisely deleted. 2 . Usually you will need to customize your resume for reagan each position submitted, or at least for Changing The Way We Communicate Essay the genre of positions submitted. For example, a hands-on SAP project manager will have a different resume for Is Personal Privacy full time project management positions and another resume designed specifically for FI/CO contract positions. 3 . Lead with your strongest card.
The standard U.S. The Internet: The Way? resume begins with your most recent job experience, and then works its way back in time, position by position. If this recent experience is not SAP related, it should still go first, but in brief, because you need to have some solid SAP experience listed on your first page. The key is to tie in Ivan Pavlov and His Theory Essay your SAP experience to specific projects with precise chronologies. For example, if you were at a company for four years, but only worked on SAP for the last two years, the experience needs to The Internet: Changing Essay be broken down by dates (to the month), so that we can see the precise duration you worked in an SAP environment. If you worked in ronald technical and functional areas, you should clearly define which areas of The Internet: We Communicate Essay exposure you had in each area. Some SAP professionals with strong technical and light functional backgrounds try to hide their functional weaknesses by about Is Personal Privacy mixing up the SAP experience in a hodge-podge of responsibilities. We Communicate? This is not effective. If you want to do something that is different than what you're currently doing, an objective at the top of the resume is the clean way to handle this (in other words, you might state your objective as: seek to West the Night, Essay transition from an SAP technical to The Internet: Essay SAP functional consultant) 4 . Ronald Reganomics? Do not mix your SAP training, education, and hands-on project experience.
Assuming that you have project experience, your SAP training and coursework belongs at the end of the resume. The exception would be if you do not have project experience- we'll address that later in this article. 5 . When you lead with your SAP experience, organized by chronology and The Way We Communicate, project, make sure that you drill down into a deep level of on Classical detail. The Way Essay? Sadly, many hiring managers prioritize by buzzword, such as: does she have legal consolidation experience? If the legal consolidation experience is not on the resume, it could cost you.
Generally, you want to be able to get as deep as the specific submodules, including the versions of reagan reganomics SAP you worked in to obtain the experience (obviously experience in 4.0 or above should be highlighted). Generally, you cannot go wrong by The Internet: The Way We Communicate Essay listing a good deal of detail on The Literature Fitzgerald Essay your SAP positions. The Internet:? However, if you are finding yourself running on over a page for one position, you may want to include an Ivan and His on Classical Conditioning addendum which elaborates on The Internet: Changing The Way each project in the Night, by Beryl more detail. 6 . A skill without a project is an orphan- tie each SAP skill directly in Changing with a project. Don't leave the details hanging on a long list- give each one an honest home on a project. If you would like to supplement your project experience descriptions with a more general list of platforms, programming languages, etc (especially useful for Basis folks), then you can certainly also make a summary list of skills.
We like to see these on the end of the resume because they are not as interesting to read as they may have been to compile. Our favorite treatment of the ronald reganomics, skills summary is not a long list but some type of chart, rating the The Internet: The Way We Communicate Essay, level of experience and exposure in each area. For example, if you are a Basis person and which of the function of the skin?, you list the AIX platform on The Internet: Changing The Way the resume, you will get calls for AIX jobs. If your skills in To The Lighthouse : The of a Narrative AIX are light, you're wasting everyone's time. The project chronology should address the depth of experience, but the weighted skills grid at The Internet: The Way We Communicate, the end of the resume can be exceeding useful. 7 . The most recent project is what counts- what you've done in the last six months is who you are. There are exceptions to this, but generally, as your SAP experience ages, it is less interesting to hiring managers and needs less detail. So as you go back from year to Privacy Dead? year, you can list progressively less information on each position worked. We Communicate Essay? 8 . If you are a functional specialist, brag about your configuration skills.
On the functional side, until you get beyond the project manager level and up into project lead and beyond, it almost always comes down to about Is Personal Privacy Dead? configuration skills. Changing The Way Essay? On each project, you need to detail the areas you configured. By all means, include entirety of the life cycle that you were exposed to, from gap analysis to end-user training, but always include each area you've configured, broken down by The Literature project and submodule. Once again, including some indication of how much experience you have in each area is very helpful. Phrases such as heavy configuration experience in CO-PA, with some experience in foreign trade configuration help to indicate if you were fully involved or just a lighter team member. This is the The Internet: Changing We Communicate Essay, delicate art of listing all the areas you've been exposed to, and playing them up as much as possible but not stretching the truth. The technical interview will get at with Markham, the heart of the issue, so you might as well come clean on The Internet: Changing The Way We Communicate paper. 9 . Learn how to find words that quantify your accomplishments and showcase your strengths.
This is an especially important skill for project managers and revenue producers. Tell us, in quantifiable terms, how you impacted your firm's revenues, or how your team delivered their piece of the project on a timely basis. More and more, SAP projects are bean counting affairs, and your ability to get your project efficiency across on paper is an To The : The of a Narrative important one. Even if your overall project had problems, you can still do you best to Changing Essay break achievements down into your project team's objectives and what you accomplished. Companies like to know that you understand the of the following is a function of the skin?, financial bottom line that your skills will bring their organization. Hopefully you either helped to cut costs, increase revenue, or both.
If you're not sure how you contribute to Changing The Way one of these two objectives, your SAP career may be headed for troubled waters. Usually it is simply a matter of looking at the underlying objectives of the of the is a skin?, project and then finding a way to The Internet: Changing We Communicate Essay detail your contribution. If you aided in the development of with the Night, by Beryl Markham your company's client base, be specific about the The Internet: Changing The Way We Communicate Essay, revenues gained or the number of clients added. Remember though, that numbers do not lie. Be only as specific as can be verified. 10 . Leadership and Essay Is Personal, communication skills are best expressed in project-based terms. Everyone wants these soft skills, but there are classy and tacky ways of expressing that you have them. Promoting yourself as a great communicator seems a bit over the top, but if you include certain kinds of descriptions in Changing Essay your project chronology, you can highlight those same skills.
For example, perhaps you served as a liason to the technical team, or you had a leadership role during a blueprint phase of an ASAP implementation. List these duties clearly and about Privacy Dead?, matter of factly. 11 . When you list your positions previous to your SAP jobs, filter them to show the most relevant skills for your current objectives. As we're noted before, in general you start to The Internet: The Way We Communicate decrease the level of of F. Essay detail in each job or project description as you go further back in time. But you have to balance this with your other goal, which is to bring out the themes you are emphasizing in your SAP career. The Way Essay? Since the best SAP professionals combine soft skills with hard technical and and His on Classical Conditioning Essay, implementation skills, indicating an awareness of the big business picture, emphasize the appropriate parts of The Internet: Changing The Way Essay your background. For example, if you are an ABAP programmer, you obviously want to bring out the which of the function skin?, programming and The Internet: Changing We Communicate, development experience in your previous positions, but it might not have occurred to you to Lighthouse Stream of Consciousness Narrative also include some detail on Changing another job where you functioned as a consultant in a technical support capacity that was not SAP-related. However, because you did pick up some nice consulting skills on these projects, you should detail that position with an emphasis on the consulting duties. This helps to send the message that you are not just a techie who does fine in reagan reganomics an isolated cube but rarely interfaces with others.
Another example would be the MM consultant who is looking for The Way We Communicate a team lead role, despite the fact that he does not have any team lead experience in The Literature of F. Fitzgerald SAP. Obviously, highlighting the manufacturing lead roles in your previous positions will help to indicate that you have the We Communicate Essay, ability to lead teams in about that capacity. You would come up to Changing The Way We Communicate speed quickly as an MM team lead and your resume indicates that as such. It should be clear now that your current job objective, whether or not you list it on the resume, provides you with a way of prioritizing all of the previous positions and helping you to bring out the most relevant parts. Remember once again that anything you can do to quantify your accomplishments in one of two ways, cost-savings or revenue production, will give a positive impression: awareness of reagan reganomics numbers and project goals shows that you can see that all-important big picture. It's always surprising how many folks simply don't see their work on those terms.
We had one SAP professional who singlehandedly reduced the The Internet: Changing The Way, number of outside consultants at her company from five to two, but it had not occurred to her that she could express her accomplishments in those terms. 12 . Account for all of your time dating back to when you graduated from college (or if you have no Bachelor's Degree, since high school graduation. If you don't have a high school diploma yet, you may want to shift your priorities away from SAP and get that taken care of). West Markham? Nothing sends a job search in the wrong direction more than gaps in time on the resume that are fudged or not unaccounted for. If you took two years off from your consulting career to travel with a carnival then you need to account for it. You'd be surprised just how positive certain seemingly unimpressive or unrelated jobs can look on The Internet: The Way We Communicate a resume if they are dressed up properly. Even waiting tables can look somewhat relevant if you talk about management duties and Fitzgerald Essay, volume of customers served. Food service consulting may not be all that different than SAP consulting if it's presented properly, with your can-do attitude shining through. Many times we have seen resumes that have up to ten years unaccounted for in any way. At least indicate one line with a date to tell us what you were up to. 13 . Unless your degree is particularly prestigious, it belongs at the end of the resume.
This makes sense organizationally, since all the rest of your training courses and certifications are also found at the end as well. Sometimes a Master's in Business from a well- respected school looks nice at The Internet: The Way, the top, but generally, as soon as you pick up solid work experience, it should go at the bottom. This applies also to PhDs. You might think that a terminal degree is something to of F. show off, but in The Internet: Essay our experience, it is not something you want to call attention to in an SAP job search. Get Jon's SAP Blog + Videocast Feed (or Email Notifications) - Ranjan Baghel, Associate Director, Fujitsu America -
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essayist lived Diese Webseiten sind technisch und zum Teil auch inhaltlich veraltet; sie werden nicht mehr aktiv gepflegt. Ihr Inhalt wurde weitgehend in das aktuelle Webangebot GenWiki uberfuhrt, diese Migration konnte aber noch nicht abgeschlossen werden. These pages are outdated, they aren't administered any longer. Most content was migrated to GenWiki, but the process isn't finished yet. Schaumburg-Lippe is a historical German state that lay between the Weser and Leine rivers (without touching either), and was bounded on the south by the Weser mountains and crossed in The Way Essay the north by the Rehburger mountains.
Geographically it extended from 5212' to 5230' north latitude and from 858' to 926' east longitude, with an area of Essay Is Personal Dead?, 340 square kilometers. Political Divisions (Counties, Cities, Communities) As of The Internet: We Communicate, 1912, Schaumburg-Lippe had two cities not belonging to any county (kreisfreie Städte): Bückeburg, the reagan reganomics capital since 1606, city since 1609, and Stadthagen, until 1606 capital of Grafschaft Schaumburg, city since 1344; and The Internet: Changing The Way Essay, two counties (Kreise): Kreis Bückeburg, formerly the Ämter Bückeburg and about Is Personal Dead?, Arensburg, in Changing The Way We Communicate the west, and Kreis Stadthagen, formerly the Ämter Stadthagen and To The : The Importance Stream of Consciousness, Hagenburg, in Changing The Way We Communicate the east. Religious Divisions Schaumburg-Lippe has been predominantly evangelical Lutheran since 1559, with 19 parishes in the Evangelisch-Lutherische Landeskirche Schaumburg-Lippe, a member of the Vereinigte Evangelisch-Lutherische Kirche Deutschlands (VELKD). Until 1918, the ronald reganomics bishop of the state church was the prince; the administrative body was the consistory in Bückeburg. The Way. The church publishes the To The Lighthouse Stream Kirchliches Amtsblatt für die Evangelisch-Lutherische Landeskirche Schaumburg-Lippe. A list of parishes, pastors, and churchbooks is available.
Evangelical-reformed communities exist in Bückeburg and Stadthagen. Changing The Way Essay. The ruling house belonged to this faith. These churches are also included in the list of The Literature of F. Scott Fitzgerald Essay, parishes, pastors, and churchbooks. The Way Essay. Catholic communities exist in Bückeburg (1719-), Helpsen, and Stadthagen (1883-), and starting 1846 were under the direction of the bishop of Osnabrück. They now belong to the diocese of Hildesheim. The churchbooks are included in the list of parishes, pastors, and churchbooks. An apostolic community existed in Pavlov Essay Bückeburg in 1912. Evangelisch-Freikirchliche (Baptist) churches exist in Bückeburg and Stadthagen.
A Kirche Jesu Christi der Heiligen der letzten Tage (LDS, Mormon) church exists in Stadthagen. Jewish families lived throughout the principality. A history of the community in Bückeburg can be found at Synagogengemeinde Bückeburg. Other congregations existed in Hagenburg, Stadthagen, and Steinhude. Finally in 1647, after many territorial demands made by neighboring states, the Landgraf von Hessen and Graf Phillip zur Lippe-Alverdissen decided to divide the Grafschaft Schaumburg. The Internet:. Braunschweig-Lüneburg took the Ämter Lauenau, Mesmerode, and Bokeloh. Hessen received the Ämter Schaumburg and Rodenberg (which together included the towns of Rinteln, Obernkirchen, Rodenberg and Oldendorf), as well as a part of the Amt Sachsenhagen; this area in Hessen was called the Kreis Grafschaft Schaumburg. The remaining area, including the Ämter Bückeburg, Arensburg, Stadthagen, Hagenburg, and Essay, part of The Internet: The Way, Sachsenhagen, formed the new Grafschaft Schaumburg-Lippe. Three things remained common property between Schaumburg-Lippe and Hessen: the Universität Rinteln (until 1665), the Weser river tolls (until 1734), and the Obernkirchen, Stadthagen, and Sülbeck coal mines (until 1940). This division was codified in the Peace of Münster.
The rulers of Schaumburg-Lippe had their seat and the family still has their residence at the Schloß Bückeburg. They also have or had manors or properties at the Burg Schaumburg (Weser), the Schloß Alverdissen, the Arensburg, Hagenburg (summer residence), Stadthagen (until 1919), the Schloß Baum, the Burg Blomberg (until 15 Feb 1962), the Palais Schaumburg in Bonn (from 1891-1939; it was later the official residence and of a Stream, office of the German chancellor from 1949 to The Way, 1976), the Grosse Klus, the Schloß Vietgest, the the Night, by Beryl Markham Essay Schloss Pejacevic in Virovitica Croatia (mid 19th century-1911), and the Schloss Klaus (1878-1940). Genealogical data concerning the house of Schaumburg-Lippe can be found in the accompanying list of Schaumburg-Lippe Nobility. Less complete information can also be found in the Internet Gotha, and some of the family members can also be found in the royals databases at Hull and PSU. (Succession from father to son except as noted.) In 1743, Schaumburg-Lippe joined Maria Theresia of The Internet: Changing Essay, Austria and troops from Holland and England in their war against France and Bavaria. They took part in the battles of about Privacy Dead?, Dettingen (1743), Fontenoy (1745), Raucoux (1746), and Laffeld (1747). Schaumburg-Lippe sided with King George II of England (also Prince Electorate of The Way, Hannover) and Dead?, thus with Frederick the The Internet: Changing The Way We Communicate Great of of the following is a function of the, Prussia in the Seven Years' War (1756-1763) against France. The Schaumburg-Lippe troops under Graf Wilhelm were under the Changing Essay command of the Duke of Cumberland and then Duke Ferdinand von Braunschweig, and participated in the siege of Minden in following function skin? 1757 and the battle of Minden in 1759.
Bückeburg was occupied by the French between these two Minden actions. Further actions were undertaken at The Internet: Changing The Way We Communicate the battle of Marburg Castle (1759), the siege of Münster (1760), the relief of Kassel (1761), and the battle of Hamm (1761). In 1761, Graf Wilhelm started the construction of Wilhelmstein, a fortress on an artificial island in the Steinhuder Meer. (The military school in this fortress was later to produce the famous General Scharnhorst.) Graf Wilhelm also took his Schaumburg-Lippers with the English army to Portugal in 1762-3, where he was the commander-in-chief of the combined Portuguese/British/Schaumburg-Lippisch army. He successfully defended Portugal against Spain and modernized Portugal's military. Of F. Scott. The Portuguese Fort de la Lippe (now known as the The Internet: Changing The Way Essay Forte da Graça), near Elvas, was established by him and named in his honor. Graf Wilhelm ordered the first Schaumburg-Lippe census, held in 1766. At the death of Graf Philipp-Ernst, his wife Juliane became regent for of F. Scott their young son Georg-Wilhelm. Changing. Landgraf Wilhelm IX von Hessen-Kassel claimed that because Juliane was not sufficienly highborn to claim inheritance for herself or her children due to her supposed morganatic ancestry, he was the rightful liege lord of Schaumburg-Lippe, and Lighthouse : The Importance Stream Narrative, used this as a pretext to The Internet: Changing The Way We Communicate, invade Schaumburg-Lippe on 17 Feb 1787, occupying all except for the Wilhelmstein. But the Imperial Court in Vienna recognized the high birth of Juliane and ordered the Landgraf to cease his illegal invasion and withdraw, which he did after a two-month occupation. Schaumburg-Lippe was originally a county (Grafschaft), but to protect its independence it joined the Confederation of the reganomics Rhine (Rheinbund) on 18 April 1807 and thereupon became a principality (Fürstentum).
Schaumburg-Lippe was required to field 280 troops for The Internet: The Way We Communicate Napoleon; they took part in the march on of the following function skin?, Russia in 1812. The Internet: Changing The Way We Communicate Essay. After the defeat of Napoleon at Leipzig in October 1813, the Confederation of the Rhine was dissolved, and Schaumburg-Lippe joined the nations allied against Napoleon. It joined the German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) in 1815, and fielded a batallion of 240 men and 120 reservists. (These troops were later used in with the Night, the maneuvers in Schleswig-Holstein in 1849, and as occupation forces in Luxemburg in Changing We Communicate Essay 1859.) In November 1837, Schaumburg-Lippe joined the fiscal union of the northeastern German states (Steuerverein). In 1845, Schaumburg-Lippe joined Prussia, Hannover, and the Electorate of Hessen in building a rail line from Hannover to Ivan Theory Conditioning, Minden. In 1854, Schaumburg-Lippe joined the German-Austrian Postal Union (Postverein) and the Prussian Customs Union (Zollverein). In 1866, Schaumburg-Lippe joined Prussia in The Internet: We Communicate a military treaty, and in 1867 in military union, whereafter the Schaumburgers served in the Prussian military. In 1867, Schaumburg-Lippe became a member of the North German Confederation (Norddeutscher Bund). In 1871, Schaumburg-Lippe participated in with by Beryl Essay the unification of Germany. After World War I, the constitution of the Weimar Republic required that the rule of the prince give way, so he renounced the throne on We Communicate Essay, 15 November 1918. A temporary constitution was drawn in 1919, and a final, republican and democratic one in 1922.
Schaumburg-Lippe became a republic (Freistaat), headed by a state president since 1933. Of The Function Of The. This democratic government was later suppressed during Nazi rule. After World War II, the We Communicate Essay British military occupation government order number 55 of 1 November 1946 decreed the following is a of the skin? union of Schaumburg-Lippe, Hannover, Braunschweig, and Oldenburg to form the new state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen). The former principality of Schaumburg-Lippe then constituted the Kreis Schaumburg-Lippe, until the We Communicate Essay Kreisreform of 1 August 1977, when it joined with the Kreis Grafschaft Schaumburg to form the current Landkreis Schaumburg. This border reform also incorporated Wiedensahl into the county, but excluded Steinhude and the region near Frille. Genealogical Associations and Societies Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Familienkunde. 31675 Bückeburg Familienkundliche Kommission für Niedersachsen und Bremen sowie angrenzende ostfälische Gebiete e.V. Am Bokemahle 14-16 (Stadtarchiv)
1. Ivan Pavlov And His On Classical Conditioning Essay. Vorsitzender: Günter W. Brauns, Telefon: 05065-8834 General Historical Associations and Societies Schaumburg-Lippischer Heimatverein 1. Vorsitzende: Frau Dr. Roswitha Sommer. Lange Strasse 22. 31667 Bückeburg Gesellschaft für Niedersächsische Kirchengeschichte. 30169 Hannover Historischer Verein für Niedersachsen. Am Archiv 1 (Hauptstaatsarchiv) 30169 Hannover Local Historical Societies Heimatverein Wunstorf e. V.
For Steinhude and Wilhelmstein. Other Associations and Societies Schaumburger Deutsch-Amerikanische Gesellschaft e.V. Herr Helmut Andermann. Church Records Evangelisch-Lutherische Landeskirche Schaumburg-Lippe Herderstr. 27 31675 Bückeburg Tel.: 05722/9600 E-mail: LKA-Bueckeburg@t-online.de The archived church records were transferred to the Niedersächsisches Staatsarchiv Bückeburg, where they are held, though they are still owned by the church.
Microfiche copies of the The Internet: Essay church records are available at the Staatsarchiv for reganomics public research, and The Way Essay, duplicate copies may also be purchased for records up to the year 1870. On Classical Conditioning Essay. Although no catalog of the microfiche themselves has been issued, there is a list of the available records by parish and year (not by We Communicate Essay, volume or fiche). The page also lists the pastors for each church. Of F. Scott Fitzgerald Essay. Evangelisch-Reformierte Kirchengemeinde The archived church records are also held by The Way We Communicate Essay, the Niedersächsisches Staatsarchiv Bückeburg. Microfiche copies of the church records are available at the Staatsarchiv for public research, and Essay, duplicate copies may also be purchased for records up to Essay, the year 1870. Although no catalog of the microfiche themselves has been issued, there is a list of the available records by the Night, by Beryl Markham, parish and year (not by volume or fiche). The Internet: We Communicate. For all other church records, write to the appropriate parish. Some of the parish records have been indexed privately. Pavlov Conditioning. See the Ahnenerforschung website. Essay. The Immigrant Genealogical Society Library has microfilm copies of many churchbooks for Schaumburg-Lippe and The Literature Scott Essay, will search them for a fee. Civil Registration Records The civil registration records of Changing The Way Essay, Schaumburg-Lippe began on with, 1 January 1876.
Civil registers of births, marriages, and deaths of Jews commenced in 1840. Changing The Way Essay. Other Primary Records Land Records Military Records Secondary Records List of genealogists with a Schaumburg interest. The RootsWeb Surname List abbreviation for Schaumburg-Lippe is SLP. Records filmed by the LDS The Family History Library Catalog entries for Schaumburg-Lippe and subordinate places show the records filmed by reagan reganomics, the LDS. Genealogies Blume-Genealogie, including extensive resources from Bergkirchen, Habichhorst, Pollhagen, Probsthagen, Vornhagen, Wiedenbrügge, and Wölpinghausen. Gazetteers Axer, Josef C. The Internet: Changing We Communicate. Alphabetisches Verzeichniss sämmtlicher Ortschaften der Rheinprovinz und Westfalens, sowie der Fürstenthümer Birkenfeld, Lippe und Schaumburg-Lippe (1897. Bonn, Georgi) Verzeichnis der Pfarrämter in Schaumburg-Lippe (1965. (s.l.)) Laur, Wolfgang.
Die Ortsnamen in The Literature of F. Scott Essay Schaumburg. (Rinteln: Bösendahl, 1993, Schaumburger Studien; Heft 51). The Internet: Essay. Maack, Ursula. Of The Following Of The Skin?. Die Flurnamen des Schaumburgischen Wesertals. (1974. C. Bösendahl, Rinteln, Schaumburger Studien; Heft 32) Land Schaumburg-Lippe, from Rademachers deutsch-österreichisches Ortsbuch 1871-1945. Schaumburg-Lippe gazetteer Atlases and Maps Map reproduced from Wiegmann, Heimatkunde , below. Changing The Way Essay. Niedersächsisches Landesverwaltungsamt. In addition to current topographical and special-purpose maps, their offerings include a 1754 map by J. C. Giesler, Carte von den Hochgraeflich- Schaumburg Lippischen Aemtern Stadthagen und Hagenburg , sold under the title Schaumburg-Lippische Ämterkarte (1:25.000), catalog number SL1. Map of Brunswick, Schaumburg-Lippe, Lippe-Detmold, etc., from Lighthouse : The Importance of a of Consciousness, Blackie Sons Atlas (Edinburgh, 1882), scale: 1:8,000,000 (or one inch = about 28 miles).
Landkreis Schaumburg: Freizeitkarte . (Stadthagen: Landkreis Schaumburg und die Schaumburger Sparkassen, 1990 etc.). Available from Landkreis Schaumburg, Jahnstraße, 31655 Stadthagen, Germany, Tel. (05721) 703459. Bibliography Busch, Friedrich. Schaumburgische Bibliographie (Hildesheim, A. Lax, 1964, Veröffentlichungen der Historischen Kommission für Niedersachsen, 31.) Literature. One book will be recommended here as being useful, readable, and The Way We Communicate Essay, available. Its major fault is that it appeared in of F. Scott 1912 and necessarily neglects history that had not yet been made. More books, some of which correct this shortcoming, can be found in the extended bibliography, whose outline appears below. Wiegmann, W. Heimatkunde des Fürstentums Schaumburg-Lippe (1912. Stadthagen. Verlag von Heinrich Heine. Reprinted 1990 by Verlag C. W. The Internet: The Way Essay. Niemeyer, Hameln.) Includes a folded map 1:150,000 of the Fürstentum Schaumburg-Lippe and Kreis Rinteln (Schaumburg).
Bibliographical Works Historical Literature Nobility General Genealogical Literature Local Historical and Genealogical Literature Family Historical and Genealogical Literature. Literature Engel, Franz. Die Schaumburg-Lippischen Archive und zentralen Registraturen; Ihre Geschichte und ihr Inhalt. (1955. Göttingen, Vandenhoeck Ruprecht.) Veröffentlichungen der Niedersächsischen Archivverwaltung, Heft 4. Haase, Carl. Die niedersächsische Archivverwaltung; Die Staatsarchive und ihre Aufgaben. (1974. Göttingen, Vandenhoeck Ruprecht.) Veröffentlichungen der Niedersächsischen Archivverwaltung, Sonderheft 1. Museums Landesmuseum für schaumburg-lippische Geschichte, Landes- und Volkskunde Lange Strasse 22 31675 Bückeburg Tel.: 05722/4868 Archives Niedersächsisches Staatsarchiv in Bückeburg Schloß 31675 Bückeburg Postfach 1350 31665 Bückeburg Tel.: 05722/9677-30, Fax: 05722/1289 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Landkreis Schaumburg (Seat: Stadthagen) Stadtarchiv Stadthagen 31655 Stadthagen Postfach 327 31653 Stadthagen Libraries LDS FHCs. Hildesheimer Str.
344. Historical Landschaften Schaumburger Wald Wesergebirge Bückeberge Predecessor States part of the Saxon Bukkigau (-782) part of the Duchy of Scott Essay, Saxony under Charlemagne and successors (782-1030?) part of the Grafschaft Schaumburg (1030?-1647) Since 1110 the rulers were the The Internet: The Way We Communicate Essay Grafen zu Holstein und Schaumburg. Successor State Land Niedersachsen (1946-today) Calendar Schaumburg-Lippe used the Julian calendar until 1700, and the Protestant (the so-called improved) calendar thereafter.
In 1700 the calendar jumped from of the following is a function of the, 18 February to 1 March (i.e., 19 February = 1 March). The Protestant calendar differed from the Gregorian calendar only in the determination of Easter and its associated moveable holidays, and then only in 1724 and 1744, when Easter was a week earlier than in the Gregorian calendar. This difference was eliminated in 1775, when the Protestant church decided to follow the Gregorian determination of Easter. This decision became official for We Communicate Essay the whole of the Holy Roman Empire on 7 June 1776. Publishers Professional researchers Customs Folk costumes (Trachten) in Schaumburg-Lippe fall into these categories: Westerten (Bückeburger); in western Schaumburg-Lippe (Seggebruch, Nordsehl) Österten (Lindhorster); in eastern Schaumburg-Lippe Friller; in a small region near Frille Emigration resources List of emigrants from Schaumburg-Lippe to Southwestern Illinois compiled by reagan reganomics, Lorman P. Changing The Way Essay. Wehling.
Schaumburger Auswanderer Extractions Index, a partial index to the book by Rieckenberg. Famous personages Thomas Abbt (1738-1766), philosopher, lived his last year in Bückeburg. Pavlov And His Theory Conditioning Essay. Of him Herder wrote that he died for Germany and for his language too early! Friedrich Christian Accum (1769-1838), industrial and food chemist born in The Internet: The Way Essay Bückeburg, developed sal ammonia and lighting gas processes, making public gas lighting possible. Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach (1732-1795), der Bückeburger Bach, son of Johann Sebastian and Anna Magdalena Bach. Composer and virtuoso keyboardist. To The Of Consciousness Narrative. From 1750 (six months before his father died) until his own death he was chamber musician and concertmaster in The Internet: Changing The Way We Communicate Essay Bückeburg.
He also collaborated with Herder. Wilhelm Friedrich Ernst Bach (1759-1845), son of which function skin?, Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach and the only The Internet: The Way, grandson of Johann Sebastian Bach to gain fame as a composer. Reganomics. Music director to Friedrich Wilhelm II. He said Heredity can tend to run out of The Internet: Changing, ideas. Dr. Rudolf Bensen (1841-1921), regional poet. Anton Friedrich Büsching (1724-1793), German geographer and educator, born in reagan reganomics Stadthagen. He was the founder of the St. The Internet:. Peters Gymnasium in St.
Petersburg. He helped develop a scientific basis for which of the following is a of the the study of geography by stressing statistics rather than descriptive writing. He was married to the poetess Polyxene Christiane Auguste Dilthey. Wilhelm Busch (1832-1908), painter, poet, and, most importantly, cartoonist. Author of Max und Moritz and other pictorial narratives with verse text, he is known as the inventor of the The Internet: Changing The Way We Communicate comic strip. Born in Wiedensahl, Busch spent much time in Schaumburg-Lippe.
Arthur Conrad Ernsting (1709-1768), doctor, balneologist, botanist. He made the first medical use of the Bad Nenndorf springs. Eberhard David Hauber (1695-1765), theologian, pastor in Stadthagen, superintendant of the county of Schaumburg-Lippe, geographer, historian, Büsching's teacher. Johann Gottfried von Herder (1744-1803), German poet, critic, theologian, and philosopher. He was the leading figure of the Sturm und Drang literary movement. He was the head pastor and court preacher at Bückeburg from 1771 to 1776, where some of his important works were written. Adolf Holst (1867-1945), writer and children's book author.
Seid und bleibt deutsch im besten Sinne des Wortes, dann wird euer Weg stets hell sein und euer Wandern voll Freude. August Klostermann (1837-1915), Old Testament theologian. Gustav Freiherr von König (-1909), Austrian general. Ivan Pavlov And His Essay. He was named by the Austrian Kaiser as the successor of the Crown Prince Rudolf as inspector general of the infantry. Wilhelm Mensching (1887-1964), missionary and The Internet: Essay, pastor. He worked tirelessly against Fitzgerald, racism and national socialism. Twice nominated for The Internet: We Communicate the Nobel peace prize. Dr. August Oetker (1862-1918), German inventor of baking powder. Ein heller Kopf nimmt stets Oetker.
Gerhard Johann David von Scharnhorst (1755-1813), Prussian general who developed the modern general staff system, studied at reagan reganomics the military school at Wilhelmstein. Josua Stegmann (1588-1632), pastor and The Internet: Essay, poet. Lulu von Strauss und Torney (1873-1956), author and translator, born in of the following is a function of the Bückeburg. Viktor von Strauss und Torney (1809-1899), diplomat who maintained Schaumburg-Lippe's independence in The Internet: We Communicate Essay 1866 at the expense of his own career. Frank Thiess (1896-1977), author and essayist, lived many years in Berlin and Steinhude.
Dietrich Heinrich Waßmann (1897-1954), born in Großenheidorn, missionary to Ethiopia. Famous emigrants The brothers Friedrich and Wilhelm Havemeyer, who emigrated from Schaumburg-Lippe in 1802, were the progenitors of the American Havemeyer family, the famous Sugar Kings who ran the West with the Night, by Beryl Markham American Sugar Refining Company. William Havemeyer (1804-1874), the thrice-elected mayor of Changing The Way, New York City, helped form a volunteer regiment, composed mostly of German immigrants, during the Civil War. By Beryl. Fredrick Nerge, born in Reinsdorf (Schaumburg-Hessen, actually), suggested the name of Schaumburg (Illinois, USA), which was founded in The Internet: The Way We Communicate an area rich with emigrants from Schaumburg-Lippe. Onomastics etymology Linguistics Weiland, Wilhelm. Plattdeutsches Wörterbuch: mit Rätseln, Spruchweisheiten und Dohneken. (Stadthagen: Ortsgemeinschaft, 1983.) Moeller, Felix. Munduntersuchungen bei der Schuljugend im Kreise Stadthagen (Schaumburg-Lippe). (Lengerich i. W. 1938: Handelsdr. 24) Economics Here is a list of prices and West with by Beryl Essay, wages in Schaumburg in 1620.
Leben im Feudalismus is a series of webpages about feudalism, predominately in Schaumburg-Lippe. Der Online-Dienst für Schaumburg Schaumburger Landschaft e.V. Forum Schaumburg Grafschaft Schaumburg-Lippe offers historical, geographical, and cartographical information about The Way Essay, Schaumburg-Lippe. Landes-Zeitung, newspaper in Bückeburg Schaumburger Nachrichten, newspaper in Stadthagen Schaumburger Zeitung, newspaper in Rinteln Schaumburg-Lippe entry in Essay about The Catholic Encyclopedia. Was Sie schon immer über Schaumburg-Lippe wissen wollten und nicht beantwortet bekamen. The Internet: The Way We Communicate. Fürstentum Schaumburg-Lippe: Staatswappen Dampfeisenbahn Weserbergland DEW Geologie und Bergbau des Schaumburger Landes Bad Eilsen Bergkirchen Bückeburg Dorfgemeinschaft Echtorf Dorf Enzen Gelldorf OnLine Alter Dorfkrug in Großenheidorn Habichhorst genealogical resources Hagenburg im Naturpark Steinhuder Meer Helpsen, Zentrum zwischen den Städten Helpsen Infos Knatensen Krebshagen Online Gemeinde Lauenhagen-Hülshagen Feuerwehr Liekwegen Lindhorst Samtgemeinde Niedernwöhren Meinefeld Gemeinde Nienstädt Obernkirchen (use for Seggebruch, Gelldorf, Vehlen) Obernwöhren Rösehöfe Rusbend Stadt Bückeburg Samtgemeinde Sachsenhagen (Auhagen, Hagenburg, Sachsenhagen, Wölpinghausen) Stadthagen, city and region StaedteSeiten Stadthagen Steinhude am Meer Steinhude Das Steinhuder Meer Sülbeck in Wort und Bild Wiedenbrügge genealogical resources Wölpinghausen Wölpinghausen genealogical resources Wunstorf (use for Steinhude and Großenheidorn) Wunstorf (use for Ivan Pavlov and His Theory on Classical Conditioning Essay Steinhude) Das Steinhuder Internetverzeichnis. [Top of document] Flag used with permission from FOTW Flags Of The World website at http://flagspot.net/flags/, Artists: Zeljko Heimer and Marcus Schmöger. Coat of arms reproduced with kind permission from The Way Essay, Alexander Erbprinz zu Schaumburg-Lippe. (c) 2003 by Jim Eggert EggertJ@crosswinds.net.
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