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Skills of an eu, Effective Administrator. Although the selection and training of good administrators is widely recognized as one of American industrys most pressing problems, there is surprisingly little agreement among executives or educators on what makes a good administrator. The executive development programs of War of Century: The Iran-Iraq some of the nations leading corporations and disadvantages eu colleges reflect a tremendous variation in objectives. At the The Iran-Iraq War Essay root of this difference is eu industrys search for the traits or attributes which will objectively identify the The Iran-Iraq War Essay ideal executive who is equipped to cope effectively with any problem in any organization. As one observer of U.S. industry recently noted: The assumption that there is an executive type is of the eu widely accepted, either openly or implicitly.

Yet any executive presumably knows that a company needs all kinds of managers for magic theory, different levels of jobs. The qualities most needed by a shop superintendent are likely to be quite opposed to those needed by disadvantages of the, a coordinating vice president of manufacturing. The literature of executive development is loaded with efforts to define the qualities needed by executives, and by themselves these sound quite rational. Examples! Few, for instance, would dispute the fact that a top manager needs good judgment, the ability to of the make decisions, the ability to win respect of others, and all the other well-worn phrases any management man could mention. But one has only to look at the successful managers in any company to see how enormously their particular qualities vary from any ideal list of executive virtues. 1. Yet this quest for the executive stereotype has become so intense that many companies, in concentrating on certain specific traits or qualities, stand in danger of losing sight of their real concern: what a man can accomplish . It is the purpose of this article to suggest what may be a more useful approach to the selection and development of administrators.

This approach is based not on what good executives are (their innate traits and characteristics), but rather on what they do (the kinds of skills which they exhibit in carrying out their jobs effectively). As used here, a skill implies an ability which can be developed, not necessarily inborn, and which is manifested in performance, not merely in potential. So the principal criterion of skillfulness must be effective action under varying conditions. This approach suggests that effective administration rests on three basic developable skills which obviate the need for identifying specific traits and which may provide a useful way of looking at and understanding the administrative process. This approach is the outgrowth of firsthand observation of dawkins wife executives at work coupled with study of current field research in administration. In the sections which follow, an attempt will be made to define and demonstrate what these three skills are; to suggest that the relative importance of the three skills varies with the level of administrative responsibility; to present some of the implications of this variation for selection, training, and of the eu promotion of executives; and to propose ways of developing these skills. It is assumed here that an administrator is one who (a) directs the on The Criticism activities of disadvantages of the eu other persons and (b) undertakes the The Holocaust examples responsibility for achieving certain objectives through these efforts. Within this definition, successful administration appears to rest on disadvantages, three basic skills, which we will call technical, human, and conceptual . It would be unrealistic to assert that these skills are not interrelated, yet there may be real merit in examining each one separately, and in developing them independently. As used here, technical skill implies an understanding of, and proficiency in, a specific kind of activity, particularly one involving methods, processes, procedures, or techniques. It is relatively easy for us to visualize the technical skill of the surgeon, the musician, the accountant, or the engineer when each is performing his own special function. Technical skill involves specialized knowledge, analytical ability within that specialty, and bullet theory facility in the use of the tools and techniques of the specific discipline.

Of the disadvantages of the eu three skills described in this article, technical skill is perhaps the most familiar because it is the most concrete, and because, in our age of specialization, it is the skill required of the greatest number of Noise Analysis people. Disadvantages Of The Eu! Most of our vocational and on-the-job training programs are largely concerned with developing this specialized technical skill. As used here, human skill is the executives ability to work effectively as a group member and to build cooperative effort within the team he leads. As technical skill is primarily concerned with working with things (processes or physical objects), so human skill is examples primarily concerned with working with people. This skill is demonstrated in the way the individual perceives (and recognizes the perceptions of) his superiors, equals, and subordinates, and in the way he behaves subsequently. The person with highly developed human skill is aware of his own attitudes, assumptions, and beliefs about disadvantages, other individuals and groups; he is able to see the usefulness and limitations of The Iran-Iraq War Essay these feelings.

By accepting the disadvantages of the eu existence of viewpoints, perceptions, and Essay examples beliefs which are different from his own, he is skilled in understanding what others really mean by their words and behavior. He is equally skillful in communicating to others, in their own contexts, what he means by his behavior. Such a person works to create an atmosphere of approval and security in which subordinates feel free to disadvantages express themselves without fear of censure or ridicule, by encouraging them to participate in The Longest Century: War Essay the planning and carrying out of those things which directly affect them. He is sufficiently sensitive to the needs and motivations of others in of the eu his organization so that he can judge the possible reactions to, and outcomes of, various courses of action he may undertake. Having this sensitivity, he is able and The Longest War of the Twentieth The Iran-Iraq willing to eu act in a way which takes these perceptions by others into account.

Real skill in working with others must become a natural, continuous activity, since it involves sensitivity not only at times of The Longest the Twentieth Century: The Iran-Iraq War Essay decision making but also in the day-by-day behavior of the individual. Human skill cannot be a sometime thing. Techniques cannot be randomly applied, nor can personality traits be put on or removed like an overcoat. Because everything which an executive says and does (or leaves unsaid or undone) has an effect on of the eu, his associates, his true self will, in time, show through. Thus, to be effective, this skill must be naturally developed and unconsciously, as well as consistently, demonstrated in the individuals every action. Essay About Cancelling Headphones Analysis! It must become an integral part of his whole being. Because human skill is so vital a part of of the everything the administrator does, examples of inadequate human skill are easier to describe than are highly skillful performances. Perhaps consideration of an actual situation would serve to clarify what is War of Century: The Iran-Iraq involved: When a new conveyor unit was installed in a shoe factory where workers had previously been free to determine their own work rate, the disadvantages of the production manager asked the industrial engineer who had designed the 1970's computer conveyor to disadvantages of the eu serve as foreman, even though a qualified foreman was available.

The engineer, who reported directly to the production manager, objected, but under pressure he agreed to take the job until a suitable foreman could be found, even though this was a job of lower status than his present one. Then this conversation took place: Production Manager: Ive had a lot of Power Criticism experience with conveyors. Disadvantages Of The! I want you to keep this conveyor going at Essay about Headphones, all times except for rest periods, and I want it going at top speed. Get these people thinking in terms of 2 pairs of shoes a minute, 70 dozen pairs a day, 350 dozen pairs a week. Disadvantages Eu! They are all experienced operators on their individual jobs, and its just a matter of getting them to do their jobs in a little different way. I want you to make that base rate of 250 dozen pair a week work! [Base rate was established at slightly under 75 % of the maximum capacity. This base rate was 50 % higher than under the old system.]

Engineer: If Im going to be foreman of the richard conveyor unit, I want to do things my way. Ive worked on conveyors, and disadvantages of the eu I dont agree with you on first getting people used to magic bullet theory a conveyor going at eu, top speed. These people have never seen a conveyor. Youll scare them. Id like to run the Essay about Noise Headphones Analysis conveyor at eu, one-third speed for a couple of weeks and bullet theory then gradually increase the speed. I think we should discuss setting the base rate [production quota before incentive bonus] on a daily basis instead of a weekly basis. Disadvantages Of The Eu! [Workers had previously been paid on Power of Negative Criticism, a daily straight piecework basis.] Id also suggest setting a daily base rate at 45 or even 40 dozen pair. You have to set a base rate low enough for them to make. Once they know they can make the disadvantages of the base rate, they will go after the bonus. Production Manager: You do it your way on Essay, the speed; but remember its the results that count. On the base rate, Im not discussing it with you; Im telling you to make the 250 dozen pair a week work.

I dont want a daily base rate. 2. Here is a situation in which the disadvantages production manager was so preoccupied with getting the physical output that he did not pay attention to the people through whom that output had to be achieved. Notice, first, that he made the engineer who designed the unit serve as foreman, apparently hoping to Essay Headphones Analysis force the engineer to justify his design by producing the maximum output. Eu! However, the production manager was oblivious to (a) the way the engineer perceived this appointment, as a demotion, and (b) the need for the engineer to be able to richard wife control the variables if he was to be held responsible for maximum output. Instead the of the eu production manager imposed a production standard and refused to bullet theory make any changes in the work situation. Moreover, although this was a radically new situation for the operators, the production manager expected them to produce immediately at disadvantages, well above their previous outputeven though the operators had an unfamiliar production system to 1970's computer cope with, the operators had never worked together as a team before, the operators and of the eu their new foreman had never worked together before, and the foreman was not in agreement with the production goals or standards. By ignoring all these human factors, the production manager not only placed the 1970's computer engineer in an extremely difficult operating situation but also, by refusing to allow the engineer to run his own show, discouraged the very assumption of responsibility he had hoped for in making the appointment. Under these circumstances, it is easy to of the eu understand how the relationship between these two men rapidly deteriorated, and how production, after two months operation, was at theory, only 125 dozen pairs per of the eu week (just 75 % of what the output had been under the 1970's computer old system). As used here, conceptual skill involves the ability to see the disadvantages of the enterprise as a whole; it includes recognizing how the various functions of the organization depend on Essay, one another, and how changes in any one part affect all the others; and it extends to visualizing the relationship of the individual business to the industry, the community, and disadvantages of the eu the political, social, and economic forces of the The Longest War of the Twentieth nation as a whole.

Recognizing these relationships and perceiving the significant elements in any situation, the administrator should then be able to of the act in a way which advances the over-all welfare of the theory media total organization. Hence, the success of any decision depends on disadvantages of the eu, the conceptual skill of the people who make the Headphones decision and those who put it into action. When, for disadvantages of the, example, an important change in dawkins marketing policy is made, it is critical that the effects on production, control, finance, research, and the people involved be considered. And it remains critical right down to the last executive who must implement the of the new policy. If each executive recognizes the over-all relationships and Essay on The of Negative Criticism significance of the change, he is almost certain to be more effective in administering it.

Consequently the chances for succeeding are greatly increased. Not only does the effective coordination of the various parts of the business depend on the conceptual skill of the administrators involved, but so also does the whole future direction and tone of the organization. The attitudes of disadvantages of the eu a top executive color the whole character of the organizations response and The Longest Century: The Iran-Iraq determine the corporate personality which distinguishes one companys ways of doing business from anothers. These attitudes are a reflection of the administrators conceptual skill (referred to by some as his creative abilitythe way he perceives and responds to the direction in which the business should grow, company objectives and policies, and stockholders and employees interests. Conceptual skill, as defined above, is of the what Chester I. Barnard, former president of the New Jersey Bell Telephone Company, is implying when he says: the essential aspect of the [executive] process is the sensing of the organization as a whole and Essay about Noise Analysis of the disadvantages of the total situation relevant to 1970's computer it. 3 Examples of inadequate conceptual skill are all around us. Here is one instance: In a large manufacturing company which had a long tradition of job-shop type operations, primary responsibility for production control had been left to the foremen and other lower-level supervisors. Of The Eu! Village type operations with small working groups and informal organizations were the wife rule. A heavy influx of orders following World War II tripled the normal production requirements and severely taxed the whole manufacturing organization.

At this point, a new production manager was brought in from outside the eu company, and richard dawkins wife he established a wide range of controls and disadvantages of the eu formalized the entire operating structure. As long as the boom demand lasted, the employees made every effort to War of the Twentieth The Iran-Iraq conform with the new procedures and environment. But when demand subsided to prewar levels, serious labor relations problems developed, friction was high among department heads, and the company found itself saddled with a heavy indirect labor cost. Management sought to of the eu reinstate its old procedures; it fired the production manager and attempted to give greater authority to the foremen once again. However, during the four years of formalized control, the foremen had grown away from Essay on The Power their old practices, many had left the company, and adequate replacements had not been developed. Without strong foreman leadership, the traditional job-shop operations proved costly and inefficient. In this instance, when the new production controls and formalized organizations were introduced, management did not foresee the consequences of this action in eu the event of a future contraction of business. Essay On The Power Of Negative Criticism! Later, when conditions changed and it was necessary to of the pare down operations, management was again unable to recognize the implications of its action and reverted to the old procedures, which, under the circumstances, were no longer appropriate.

This compounded conceptual inadequacy left the company at a serious competitive disadvantage. Because a companys over-all success is dependent on its executives conceptual skill in establishing and The Longest War of the Twentieth carrying out policy decisions, this skill is the unifying, coordinating ingredient of the administrative process, and disadvantages of the eu of undeniable over-all importance. We may notice that, in a very real sense, conceptual skill embodies consideration of both the Essay on The of Negative Criticism technical and human aspects of the organization. Yet the concept of disadvantages of the skill, as an ability to translate knowledge into action, should enable one to distinguish between the three skills of performing the technical activities (technical skill), understanding and motivating individuals and groups (human skill), and coordinating and integrating all the activities and interests of the organization toward a common objective (conceptual skill). This separation of effective administration into three basic skills is useful primarily for purposes of analysis.

In practice, these skills are so closely interrelated that it is bullet difficult to determine where one ends and of the eu another begins. However, just because the skills are interrelated does not imply that we cannot get some value from looking at them separately, or by varying their emphasis. In playing golf the action of the hands, wrists, hips, shoulders, arms, and head are all interrelated; yet in improving ones swing it is often valuable to work on one of these elements separately. Also, under different playing conditions the relative importance of these elements varies. Similarly, although all three are of importance at every level of administration, the technical, human, and conceptual skills of the administrator vary in relative importance at different levels of responsibility. Technical skill is responsible for many of the great advances of modern industry. It is indispensable to efficient operation. Yet it has greatest importance at the lower levels of administration. As the administrator moves further and further from the Essay on The actual physical operation, this need for technical skill becomes less important, provided he has skilled subordinates and disadvantages eu can help them solve their own problems. At the 1970's computer top, technical skill may be almost nonexistent, and the executive may still be able to perform effectively if his human and eu conceptual skills are highly developed.

For example: In one large capital-goods producing company, the controller was called on to replace the manufacturing vice president, who had been stricken suddenly with a severe illness. The controller had no previous production experience, but he had been with the company for more than 20 years and knew many of the key production personnel intimately. By setting up an advisory staff, and by delegating an unusual amount of authority to The Longest War of the Twentieth his department heads, he was able to of the eu devote himself to coordination of the various functions. By so doing, he produced a highly efficient team. The results were lower costs, greater productivity, and higher morale than the production division had ever before experienced. Management had gambled that this mans ability to work with people was more important than his lack of a technical production background, and the gamble paid off. Other examples are evident all around us. 1970's Computer! We are all familiar with those professional managers who are becoming the prototypes of our modern executive world.

These men shift with great ease, and with no apparent loss in disadvantages of the effectiveness, from one industry to another. Their human and conceptual skills seem to make up for their unfamiliarity with the new jobs technical aspects. Human skill, the ability to work with others, is essential to effective administration at every level. One recent research study has shown that human skill is of paramount importance at the foreman level, pointing out that the chief function of the foreman as an The Longest The Iran-Iraq War Essay, administrator is to attain collaboration of people in the work group. 4 Another study reinforces this finding and extends it to the middle-management group, adding that the administrator should be primarily concerned with facilitating communication in disadvantages the organization. 5 And still another study, concerned primarily with top management, underscores the need for media, self-awareness and sensitivity to human relationships by executives at that level. 6 These findings would tend to eu indicate that human skill is richard dawkins wife of great importance at every level, but notice the difference in disadvantages emphasis. Human skill seems to Noise Headphones Analysis be most important at lower levels, where the number of of the eu direct contacts between administrators and subordinates is 1970's computer greatest. As we go higher and higher in the administrative echelons, the number and frequency of these personal contacts decrease, and the need for human skill becomes proportionately, although probably not absolutely, less.

At the same time, conceptual skill becomes increasingly more important with the need for policy decisions and disadvantages broad-scale action. The human skill of Essay Cancelling Headphones Analysis dealing with individuals then becomes subordinate to the conceptual skill of integrating group interests and of the eu activities into a whole. In fact, a recent research study by bullet, Professor Chris Argyris of Yale University has given us the example of an extremely effective plant manager who, although possessing little human skill as defined here, was nonetheless very successful: This manager, the head of a largely autonomous division, made his supervisors, through the effects of of the his strong personality and Power of Negative the pressure he applied, highly dependent on him for most of their rewards, penalties, authority, perpetuation, communication, and of the eu identification. As a result, the supervisors spent much of their time competing with one another for the managers favor. They told him only the things they thought he wanted to 1970's computer hear, and spent much time trying to find out his desires. Disadvantages Of The Eu! They depended on him to set their objectives and to Essay show them how to reach them. Because the of the eu manager was inconsistent and unpredictable in his behavior, the 1970's computer supervisors were insecure and continually engaged in interdepartmental squabbles which they tried to keep hidden from the of the manager. Clearly, human skill as defined here was lacking. Yet, by the evaluation of his superiors and by his results in increasing efficiency and raising profits and morale, this manager was exceedingly effective. Professor Argyris suggests that employees in modern industrial organizations tend to have a built-in sense of dependence on superiors which capable and Power Criticism alert men can turn to advantage.

7. In the disadvantages of the context of the three-skill approach, it seems that this manager was able to capitalize on this dependence because he recognized the interrelationships of all the 1970's computer activities under his control, identified himself with the organization, and sublimated the individual interests of his subordinates to his (the organizations) interest, set his goals realistically, and showed his subordinates how to reach these goals. This would seem to be an excellent example of a situation in eu which strong conceptual skill more than compensated for a lack of human skill. Conceptual skill, as indicated in the preceding sections, becomes increasingly critical in more responsible executive positions where its effects are maximized and most easily observed. In fact, recent research findings lead to the conclusion that at the top level of administration this conceptual skill becomes the most important ability of The Holocaust Essay examples all. As Herman W. Disadvantages Of The Eu! Steinkraus, president of Bridgeport Brass Company, said: One of the most important lessons which I learned on this job [the presidency] is the importance of coordinating the various departments into an effective team, and, secondly, to recognize the shifting emphasis from time to time of the relative importance of various departments to of Negative Criticism the business. 8.

It would appear, then, that at lower levels of administrative responsibility, the principal need is for disadvantages, technical and human skills. At higher levels, technical skill becomes relatively less important while the on The of Negative need for conceptual skill increases rapidly. At the of the eu top level of an organization, conceptual skill becomes the most important skill of all for successful administration. Essay On The Criticism! A chief executive may lack technical or human skills and still be effective if he has subordinates who have strong abilities in these directions. Of The! But if his conceptual skill is weak, the success of the whole organization may be jeopardized. This three-skill approach implies that significant benefits may result from redefining the objectives of executive development programs, from reconsidering the placement of executives in organizations, and from revising procedures for testing and selecting prospective executives. Many executive development programs may be failing to achieve satisfactory results because of their inability to foster the growth of these administrative skills. Programs which concentrate on 1970's computer, the mere imparting of information or the cultivation of a specific trait would seem to of the be largely unproductive in enhancing the administrative skills of candidates.

A strictly informative program was described to wife me recently by an officer and director of a large corporation who had been responsible for the executive-development activities of his company, as follows: What we try to do is to disadvantages eu get our promising young men together with some of our senior executives in regular meetings each month. Noise Cancelling Headphones Analysis! Then we give the young fellows a chance to of the ask questions to let them find out 1970's computer, about the companys history and how and why weve done things in the past. It was not surprising that neither the senior executives nor the young men felt this program was improving their administrative abilities. The futility of disadvantages of the eu pursuing specific traits becomes apparent when we consider the responses of an administrator in richard wife a number of different situations. In coping with these varied conditions, he may appear to demonstrate one trait in of the eu one instancee.g., dominance when dealing with subordinatesand the directly opposite trait under another set of circumstancese.g., submissiveness when dealing with superiors. Yet in each instance he may be acting appropriately to achieve the best results. Which, then, can we identify as a desirable characteristic?

Here is a further example of 1970's computer this dilemma: A Pacific Coast sales manager had a reputation for disadvantages, decisiveness and positive action. Yet when he was required to name an assistant to understudy his job from among several well-qualified subordinates, he deliberately avoided making a decision. His associates were quick to observe what appeared to be obvious indecisiveness. But after several months had passed, it became clear that the sales manager had very unobtrusively been giving the on The Power Criticism various salesmen opportunities to disadvantages of the demonstrate their attitudes and feelings. As a result, he was able to identify strong sentiments for one man whose subsequent promotion was enthusiastically accepted by the entire group. In this instance, the Power of Negative Criticism sales managers skillful performance was improperly interpreted as indecisiveness. Their concern with irrelevant traits led his associates to overlook the adequacy of disadvantages eu his performance. Would it not have been more appropriate to conclude that his human skill in on The Power Criticism working with others enabled him to adapt effectively to the requirements of a new situation? Cases such as these would indicate that it is more useful to judge an disadvantages, administrator on the results of his performance than on his apparent traits. Skills are easier to identify than are traits and are less likely to be misinterpreted. Furthermore, skills offer a more directly applicable frame of reference for executive development, since any improvement in an administrators skills must necessarily result in more effective performance.

Still another danger in many existing executive development programs lies in the unqualified enthusiasm with which some companies and colleges have embraced courses in human relations. There would seem to be two inherent pitfalls here: (1) Human relations courses might only be imparting information or specific techniques, rather than developing the individuals human skill. (2) Even if individual development does take place, some companies, by placing all of their emphasis on human skill, may be completely overlooking the training requirements for top positions. They may run the risk of about Analysis producing men with highly developed human skill who lack the conceptual ability to be effective top-level administrators. It would appear important, then, that the training of a candidate for of the eu, an administrative position be directed at War of, the development of of the those skills which are most needed at the level of responsibility for which he is being considered. This three-skill concept suggests immediate possibilities for the creating of 1970's computer management teams of disadvantages of the individuals with complementary skills. For example, one medium-size midwestern distributing organization has as president a man of unusual conceptual ability but extremely limited human skill. However, he has two vice presidents with exceptional human skill. These three men make up an executive committee which has been outstandingly successful, the richard dawkins skills of each member making up for deficiencies of the others.

Perhaps the disadvantages of the plan of two-man complementary conference leadership proposed by Robert F. Bales, in which the one leader maintains task leadership while the other provides social leadership, might also be an example in point. 9. In trying to predetermine a prospective candidates abilities on a job, much use is being made these days of various kinds of testing devices. Executives are being tested for everything from decisiveness to conformity. These tests, as a recent article in Essay Noise Cancelling Fortune points out, have achieved some highly questionable results when applied to performance on the job. 10 Would it not be much more productive to be concerned with skills of doing rather than with a number of traits which do not guarantee performance ? This three-skill approach makes trait testing gun necessary and substitutes for it procedures which examine a mans ability to cope with the actual problems and situations he will find on his job.

These procedures, which indicate what a man can do in specific situations, are the same for selection and for measuring development. They will be described in the section on developing executive skills which follows. This approach suggests that executives should not be chosen on the basis of their apparent possession of a number of behavior characteristics or traits, but on of the, the basis of their possession of the requisite skills for the specific level of responsibility involved. For years many people have contended that leadership ability is inherent in certain chosen individuals. Examples! We talk of disadvantages of the born leaders, born executives, born salesmen. It is undoubtedly true that certain people, naturally or innately, possess greater aptitude or ability in certain skills. But research in psychology and physiology would also indicate, first, that those having strong aptitudes and abilities can improve their skill through practice and The Holocaust training, and, secondly, that even those lacking the natural ability can improve their performance and over-all effectiveness. The skill conception of administration suggests that we may hope to improve our administrative effectiveness and to develop better administrators for the future. This skill conception implies learning by doing . Different people learn in of the eu different ways, but skills are developed through practice and magic bullet theory through relating learning to ones own personal experience and background. If well done, training in these basic administrative skills should develop executive abilities more surely and more rapidly than through unorganized experience.

What, then, are some of the ways in which this training can be conducted? Development of technical skill has received great attention for many years by industry and educational institutions alike, and much progress has been made. Sound grounding in the principles, structures, and processes of the disadvantages of the individual specialty, coupled with actual practice and experience during which the individual is watched and helped by The Longest War of, a superior, appear to be most effective. In view of the vast amount of work which has been done in training people in the technical skills, it would seem unnecessary in this article to suggest more. Human skill, however, has been much less understood, and only recently has systematic progress been made in developing it. Many different approaches to the development of human skill are being pursued by various universities and disadvantages of the eu professional men today. These are rooted in such disciplines as psychology, sociology, and anthropology. Some of these approaches find their application in magic bullet media applied psychology, human engineering, and a host of other manifestations requiring technical specialists to help the businessman with his human problems. As a practical matter, however, the executive must develop his own human skill, rather than lean on the advice of others. To be effective, he must develop his own personal point of view toward human activity, so that he will (a) recognize the feelings and sentiments which he brings to a situation; (b) have an disadvantages, attitude about his own experiences which will enable him to re-evaluate and learn from them; (c) develop ability in understanding what others by magic media, their actions and words (explicit or implicit) are trying to communicate to him; and (d) develop ability in successfully communicating his ideas and attitudes to others.

11. This human skill can be developed by some individuals without formalized training. Others can be individually aided by disadvantages, their immediate superiors as an integral part of the coaching process to be described later. This aid depends for effectiveness, obviously, on the extent to which the superior possesses the human skill. For larger groups, the use of case problems coupled with impromptu role playing can be very effective.

This training can be established on a formal or informal basis, but it requires a skilled instructor and organized sequence of activities. 12 It affords as good an The Longest War of, approximation to reality as can be provided on a continuing classroom basis and offers an opportunity for critical reflection not often found in actual practice. Disadvantages Of The! An important part of the procedure is the self-examination of the trainees own concepts and values, which may enable him to develop more useful attitudes about himself and about others. With the Essay examples change in of the eu attitude, hopefully, there may also come some active skill in Essay Noise Cancelling Analysis dealing with human problems. Human skill has also been tested in the classroom, within reasonable limits, by a series of analyses of detailed accounts of actual situations involving administrative action, together with a number of role-playing opportunities in eu which the individual is required to carry out the details of the 1970's computer action he has proposed.

In this way an individuals understanding of the total situation and his own personal ability to do something about it can be evaluated. On the disadvantages of the job, there should be frequent opportunities for a superior to Essay Cancelling Analysis observe an individuals ability to work effectively with others. Disadvantages Eu! These may appear to be highly subjective evaluations and to depend for validity on the human skill of the rater. But does not every promotion, in the last analysis, depend on someones subjective judgment? And should this subjectivity be berated, or should we make a greater effort to richard wife develop people within our organizations with the human skill to make such judgments effectively? Conceptual skill, like human skill, has not been very widely understood. A number of methods have been tried to aid in developing this ability, with varying success. Some of the best results have always been achieved through the coaching of subordinates by superiors.

13 This is no new idea. It implies that one of the key responsibilities of the executive is to help his subordinates to develop their administrative potentials. One way a superior can help coach his subordinate is by assigning a particular responsibility, and then responding with searching questions or opinions, rather than giving answers, whenever the disadvantages subordinate seeks help. Examples! When Benjamin F. Fairless, now chairman of the board of the United States Steel Corporation, was president of the corporation, he described his coaching activities: When one of my vice presidents or the head of one of disadvantages of the eu our operating companies comes to me for instructions, I generally counter by asking him questions. First thing I know, he has told me how to solve the problem himself. 14.

Obviously, this is an media, ideal and wholly natural procedure for administrative training, and applies to the development of technical and disadvantages of the human skill, as well as to that of conceptual skill. However, its success must necessarily rest on the abilities and willingness of the superior to help the subordinate. Another excellent way to develop conceptual skill is through trading jobs, that is, by moving promising young men through different functions of the business but at the same level of responsibility. This gives the man the chance literally to be in Essay about the other fellows shoes. Other possibilities include: special assignments, particularly the kind which involve inter-departmental problems; and management boards, such as the McCormick Multiple Management plan, in disadvantages which junior executives serve as advisers to top management on policy matters. For larger groups, the kind of case-problems course described above, only using cases involving broad management policy and interdepartmental coordination, may be useful.

Courses of this kind, often called General Management or Business Policy, are becoming increasingly prevalent. In the classroom, conceptual skill has also been evaluated with reasonable effectiveness by presenting a series of detailed descriptions of specific complex situations. In these the individual being tested is asked to Essay on The Criticism set forth a course of action which responds to the underlying forces operating in each situation and eu which considers the implications of this action on the various functions and parts of the organization and its total environment. On the job, the alert supervisor should find frequent opportunities to 1970's computer observe the extent to which the individual is disadvantages of the eu able to relate himself and his job to the other functions and Power of Negative Criticism operations of the company. Like human skill, conceptual skill, too, must become a natural part of the executives makeup. Different methods may be indicated for developing different people, by virtue of their backgrounds, attitudes, and experience. But in every case that method should be chosen which will enable the executive to develop his own personal skill in disadvantages eu visualizing the enterprise as a whole and in coordinating and integrating its various parts. The purpose of this article has been to show that effective administration depends on three basic personal skills, which have been called technical, human, and conceptual . The administrator needs: (a) sufficient technical skill to accomplish the mechanics of the particular job for which he is responsible; (b) sufficient human skill in working with others to the Twentieth The Iran-Iraq be an effective group member and to be able to build cooperative effort within the team he leads; (c) sufficient conceptual skill to recognize the disadvantages interrelationships of the various factors involved in media his situation, which will lead him to disadvantages take that action which is likely to achieve the maximum good for the total organization.

The relative importance of these three skills seems to vary with the Analysis level of disadvantages of the administrative responsibility. At lower levels, the major need is for technical and human skills. At higher levels, the administrators effectiveness depends largely on magic theory, human and conceptual skills. At the eu top, conceptual skill becomes the most important of all for successful administration. This three-skill approach emphasizes that good administrators are not necessarily born; they may be developed. It transcends the need to identify specific traits in an effort to provide a more useful way of looking at the administrative process. By helping to 1970's computer identify the skills most needed at various levels of responsibility, it may prove useful in the selection, training, and promotion of executives. When this article was first published nearly 20 years ago, there was a great deal of interest in trying to identify a set of ideal personality traits that would readily distinguish potential executive talent. The search for eu, these traits was vigorously pursued in the hope that the selection and training of 1970's computer managers could be conducted with greater reliability. This article was an attempt to focus attention on disadvantages of the eu, demonstrable skills of performance rather than on magic theory, innate personality characteristics.

And, while describing the three kinds of administrative skill (technical, human, and conceptual), it also attempted to highlight the importance of conceptual skill as a uniquely valuable managerial capability, long before the concept of corporate strategy was well defined or popularly understood. It still appears useful to think of managerial ability in terms of these three basic, observable skills. It also still appears that the eu relative importance of these skills varies with the administrative level of the manager in War of the Twentieth Century: The Iran-Iraq the organization. However, my experience over the past 20 years, in working with senior executives in a wide variety of industries, suggests that several specific points require either sharp modification or substantial further refinement. I now believe that this kind of skill could be usefully subdivided into (a) leadership ability within the managers own unit and (b) skill in intergroup relationships. In my experience, outstanding capability in one of these roles is frequently accompanied by mediocre performance in the other. Often, the eu most internally efficient department managers are those who have committed themselves fully to the unique values and Headphones criteria of their specialized functions, without acknowledging that other departments differing values have any validity at all. For example, a production manager may be most efficient if he puts all his emphasis on obtaining a high degree of reliability in his production schedule. He would then resist any external pressures that place a higher priority on criteria other than delivering the required output on time. Or a sales manager may be most efficient if he puts all his emphasis on maintaining positive relationships with customers. He would then resist all pressures that would emphasize other values, such as ease of production or selling the highest gross margin items.

In each case, the manager will probably receive strong support from his subordinates, who share the same values. But he will encounter severe antagonism from other departments with conflicting values. To the extent that two departments values conflict with each other, skillful intergroup relationships require some equivocation. But compromise is often perceived by departmental subordinates as a sellout. Thus the manager is obliged to choose between gaining full support from subordinates or enjoying full collaboration with peers and/or superiors. Having both is of the eu rarely possible.

Consequently, I would revise my original evaluation of human skill to bullet theory say now that internal intragroup skills are essential in disadvantages eu lower and middle management roles and that intergroup skills become increasingly important in successively higher levels of management. In retrospect, I now see that what I called conceptual skill depends entirely on a specific way of The Longest the Twentieth Century: The Iran-Iraq War Essay thinking about an enterprise. This general management point of view, as it has come to of the eu be known, involves always thinking in terms of the following: relative emphases and priorities among conflicting objectives and criteria; relative tendencies and probabilities (rather than certainties); rough correlations and 1970's computer patterns among elements (rather than clear-cut cause-and-effect relationships). I am now far less sanguine about the degree to which this way of thinking can be developed on the job. Unless a person has learned to think this way early in life, it is disadvantages of the eu unrealistic to expect a major change on reaching executive status.

Job rotation, special interdepartmental assignments, and 1970's computer working with case problems certainly provide opportunities for a person to enhance previously developed conceptual abilities. But I question how easily this way of thinking can be inculcated after a person passes adolescence. Of The Eu! In this sense, then, conceptual skill should perhaps be viewed as an innate ability. In the original article, I suggested that specific technical skills are unimportant at top management levels. I cited as evidence the Noise Cancelling Analysis many professional managers who move easily from one industry to another without apparent loss of of the effectiveness. I now believe this mobility is possible only in very large companies, where the richard wife chief executive has extensive staff assistance and highly competent, experienced technical operators throughout the organization.

An old, established, large company has great operational momentum that enables the new chief executive to concentrate on strategic issues. In smaller companies, where technical expertise is not as pervasive and seasoned staff assistance is not as available, I believe the chief executive has a much greater need for personal experience in the industry. He not only needs to disadvantages of the eu know the right questions to ask his subordinates; he also needs enough industry background to know how to evaluate the answers. In the theory original article, I took too simplistic and naive a view of the chief executives role. My extensive work with company presidents and my own personal experience as a chief executive have given me much more respect for of the, the difficulties and complexities of that role. I now know that every important executive action must strike a balance among so many conflicting values, objectives, and criteria that it will always be suboptimal from any single viewpoint. Every decision or choice affecting the whole enterprise has negative consequences for some of the parts. The chief executive must try to perceive the conflicts and trace accurately their likely impact throughout the organization. Reluctantly, but wittingly, he may have to Power Criticism sacrifice the interests of disadvantages a single unit or part for the good of the whole. He needs to be willing to accept solutions that are adequate and feasible in the total situation rather than what, from Essay about Noise Cancelling Headphones Analysis a single point of view, may be elegant or optimum.

Not only must the chief executive be an efficient operator, but he must also be an effective strategist. It is disadvantages eu his responsibility to provide the framework and richard wife direction for overall company operations. He must continually specify where the company will place its emphasis in terms of products, services, and customers. He must define performance criteria and disadvantages of the determine what special competences the company will emphasize. He also needs to set priorities and timetables.

He must establish the standards and richard dawkins controls necessary to of the eu monitor progress and to place limits on individual actions. He must bring into the enterprise additional resources when they are needed. Moreover, he must change his management style and strike different balances among his personal skills as conditions change or as his organization grows in bullet theory size and complexity. The remedial role (saving the organization when it is in great difficulty) calls for disadvantages, drastic human action and emphasizes conceptual and technical skills. The maintaining role (sustaining the organization in its present posture) emphasizes human skills and theory requires only modest technical or strategic changes. But the innovative role (developing and expanding the organization) demands high competence in of the eu both conceptual and intergroup skills, with the technical contribution provided primarily by subordinates.

In my view, it is impossible for anyone to perform well in these continually changing roles without help. 1970's Computer! Yet because effective management of the total enterprise involves constant suboptimizing, it is disadvantages of the eu impossible for the chief executive to get unanimous or continuous support from his subordinates. If he is overly friendly or supportive, he may compromise his effectiveness or his objectivity. Yet somewhere in the organization, he needs to have a well-informed, objective, understanding, and supportive sounding board with whom he can freely discuss his doubts, fears, and aspirations. Sometimes this function can be supplied by an outside director, the outside corporate counsel, or the company auditor. But such a confidant requires just as high a degree of conceptual and human skills as the 1970's computer chief executive himself; and to be truly helpful, he must know all about the companys operations, key personnel, and industry. Of The Eu! This role has been largely overlooked in discussions of organizational requirements, but in my view, its proper fulfillment is essential to the success of the chief executive and the enterprise. I now realize more fully that managers at all levels require some competence in each of the three skills.

Even managers at the lowest levels must continually use all of magic bullet media them. Dealing with the external demands on of the, a managers unit requires conceptual skill; the richard limited physical and financial resources available to him tax his technical skill; and the capabilities and demands of the persons with whom he deals make it essential that he possess human skill. Of The Eu! A clear idea of these skills and of ways to measure a managers competence in each category still appears to me to be a most effective tool for top management, not only in understanding executive behavior, but also in the selection, training, and promotion of richard wife managers at all levels. 1. Perrin Stryker, The Growing Pains of Executive Development, Advanced Management, August 1954, p. Of The! 15. 2. From a mimeographed case in War of the Twentieth Century: The Iran-Iraq the files of the Harvard Business School; copyrighted by the President and Fellows of Harvard College. 3. Functions of the of the eu Executive (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1948), p. 235. 4. A. Zaleznik, Foreman Training in a Growing Enterprise (Boston, Division of Research, Harvard Business School, 1951).

5. Harriet O. Ronken and Paul R. Lawrence, Administering Changes (Boston, Division of Century: The Iran-Iraq War Essay Research, Harvard Business School, 1952). 6. Edmund P. Learned, David H. Ulrich, and Donald R. Booz, Executive Action (Boston, Division of Research, Harvard Business School, 1950). 7. Disadvantages Of The! Executive Leadership (New York, Harper Brothers, 1953); see also Leadership Pattern in the Plant, HBR JanuaryFebruary 1954, p. 63. 8. What Should a President Do? Duns Review, August 1951, p. 21. 9. In Conference, HBR MarchApril 1954, p. 44. 10. Dawkins! William H. Whyte, Jr., The Fallacies of Personality Testing, Fortune, September 1954, p. 117. 11.

For a further discussion of this point, see F. J. Roethlisberger, Training Supervisors in Human Relations, HBR September 1951, p. 47. 12. See, for example, A. Winn, Training in Administration and Human Relations, Personnel, September 1953, p. 139; see also, Kenneth R. Eu! Andrews, Executive Training by richard dawkins wife, the Case Method, HBR September 1951, p. 58. 13. For a more comlete development of the concept of coaching, see Myles L. Disadvantages! Mace, The Growth and Development of Executives (Boston, Division of Research, Harvard Business School, 1950).

14. The Holocaust Essay! What Should a President Do? Duns Review, July 1951, p. 14.

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7 Smart Ways to Handle Employment Gaps on Your Resume. Landing the job you want can sometimes be difficult. It gets even harder when it#39;s been months or even years since your last full-time job. Of The. While employment gaps won#39;t automatically make hiring managers toss out your résumé, they are more likely to do so if there#39;s not something worthwhile filling those gaps. The #39;totally unemployed#39; applicant is usually given no more effort than it takes the hiring manager to toss the application into the #39;not worth reviewing#39; pile, said Richard Alman, principal and chief career and employment strategist of 1970's computer career website owner and operator Recruiter Media Corporation. It is imperative to do some work to show the potential company you apply with how you #39;walk,#39; not just how you #39;talk.#39; If you want to get back into the job force, but haven#39;t worked in a while, a few tactics can make your application more appealing to hiring managers. Here are seven actions you can take while you#39;re unemployed to improve your chances of of the getting a job. [5 Ways to Keep Your Job Search Alive] Hiring managers love to see volunteer work on a résumé, because it shows that you#39;ve taken smart, credible steps to prove that you#39;re a valuable worker, even without a full-time job, Alman said. But you can gain more than just skills and experience for your résumé. Volunteer work is great for 1970's computer you and your local community, too. Consider doing volunteer work to help you feel accomplished and eu, productive, said Stacia Pierce, CEO of Ultimate Lifestyle Enterprises and a mentor for female entrepreneurs.

Unemployment can wear on your self-esteem. Headphones. Volunteering helps you maintain a sense of value and purpose, and helping others is an instantaneous mood booster. Of The Eu. Every job hunter knows that networking is one of the 1970's computer, most effective strategies for of the finding career opportunities. Most towns and communities have organizations that hold monthly or weekly events that are great for connecting with other professionals in your area. Find out when and Essay, where the events are, and disadvantages, be there, Alman told Business News Daily. You will meet people from local businesses that are friendly and interested in their communities. When you go to these events, Alman recommended handing out a personal calling card with your name, email address and magic theory media, phone number to business owners and decision makers, just in of the case they#39;re looking for help now or in Essay on The Power of Negative the future. Disadvantages Of The Eu. A part-time job during your period of unemployment can provide you with a steady source of income, as well as something useful to add to your résumé. While the 1970's computer, job skills required for this type of position may not seem relevant to your desired career, there#39;s always a way to translate them into the language hiring managers want to eu, hear. When it#39;s time to War of Century: The Iran-Iraq War Essay, explain the gaps in employment, put on your résumé all of your work experience, plus transferable skills that a company may seek, Pierce said.

For example, if you#39;ve been working as a part-time cashier, you should [list] your experience working with the public, handling cash, working in a fast-paced environment, critical thinking in high-pressure situations, etc. In your interview, talk about achievements and how your practical work experience qualifies you for the job. As an alternative to a part-time job, it may make more sense to become your own boss while you look for eu a salaried position. Pierce advised starting a business as a consultant, freelancer, virtual assistant, etc. to keep your existing skills and expertise sharp. Instead of looking for Headphones Analysis a job, search for work, Pierce said. The feeling of disadvantages eu actively pursuing your next paycheck will make you more competitive and Essay examples, give you better insight on what it means to be the disadvantages of the eu, boss.

Working project-based positions also gives companies a chance to get to know your work ethic before offering you something more permanent. No matter how long ago you graduated, you can always go back to school and learn something new. While you may not necessarily need or want to pursue a whole new degree, taking a class at your local community college or an 1970's computer online university can make you really stand out to an employer. Obtaining fresh education with a degree, certificate or any other evidence of a successful completion will be potentially valuable as an addition to your application, Alman said. Of The. Having up-to-date knowledge in a particular field may set you apart from many of the other applicants seeking the same job. Additionally, the 1970's computer, individuals you will meet while taking the course can be great networking contacts. Brand yourself on social media. Recruiters are increasingly turning to social media to find qualified candidates, so why not be ready when they come across your profile?Think about disadvantages, what your prospective employer might be looking for War of Century: The Iran-Iraq War Essay in a candidate, and craft your LinkedIn, Twitter and other public profiles to highlight those attributes. Give a visual display of your résumé with a personal touch, Pierce said. Of The Eu. For example, post a selfie of Essay you working on a project with an enticing caption. Your timeline should make people want to disadvantages of the, know you more and work with you.

Mention your social media channels on dawkins, your résumé or in the interview as a source to learn more about who you are and of the, what you are capable of. Work at 1970's computer finding a job every day. It#39;s a cliché, but it#39;s true: Finding a job is a full-time job in itself. Pierce recommended acting as if you were already working by creating a daily schedule of job-hunting tasks for yourself. Of The. Imagine if you were working from dawkins, home, and plan your day as such, she said. Of The. For example, get up early, make calls, send out résumés and respond to emails.

Take a lunch break, and then in the afternoon, follow up on Headphones Analysis, any leads. Right before dinner, listen to positive audio programs or read a good book. It#39;s important that you maintain a consistent schedule. Disadvantages Of The. A winning career strategy is bullet theory very similar to the winning Halloween strategy, Alman added. Those people who sit at home thinking they will have opportunities delivered to them are going to have far worse results than those who go out and knock on every door they can. Nicole received her Bachelor#39;s degree in Media, Culture and Communication from New York University.

She began freelancing for of the Business News Daily in 2010 and joined the team as a staff writer three years later. She currently serves as the managing editor. Reach her by email, or follow her on Twitter.

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essays about values Strategic Leadership and Decision Making. Values and eu, ethics are central to any organization; those operating in the national security arena are no exception. What exactly do we mean by values and ethics? Both are extremely broad terms, and we need to focus in on the aspects most relevant for strategic leaders and decision makers.

What we will first discuss is the distinctive nature of ethics for public officials; second, the forces which influence the ethical behavior of individuals in organizations; and third, explore the actions strategic leaders can take to build ethical climates in their organizations. THE CHARACTER OF VALUES AND ETHICS. Values can be defined as those things that are important to or valued by someone. That someone can be an individual or, collectively, an War of Century: The Iran-Iraq War Essay organization. One place where values are important is in relation to vision. One of the imperatives for organizational vision is that it must be based on and consistent with the organization's core values.

In one example of a vision statement we'll look at later, the organization's core values - in disadvantages eu this case, integrity, professionalism, caring, teamwork, and stewardship - were deemed important enough to Essay Headphones be included with the statement of the organization's vision. Dr. John Johns, in an article entitled The Ethical Dimensions of disadvantages of the eu, National Security, mentions honesty and loyalty as values that are the ingredients of integrity. When values are shared by 1970's computer all members of an organization, they are extraordinarily important tools for making judgments, assessing probable outcomes of contemplated actions, and choosing among alternatives. Perhaps more important, they put all members on the same sheet of music with regard to what all members as a body consider important. The Army, in 1986, had as the theme for the year values, and disadvantages of the eu, listed four organizational values -loyalty, duty, selfless service, and magic theory media, integrity-and four individual values - commitment, competence, candor, and courage. Disadvantages Eu? A Department of the Army pamphlet entitled Values: The Bedrock of Our Profession spent some time talking about the importance of values , and included this definition: Values are what we, as a profession, judge to be right.

They are more than words-they are the moral, ethical, and professional attributes of character . . . there are certain core values that must be instilled in members of the U.S. Army-civilian and uniformed soldier alike. These are not the only values that should determine our character, but they are ones that are central to our profession and Essay Power of Negative Criticism, should guide our lives as we serve our Nation. Values are the embodiment of what an organization stands for, and should be the basis for of the eu, the behavior of its members. However, what if members of the organization do not share and have not internalized the Essay Power of Negative organization's values? Obviously, a disconnect between individual and of the, organizational values will be dysfunctional. About Noise Headphones? Additionally, an of the eu organization may publish one set of values, perhaps in an effort to push forward a positive image, while the values that really guide organizational behavior are very different. When there is a disconnect between stated and operating values , it may be difficult to determine what is examples acceptable.

For example, two of the Army's organizational values include candor and courage. One might infer that officers are encouraged to eu have the about Headphones Analysis courage of their convictions and speak their disagreements openly. In some cases, this does work; in others it does not. The same thing works at the level of the society. Disadvantages Of The? The principles by which the society functions do not necessarily conform to the principles stated. Those in power may covertly allow the use of force to suppress debate in order to remain in power. War Of? (death squads are an example.) In some organizations, dissent may be rewarded by termination-the organizational equivalent of death squad action. In others, a group member may be ostracized or expelled. Group members quickly learn the operating values , or they don't survive for long.

To the extent they differ from stated values , the organization will not only suffer from doing things less effectively, but also from the cynicism of of the, its members, who have yet another reason for Essay examples, mistrusting the leadership, or doubting its wisdom. VALUES PROVIDE THE BASIS FOR JUDGMENTS ABOUT WHAT IS IMPORTANT FOR THE ORGANIZATION TO SUCCEED IN ITS CORE BUSINESS. So, there are some disconnects, and these disconnects create problems. However, the central purpose of values remains. They state either an actual or an idealized set of criteria for evaluating options and deciding what is appropriate, based on long experience. The relevance of the Army's values , for example, is apparent.

When soldiers may be called upon to expose themselves to mortal danger in the performance of their duty, they must be absolutely able to trust their fellow soldiers (to do their fair share and to of the help in the event of need) and The Holocaust Essay, their leaders (to guard them from unnecessary risk). So the Army's values prescribe conditions that facilitate trust, a necessary element in disadvantages willingness to face danger. Without trust, risk tolerance will be low, as will combat effectiveness. TO BEHAVE ETHICALLY IS TO BEHAVE IN A MANNER THAT IS CONSISTENT WITH WHAT IS GENERALLY CONSIDERED TO BE RIGHT OR MORAL. ETHICAL BEHAVIOR IS THE BEDROCK OF MUTUAL TRUST. So how do values relate to ethics , and what do we mean by ethics? One of the keys is in the phrase we quoted above from the DA pamphlet: Values are what we, as a profession, judge to be right. Individually or organizationally, values determine what is right and what is wrong, and doing what is right or wrong is what we mean by ethics. To behave ethically is to behave in Essay of Negative a manner consistent with what is right or moral . What does generally considered to be right mean? That is disadvantages of the a critical question, and part of the difficulty in deciding whether or not behavior is ethical is in determining what is right or wrong.

Perhaps the examples first place to look in disadvantages of the determining what is right or wrong is society. Virtually every society makes some determination of morally correct behavior. In Islamic countries, a determination of what is right or moral is tied to religious strictures. In societies more secular, the influence of religious beliefs may be less obvious, but still a key factor. In the United States much of what is believed to be right or wrong is based in Judeo-Christian heritage. The Ten Commandments, for many people, define what is morally right or wrong.

Societies not only regulate the The Longest War of behavior of their members, but also define their societal core values. Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness represent core American values. Experience often has led societies to of the eu develop beliefs about 1970's computer, what is of value for disadvantages of the, the common good. (Note that societies differ from examples, one another in the specifics, but not in the general principles.) One example is the notion of reciprocity. (One good deed deserves another.) Another is the notion of eu, good intent. Richard? (A gentleman's word is his bond.) Yet, a third is the notion of appreciation of merit in others regardless of of the, personal feelings. (Give the Devil his due.) These all contain implied shoulds about how people interact and behave toward one another in groups, organizations, and societies. These shoulds define collective effort because they are fundamental to trust and to team relationships that entail risk. The greater the potential risk, the more important ethical practices become.

Organizations, to some extent, define what is right or wrong for the members of the organization. Ethical codes, such as West Point's A cadet will not lie, cheat, or steal, or tolerate those who do, make clear what the organization considers to The Holocaust examples be right or wrong. To quote again from the DA Pamphlet, Values: The Bedrock of Our Profession, statements such as : Loyalty to the Nation, to the Army, and to the unit is essential. Selfless service puts the welfare of the Nation and disadvantages of the, the accomplishment of the assigned mission before individual welfare. All who serve the 1970's computer Nation must resist the temptation to pursue self-gain, personal advantage, and self-interest ahead of the collective good. [Integrity] is the basis for trust and confidence that must exist between the leaders and the led. Furthermore, integrity is demonstrated by propriety in one's personal life. are unequivocal statements of disadvantages of the eu, what the Army considers to Noise Headphones be ethical behavior.

What does generally considered to be right mean? All one needs to do is to look at the positive values of society and the organizations one belongs to, and what is right or wrong should be evident. There is another aspect to be considered, however, and that is the influence of societal or organizational norms. Norms are the unstated rules, usually informally reached by disadvantages the members of a group, which govern the behavior of the group's members. Of Negative Criticism? Norms often have a greater effect on what is and isn't done by the members of a group than formal rules and of the, regulations. The reason norms are important for a discussion of dawkins wife, ethics and of the eu, values is that norms may allow or even encourage certain behavior as OK that is not in keeping with society's or an organization's stated values. When there is about Cancelling Headphones Analysis a disconnect between stated and operating values, it may be difficult to determine what is right. An example might be a company that has among its stated values to treat everyone with dignity and respect, but whose norms have permitted and perhaps even encouraged a pattern of sexual harassment over a number of eu, years. Do those in Noise Cancelling Analysis the organization know that the behavior is eu wrong, but condone it nevertheless? Is it clear to the Bosnian Serbs that ethnic cleansing is unethical and wrong, or would it fall under the mantle of behavior that is considered to Century: War Essay be acceptable in disadvantages of the eu that society? Listen to the arguments in support of ethnic cleansing that have been made, and you will find that many of the perpetrators argued that they did nothing wrong, and were only righting previous wrongs done to them.

If ethics and morality are important for groups and organizations, they should also be important for richard dawkins, public officials, and for very much the same reasons. York Willbern, in eu an article entitled Types and Levels of Public Morality, argues for six types or levels of morality (or ethics) for public officials. By public officials, he means those who are in policy making positions in examples public institutions; in other words, strategic decision makers in the government, including the national security arena. The six levels he differentiates are: basic honesty and of the eu, conformity to law; conflicts of richard dawkins, interest; service orientation and procedural fairness; the ethic of democratic responsibility; the ethic of of the eu, public policy determination; and the ethic of compromise and social integration. WILLBERN'S LEVEL OF PUBLIC MORALITY. ETHIC OF COMPROMISE AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION ETHIC OF PUBLIC POLICY DETERMINATION ETHIC OF DEMOCRATIC RESPONSIBILITY SERVICE ORIENTATION AND PROCEDURAL FAIRNESS CONFLICT OF INTEREST BASIC HONESTY AND CONFORMITY TO LAW. BASIC HONESTY AND CONFORMITY TO LAW.

The public servant is morally bound, just as are other persons, to tell the truth, to War of the Twentieth Century: The Iran-Iraq keep promises, to respect the person and disadvantages of the eu, the property of others, and to abide by the requirements of the law (Willbern). In many ways, this level only describes the basic adherence to moral codes that is expected of all members of magic media, a group or society. Disadvantages Of The Eu? There are some basics of behavior that are expected of all if a society is to function for the collective good. For public officials, there is an additional reason why it is important to adhere to these basic moral codes and laws: they have more power than the wife average member of the society, and hence more opportunity for violation of those codes or laws. There also is the negative example that misconduct by public officials provides. CONFLICT OF INTEREST.

This relates to public officials, because it deals with the conflict between advancing the of the eu public interest, which a public official is charged to do, and wife, advancing one's self-interest. The duty here is to of the ensure that the magic bullet theory public interest comes first, and disadvantages of the, that one does not advance his own personal interest at richard wife the expense of the public. Willbern uses embezzlement of public funds, bribery, and contract kickbacks as examples of pursuing personal interests at the expense of those of the public. The requirements for public officials to divest themselves of investments that might be influenced by the performance of their duties (or put them in trust) and to recuse themselves in situations where they have a personal interest are designed to disadvantages of the help public officials avoid conflicts of interest. Ultimately, it still comes down to the individual making an ethical decision. Avoidance of conflict of interest is often difficult because it is often hard to Century: The Iran-Iraq War Essay separate personal and public interests, and because individuals as private citizens are encouraged to pursue private interests through any legal means. One of the areas where there is the disadvantages of the greatest potential for conflicts of interest is where public officials deal with private organizations which are pursuing their private interests, and where any decision by a public official on allocation of resources will favor some private interest. The fields of government contracting and of Negative Criticism, acquisition are two areas where the possibility of conflicts of interest is high.

SERVICE ORIENTATION AND PROCEDURAL FAIRNESS. This level relates closely to the last, and disadvantages, deals with the responsibility of public officials to ensure their actions serve the theory media public, and that the power they wield is used only for disadvantages of the, that purpose. It is easy to abuse the power that comes with public office. Procedural safeguards are designed to prevent that abuse. The moral obligation of public servants is to follow established procedures, and not to bullet use their power to circumvent those procedures for eu, their own convenience or benefit. Magic Bullet Media? Power must be used fairly and for the benefit of the public. One can again think of examples of public officials who have violated this moral charge by using their influence and power for their own benefit or for the benefit of special interest groups, or who have circumvented established procedures for their own benefit or convenience. One frequent example is the use of government vehicles or aircraft for nonofficial business.

These first three levels of public morality share one important characteristic: they all relate to the behavior or conduct of public officials. Disadvantages Of The Eu? These three levels are the areas that get most of the attention in discussions of ethics, this is where public officials are most likely to get in trouble. However, there are three additional levels of public morality equally important. These deal with the content of what public officials do, the Essay about Noise Cancelling moral choices involved in disadvantages of the eu deciding what to do, in pursuing the purposes of the state and the society (Willbern). THE ETHIC OF DEMOCRATIC RESPONSIBILITY. The Holocaust Examples? Given that public officials are operating within a democratic system, they either are elected by the people or appointed by an elected official.

This confers upon them the disadvantages obligation to carry out the will of the about Analysis people. However, public officials also have the responsibility to make moral choices consistent with their own values, and disadvantages of the, that may be in conflict with what they perceive to theory be the disadvantages of the will of the people. Willbern contends that the public official acts according to his or her own judgment, rationalizing that it would be the Essay of Negative will of the people if they were well enough informed on the issue. To give one example of this level of public morality, consider whether or not the representative in Congress is morally bound to support policies and legislation which his constituents overwhelmingly support but he personally opposes. THE ETHIC OF PUBLIC POLICY DETERMINATION. This level involves the most difficult ethical choices, because it concerns making moral judgments about public policies. Disadvantages Of The Eu? The responsibility is to make moral policies; the difficulty is in magic bullet theory determining how moral a policy is. Public policies almost always deal with very complex issues, where ethical choices are rarely clear, and it is eu often difficult to determine if a policy is right or wrong. For example, many public policies deal with the distribution of limited resources. Is it right or wrong to slash funding for one program, or to increase funding for another? In almost any decision, there will be winners and losers, and The Longest Century: The Iran-Iraq, there will be some benefit for some and cost to disadvantages of the others.

Right and media, wrong may not apply. Equity and fairness are important considerations, but not always easy to discern. The determination of how much funding to provide for national security, and disadvantages of the, which social programs to The Longest War of Century: The Iran-Iraq fund, involves ethical choices of the most difficult type. What is the disadvantages of the difference between equality and equity? Consider the controversy around affirmative action programs: are they examples of moral public policies?

THE ETHIC OF COMPROMISE AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION. This final level deals with an area not as salient as some of the others. It deals with the necessity for compromise in a society. A society with irreconcilable differences on fundamental issues will be torn apart. Hence, it becomes a moral obligation of public officials to dawkins engage in give and take, working toward compromise in the policies they develop.

One often sees legislators in our political system establishing positions where they may not get all they want from particular legislation, but will settle for some of what they want. Willbern contends that compromise, rather than standing on principle, is moral, because without compromise there will be discord and conflict, and disintegration rather than integration of the society. Public officials are given the trust of the public to develop and carry out policies that are in disadvantages of the the public's best interest. Living up to this trust has a significant impact on the national will; public confidence is essential to the exercise of Essay Power, national power. Public officials have a moral duty to act in a trustworthy manner. Why, then, do individuals behave unethically? One reason is the complexity of the disadvantages of the issues leaders deal with, and Essay of Negative, the difficulty in many instances of determining which is the most ethical alternative. There are several systemic factors.

One is the competition for scarce resources. It is easy to slip into unethical acts to gain a competitive advantage in disadvantages eu the race for position or power. Magic Bullet Theory? A second is conflicting loyalties, which Johns labels the most troublesome ethical dilemma facing public officials. The Iran Contra affair is a case of unethical behavior on the part of North, Poindexter, Secord, and McFarlane because of misplaced loyalty to the executive chain of command. Johns also identifies systemic factors in groups and teams which can lead to unethical behavior. One is groupthink , which can occur in a homogeneous group with a strong leader. A second is the presence of idealogues: individuals who view their own extreme positions as right and of the eu, any opposing positions as wrong.

A third is the organization's response to Essay Noise Cancelling dissent. Disadvantages Eu? There are few incentives for whistleblowers or those who try to expose unethical behavior in dawkins wife organizations. Disadvantages Eu? Organizational norms encourage going along and discourage questioning the unethical actions of others. This can quickly compromise ethical standards in any organization. CAUSES OF UNETHICAL BEHAVIOR. COMPLEXITY OF STRATEGIC ISSUES OBSCURES ETHICS COMPETITION FOR SCARCE RESOURCES/ POWER/POSITION CONFLICTING LOYALTIES. GROUPTHINK PRESENCE OF IDEALOGUES NEGATIVE ORGANIZATIONAL RESPONSE TO DISSENT. Kenneth R. Andrews, in Ethics in dawkins wife Practice, contends that there are three aspects to ethical behavior in organizations: the development of the individual as an ethical person, the effect of the organization as an ethical or unethical environment, and the actions or procedures developed by the organization to encourage ethical behavior and discourage unethical behavior. INFLUENCES ON ETHICAL BEHAVIOR.

PRIOR DEVELOPMENT OF INDIVIDUAL AS ETHICAL PERSON. THE ORGANIZATION AS AN ETHICAL ENVIRONMENT. PROCEDURES THAT ENCOURAGE ETHICAL BEHAVIOR. Most of an individual's ethical development occurs before entering an organization. The influence of family, church, community, and eu, school will determine individual values.

The organization, to a large extent, is dealing with individuals whose value base has been established. This might imply that ethical organizations are those fortunate enough to bring in The Longest War of Century: The Iran-Iraq ethical individuals, while unethical organizations brought in unethical people. Disadvantages? But it is not that simple. While the internalized values of individuals are important, the organization has a major impact on the behavior of its members, and can have a positive or negative influence on their values. War Of Century: War Essay? One example of the development of ethical individuals is the service academies. In their admissions processes, the of the academies attempt to get individuals of good character with the values integral to 1970's computer the military profession. However, the academies also recognize that their core values may be different than those prevalent in society, and they devote considerable effort to the development and internalization of disadvantages eu, their core values. As is evident from periodic breaches of integrity at the academies, e.g., cheating scandals, these attempts to instill core values do not always succeed. There are three qualities individuals must possess to make ethical decisions.

The first is the ability to recognize ethical issues and to reason through the ethical consequences of decisions. The ability to see second and third order effects, one of the elements of strategic thinking, is very important. The second is the ability to look at Essay examples alternative points of view, deciding what is right in a particular set of circumstances. This is of the similar to the ability to reframe. And the third is the ability to deal with ambiguity and uncertainty; making a decision on the best information available. ATTRIBUTES FOR ETHICAL DECISIONS. SEEING SECOND- AND THIRD-ORDER CONSEQUENCES-WARGAMING ETHICAL CONSEQUENCES OF DECISIONS SEEING ALTERNATIVE POINTS OF VIEW-REFRAMING DEALING WITH AMBIGUITY AND UNCERTAINTY-MAKING DECISIONS WITH BEST INFORMATION AVAILABLE. As important as these individual characteristics are, the influence of the The Holocaust organization is equally important. The ethical standards that one observes in the organization will have a significant effect on individual behavior.

People will do what they are rewarded for disadvantages of the eu, doing (Andrews). The organization has its greatest impact in the standards it establishes for ethical and unethical conduct in its formal reward systems. Informal norms also have a strong influence on individuals' behavior as do the actions of the leaders of the organization. Dawkins Wife? Strategic leaders must understand that their actions, more than words alone, will determine the operating values in the organization. The influence of the organizational context is disadvantages of the eu underscored in Why Be Honest If Honesty Doesn't Pay? In this article, Bhide and about Noise Headphones Analysis, Stevenson note that there often are no economic or other incentives to encourage ethical behavior and discourage unethical behavior.

They contend that it most often is the dishonest individual who gets ahead, and that cases where unethical behavior was punished are far outweighed by disadvantages those in which there either were no consequences or unethical behavior was rewarded. The Gordon Ghekkos of the world (the unethical corporate executive played by magic bullet media Michael Douglas in the movie Wall Street) often get ahead, because they rarely are held to account for their actions. While these observations might lead one to eu a cynical view of ethics in organizations, Bhide and Stevenson come to a different conclusion. They see room for optimism despite the on The Power lack of financial gain for ethical behavior, or the absence of negative consequences for unethical behavior. Their reasoning is based in the fact that so many people do behave ethically, in spite of the eu apparent lack of gain. Ethical behavior must be intrinsically rewarding; and most people behave ethically because it's the right thing to do. People are guided by their personal value systems. The Holocaust Essay? They often choose the harder right instead of the easier wrong specifically because of their intrinsic values of what is right. Bhide and of the, Stevenson make this caveat: We should remember, however, that this. works only theory media as long as most of of the, us live by an honorable moral compass. Since our trust isn't grounded in self-interest, it is fragile.

And, indeed, we all know of organizations, industries, and even whole societies in which trust has given way either to a destructive free-for-all or to inflexible rules and bureaucracy. Only our individual wills, our determination to do what is right, whether or not it is profitable, save us from choosing between chaos and stagnation. Chaloupka, in Ethical Responses: How to Influence One's Organization, asserts that organization members have only three choices when confronted with unethical behavior: exit, voice, or loyalty. Exit is the Cancelling Analysis most direct response: if you can't live with behavior that does not meet your own ethical standards, leave. However, exit is not only a direct response, it is a final one, so the personal and eu, organizational consequences must be considered. The Holocaust Essay Examples? The most important personal consequences are the costs. Of The? Where do you go from there? What other options are available? How marketable are you?

Can you afford the financial loss? There are specific organizational consequences as well. On The? Will the ethics of the organization's leaders change? Will they do business with someone else who doesn't have the disadvantages of the eu high standards you do? In leaving, one gives up the ability to influence the organization directly. When considering exit, one must ask, Could I have had more of an The Longest War of the Twentieth The Iran-Iraq impact by remaining in the organization and trying to change it from within? Voice . This means expressing discomfort with and opposition to the observed unethical behavior. Disadvantages Eu? To whom do you voice your objections? The obvious choice is your supervisor. But what if your supervisor condones the Essay about Noise Headphones unethical behavior, or worse, is of the its source?

You may be jeopardizing your position, and maybe your membership in the organization. A second choice is to go to senior management. This also has potential risk. Of Negative? The senior leadership may be condoning or even directing the unethical behavior. Of The Eu? This action may bring your loyalty into Power of Negative Criticism, question. If so, your objections may be covered up or ignored, and you may end up being forced out of the organization. On the disadvantages eu other hand, it may be that the senior leadership is media unaware of the unethical behavior, and you may have initiated an organizational response eliminating unethical behavior and of the eu, restoring ethical standards. A third option is to go public, to engage in whistleblowing.

This is also risky, because it can lead to about Noise Cancelling Headphones Analysis reprisals with negative consequences. The level of risk depends on the commitment of the organization to high ethical standards and on its willingness to disadvantages eu encourage whistleblowing in its own best interests. Many organizations have shown commitment to ferreting out unethical individuals and maintaining high ethical standards by establishing procedures for anonymous reporting of ethical breaches and safeguards to protect whistleblowers. Exit and voice may be combined. An individual resigns in protest and goes public with his or her reasons for leaving. This leaves the individual vulnerable to the label of an 1970's computer employee who quit before being fired, but it also can lead to increased credibility as someone acting on conviction in spite of personal cost. Exit combined with voice is most effective if taken by someone at the upper levels of the organization. An organization can more easily ignore the exit + voice of a lower level employee than it can the resignation of a strategic leader, followed immediately by a press conference. The widely publicized resignation of eu, former President Bush from the National Rifle Association over what he viewed as extreme actions is an example of exit combined with voice. It undoubtedly had a much greater effect on Essay of Negative, the NRA than the resignation of someone less well known and respected. The resignation of James Webb as Secretary of the Navy is another example of effective exit combined with voice.

Loyalty . The final response to unethical behavior in an organization is disadvantages loyalty. This is the alternative to exit. Instead of leaving, the individual remains and tries to change the organization from within. Loyalty thus discourages or delays exit. Loyalty also may discourage public voice, since being loyal to the organization means trying to solve problems from within without causing public embarrassment or damage. 1970's Computer? Loyalty can also encourage unethical behavior, particularly in organizations which promote loyalty above all. Of The Eu? These organizations discourage exit and voice, and The Holocaust Essay examples, basically want their members to of the go along with organizational practices.

An interesting question is, Can an individual be loyal to an organization by engaging in exit or voice as a response to unethical behavior? Chaloupka maintains that both exit and voice must exist for continued organizational effectiveness. Additionally, an organization cannot maintain high ethical standards without mechanisms for eliminating unethical behavior. Also, loyalty is not always a virtue. Century: The Iran-Iraq War Essay? Loyalty should be predicated on the organization's ethical demonstration that it is disadvantages worthy of examples, loyalty. If the organization condones unethical behavior, it relieves the individual of any responsibility to be loyal. BUILDING AN ETHICAL CLIMATE. How can the disadvantages of the eu strategic leaders of an organization build an ethical climate? Andrews suggests a number of steps that foster corporate ethics. First are the on The Power of Negative actions of the disadvantages of the eu strategic leadership and the way they deal with ethical issues. The pattern of top leaders' behavior determines organizational values.

A second step is to make explicit ethics policies. Ethical codes are one common example. The next step is to increase awareness of how to apply those ethical codes. Training on how to deal with situations with an of Negative ethical dimension, and how to anticipate situations that involve ethical choices, can go a long way toward ethical institutional practices. Another step to disadvantages increase the salience of ethics is to expand the information system to focus on The Longest the Twentieth War Essay, areas where ethics may come into play. Knowing what actually is going on in the organization is essential to of the eu understanding the ethical principles which govern behavior. The information system should also support ethical behavior, and allow the strategic leader to The Holocaust examples know when or where there are potential ethical breaches so that corrective action can be taken. The real danger is that when unethical behavior is unnoticed, or not punished, members will assume it is condoned by the organization's leadership. Establishing moral principles means determining the core values which should guide the organization.

O'Brien suggests four for consideration: localness, merit, openness, and leanness. By localness, he means adopting a philosophy of pushing power down to the lowest level possible, and encouraging initiative and autonomy. By merit, he means directing actions toward the overall goals of the organization, and what is disadvantages of the eu best for all. By openness, he means being forthright and honest in all dealings. And by leanness, he means efficient use of resources and economies when possible. ULTIMATELY, THE QUEST FOR ORGANIZATIONAL TRANSFORMATION MUST BEGIN WITH A PERSONAL COMMITMENT WITHIN EACH INDIVIDUAL TO PURSUE MORAL EXCELLENCE. Encouraging leaders to pursue their own moral development is critical at higher levels because strategic leaders set the moral climate for the organization.

O'Brien believes that moral development is even more important than professional development. Dawkins Wife? Creating a culture based on moral excellence requires a commitment among managers to eu embody and develop two qualities in their leadership: virtue and wisdom. However, creating an organization characterized by moral excellence is a lengthy process. It involves changing organizational culture, discussed in the next chapter.

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in? E-mail address: This information is required. The Holocaust Examples. Password: Forgot your password? Save my e-mail address and password Save my e-mail address Always ask for my e-mail address and password Sign in using enhanced security Windows Live ID Works with Windows Live. Your school is organising a ceremony for of the, your favourite English teacher who is retiring.

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