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book report for genetic modification definition, Why do book reports strike terror in the hearts of vs social, most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. A book report challenges students to think and write critically about what theyve read. In the early elementary grades, extra support is given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about a favorite character and other book details. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and high school, they are expected to write book reports independently. At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses. Genetic. We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror! How to Write a Book Report. The Revolt Aaron And Moises Essay. Before you write, read.

Theres no substitute for reading the book. Choose a book youll enjoyreading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and paper at genetic modification, your side. Jotting down page numbers and notes about significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to latin music, write. Remember, unless your book is a personal copy, dont write in modification, the book itself. Use a Book Report Outline. After reading the book, you are ready to start the characteristics, writing process. When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and definition, publishing. In the first step, prewriting, youll plan what you want to say. An outline is a great prewriting tool for book reports.

Start your book report outline with the following five ideas. Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. Summary of Book. 3. The Revolt Aaron. Book Details: Characters. 4. Modification Definition. Book Details: Plot. 5. Evaluation and Conclusion. In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for each of these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for book report content. Review your teachers instructions before you create your book report outline. Most book reports begin with the basic information about the book: the books title, author, genre, and publication information (publisher, number of characteristics, pages, and year published). Definition. The opening paragraph is also your opportunity to build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the writing of the book or noteworthy credentials of the author. Was the book a bestseller?

Is the author a well-known authority on the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so its perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to read it. Societal Vs Social. In the body of the genetic definition, book reportparagraphs two, three, and fouryoull describe what the book is about. This is vs social, your chance to show youve read and understood the book. Assuming youve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an overview of the story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and genetic modification, plot. Examining Definition. Specify who tells the story (point of view) and the tone or atmosphere of the book. Is it a creepy tale of suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the main characters and identify the major conflict or problem the main characters are trying to modification definition, solve.

You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in the book. Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you dont need to tell every detail of the story. Instead, focus on the main sequence of magic toyshop, events. You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to genetic modification definition, the books climax and conflict resolution. Make sure you mention the authors use of any literary devices youve been studying in class. Book Reports on Non-fiction. If you are writing a book report on congregation and Moises a biography or other factual text, youll want to devote the body of your book report to a description of the genetic modification definition, books subject and the authors points of view. Parenting. Use the chapter headings to help you present the authors ideas and arguments in an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you dont have to cover every argument made by the author. Instead, choose the main ideas and the ones most interesting to you.

If you read a biography, write about some of the important events in the persons life. Personal Evaluation and Conclusion. Youll like writing the final paragraph because it is here that youll be able to offer your own critique of the book. Genetic Modification. What are the books strengths and weaknesses? Did the societal, book hold your interest? What did you learn from the book? If you read a work of fiction, how did the book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the authors arguments? Try to be balanced in your opinions, and support your statements with examples from the book. Give your honest opinion of the book and whether or not you would recommend it to others.

Revising, Editing, and Publishing. Definition. After youve drafted your book report, youre ready to follow the magic toyshop, next three steps of the writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. Begin revising by definition, reading your book report aloud or to a friend for feedback. Examining. As you edit, check your grammar and use of the correct guidelines for book quotes and writing the book title. Give enough time to revising and editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of Expository Essay. A book report is usually written as an expository essay, although it can be written in other forms. In some cases, a teacher will ask students to definition, take a point of view when writing a book report. Here is an example: Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the Essay Parenting, best American kids novel of the last decade.

Please use examples. This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing. Modification. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book. Essay On Gay. If writing a book review, dont reveal the ending! Rely on genetic Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports. Free. Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and genetic definition, one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in building students writing skills. When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at any writing assignment, including a book report. Time4Writing offers online writing courses for kids in elementary, middle school, and high school, and pairs each student with a certified teacher for Essay, personalized writing instruction. Time4Writings eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in helping students develop their writing skills and building confidence.

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speculation. Government reinvention is genetic, something that I have been a part of while I was deployed for a year in Iraq during the invasion 2003. . Reinventing /changing the of Israel against Aaron Essay, concepts of the governments is not an easy task, the cultures are the main part of genetic modification countries and it cannot be overlooked when trying to change the mindset of governmental organizations. Characteristics Of Baroque! The concept of reinventing government however has been in practice in modification the private sector since the mid 1980's where it is more commonly referred to as business. Business process reengineering , Democracy , Economics 725 Words | 3 Pages. ?Analysis of BPs Response to music, the spill in the Gulf BPs Response to the Deepwater Horizon Spill On April 20, 2010 an unprecedented oil spill occurred in . the Gulf of Mexico.

BP suffered not only genetic modification definition, personnel and Essay Parenting, equipment loss, but public relations loss as well. Many Americans felt outraged at BP for the effects of the genetic modification, spill on the Gulf Coast communities. Although the media immediately discussed the environmental implications of the characteristics, disaster, many people felt that the impacts on the Gulf Coast communities. Alabama , Community , Galveston, Texas 982 Words | 3 Pages. ?British Petroleum In Russia Introduction BP International Oil and Gas Company is one of the world's leading international oil and gas . companies. Provide customers with fuel for transportation, energy for heat and light, lubricants to keep engines moving, and modification, the petrochemicals products used to make everyday items as diverse as paints, clothes and packaging. Key facts Around 80 countries of operation Employees 90.000 The Economic value $403.3 billion Operating cash flow $21.1 billion Barrells. BP , Canada , Oil reserves 1211 Words | 6 Pages. Berge, Andrea MGMT 485W Spring 2013 Case Study: TNK- BP (Russia) INTRODUCTION This case portrays the characteristics of baroque, highly uncertain scenario facing . BP in Russia at the end of 2007. In the modification definition, midst of unraveling relations with its cooperative partner and magic toyshop, undesirable host government practices, ideal strategic conditions are implausible. In order to maximize outcomes under such imperfect circumstances, BP's senior management needs to fully assess the genetic modification, situational risks, understand the dynamics and motivations.

Foreign direct investment , Invest in America , Investment 2402 Words | 7 Pages. ?BA 2196 Section 11/Professor Allmond Writing Assignment: BP Oil Spill Response Analyzing BPs Oil Spill Response On April 20, 2010, the characteristics of baroque art, . Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of genetic modification Mexico killed 11 rig workers after more than 4 million barrels of crude oil leaked into the ocean, making it the largest oil spill in history (Fisk, 2013). The incident tarnished BPs reputation and left a devastating imprint on the Gulf's economy and environment. Art! After receiving criticism for its crisis management. BP , Exxon Valdez oil spill , Galveston, Texas 1351 Words | 5 Pages.

BP Crises Law/531 October 1, 2012 The Deepwater Horizon disaster . attributed to BP , a multinational oil and gas company, occurred in 2010 dumping massive amounts of oil in the waters on the gulf coast. The BP is headquartered in definition London with operations in 80 countries with the largest being in the United States. Team B participated in a simulation that presented a similar scenario as the oil spill mentioned. The company in the. Exxon Valdez oil spill , Law , Oil Pollution Act of 1990 1617 Words | 4 Pages. CASE STUDY#1 REINVENTING ERICSSON I. Characteristics Of Baroque Art! Background Ericsson a Swedish telecommunication company told us on modification, how the its survived in . order to Essay, maintain sustainability the company to definition, compete with other companies and also how to examining definition, develop the technology to definition, support company growing up. Company still saw telecommunications as a long-term market business with reason most of the people around the world think that communications is examining, not just important but a necessity. As a long-term business Ericsson. Capital expenditure , Carl-Henric Svanberg , Ericsson 1023 Words | 4 Pages. ? BP , one of the biggest energy companies in the world, had an modification, oil rig explosion, causing the largest spill in the U.S. history. On April . On Gay Parenting! 20, 2010 the explosion on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig resulted in genetic modification the deaths of 11 workers and the leakage of over four million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico.

To show that BP is a company that takes responsibility for its actions, BP created the Gulf of Mexico Restoration page to provide information about the situation. Gulf of Mexico Restoration. Galveston, Texas , Gulf of Mexico , Louisiana 1170 Words | 5 Pages. BP Oil Madeline OHara MGT 2037 S03 Instructor Azadegan South University Online December 14, 2012 I have chosen to definition, research the . management of a large company called BP Oil. This company is one of the worlds largest and is involved in all aspects of oil and gas industry. British Petroleum operates in many countries and has had to go through many incidents which cause controversy.

These controversies make it a highly interesting company to research when it comes to genetic, the forms of societal vs social management. BP , Exxon Valdez oil spill , Management 856 Words | 3 Pages. The Transformation of BP Chapter 5-4 | Eric | Summer | Helen | Lidya | Mandy | Content Introducing BP . Transforming BP BP Superior performance through Knowledge Sharing BP Building Cooperate Reputation Through facing the Public Responsibility Conclusion and Future Consideration Introducing BP BP at a Glance BP is of one of the world's largest energy companies, providing its customers with fuel for transportation. BP , Future , Knowledge management 772 Words | 6 Pages. | BP Case Analysis | | 1. Based on the history of the company, why did BP get involved in so much questionable . conduct? BP's history extends back to 1901 when William D'Arcy's Anglo-Persian Oil Company first drilled for oil in Persia and after seven years of modification drilling and societal, darcy's nearly spent his net worth finally oil spewed out and became rich.

Unfortunately later at 1914 BP was on the verge of bankruptcy due to the very low demand of oil in global market. Accordingly ,BP's Board. BP , Environment , Environmentalism 1059 Words | 4 Pages. About BP BP at a glance - BP at a glance BP is one of the definition, world's leading international oil . and gas companies. We provide customers with fuel for transportation, energy for heat and of baroque, light, lubricants to keep engines moving, and modification definition, the petrochemicals products used to make everyday items as diverse as paints, clothes and magic toyshop, packaging Key facts Countries of operation a Around 80 Number of modification definition employees 83,900 Economic value generated by characteristics of baroque art BPb $403.3 billion Replacement cost profitc . Cash flow , Cash flow statement , Operating cash flow 705 Words | 5 Pages. BP Management Tashon Cooper MGT/230 February 2, 2012 Paul Hennessy BP Management BP Management ensures that . the material risks are identified and that the company runs effectively. Genetic Modification! Furthermore, BP management ensures that internal control and risk management is under control.

In particular, some vital components of BP management include their recognition for the companys yearly plan, reviews of material risks, ensuring that the chief executive adopts their approach about risks, and that. Auditing , Corporate governance , Financial risk 1027 Words | 4 Pages. Acar Niar April 15, 2000 Business Case: Nissan Reinventing Nissan 1) What benefits will Nissan gain if its procurement of . parts is vs social, combined with Renaults parts procurement on a global basis? Are there any costs to modification, this change? What problems does Nissan create if it abandons the keiretsu system for purchasing parts? In what ways might the Internet facilitate this change? Ghosns plan to combine, centralize, and characteristics of baroque, globalize Nissan and Renaults parts procurement would cut. Carlos Ghosn , Cultural norms , Heteronormativity 1118 Words | 3 Pages.

Bp Marketing Problem After Oil Spill. British Petroleums Marketing Problem Florida International University Summer 2011 Alex Del Veccio Yudith Torres BP Marketing Problem . Genetic Modification! In April 20th, 2010 one of the worst environmental natural disasters that were brought on by a men happened. We are talking about the characteristics art, British petroleum Oil spill on the Golf Coast. The disaster not only affected the genetic, plants, animals and people living in the area but also the image of the company. British Petroleum has been successful on magic toyshop, creating a powerful. BP , Canada , Chevron Corporation 2530 Words | 7 Pages.

? Reinventing Ericsson Ericsson had almost gone bankrupt when the dot-com bubble burst and modification definition, the telecom market collapsed in late 2000. When . Svanberg (first externally recruited CEO in 60 years) took over in April 2003, he launched yet another cost cutting package (after CEO Kurt Hellstrom in vs social early 2003), the fourth in two years. Svanberg wanted to genetic, do more than just restore the company to break-even, he wanted the latest round of cuts (coupled with revenue increases) to return Ericsson to profit. Ericsson , GSM , Lars Magnus Ericsson 1773 Words | 5 Pages. and public safety first. ? Company integrity and compliance ? Company contribution to society ? Company effect on environment ? Company preparedness, . prevention and impact of Oil spills. Societal! Questions Reference: ? BP . Modification! (n.d.). Retrieved from global/corporate/about- bp /companyinformation.html . Corporation , Environment , Environmental science 282 Words | 12 Pages. Introduction BP British Petroleum is examining, a multinational oil and gas company headquartered in London, United Kingdom. According to revenues in . 2011, they are the genetic definition, third largest energy company and fourth largest company in the world.

Their main products include fuel for free latin music, transportation, energy for heat and light, lubricants for genetic, engines, retail services and definition, petrochemical products for modification definition, everyday use. Societal! BP started as a subsidiary of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company in 1909 and through many stages it became British. Armenia , Azerbaijan , Baku 2193 Words | 7 Pages. Reinventing Your Business Model by Mark W. Johnson, Clayton M. Christensen, and modification, Henning Kagermann In 2003, Apple introduced the iPod with . the magic toyshop, iTunes store, revolutionizing portable entertainment, creating a new market, and transforming the definition, company. Characteristics Of Baroque Art! In just three years, the modification, iPod/iTunes combination became a nearly $10 billion product, accounting for almost 50% of Apples revenue. Apples market capitalization catapulted from of baroque art around $1 billion in early 2003 to over $150 billion by modification definition late 2007. This. Business development , Business model , Business model design 4976 Words | 14 Pages. BP : The Oil and magic toyshop, Energy Company BP is an oil company whose roots start back in Cleveland, Ohio in the 1870's. Modification Definition! BP . has grown from a local oil company to of Israel congregation against Aaron and Moises, now being a global energy group employing over 80,000 people and modification definition, operating in over 100 countries worldwide. BP provides fuel for transportation, energy for heat and light, retail services, and petrochemical products for everyday items.

They are all about finding oil and natural gas and have several brands that might sound familiar: BP , Castrol. ARCO , BP , Chevron Corporation 1422 Words | 4 Pages. The 2010 BP Oil Spill allowed about 5 million barrels of oil to flow into Essay Parenting, the Gulf of Mexico before the gush was capped. Genetic Definition! Unfortunately, the . explosion killed 11 people and injured several others (Benoit, 2011). To claim its ultimate negligence and reduce the pollution of the spill, BP created a multi-page website entitled Gulf of Mexico Restoration to communicate its message to on Gay Parenting, the public. BPs Gulf of Mexico Restoration website uses these three strategies to repair its reputation: displaying.

Exxon Valdez oil spill , Galveston, Texas , Gulf Coast of the definition, United States 973 Words | 3 Pages. [pic] BP Case Study November 10, 2011 Professor: Steven Lee Strategic Management Mississippi College . British Petroleum[pic] Executive Summary The history of BP was set in motion as the Anglo-Persian Oil Company in Persia in 1901. William Knox DArcy, an English entrepreneur hired George Reynolds, a geologist and explorer to dig Persia for societal, oil. Reynolds could smell natural gas and was most certain they would hit oil. Asset turnover , BP , Exxon Valdez oil spill 2629 Words | 7 Pages. ?1. Genetic Modification! What are the main ethical issues and dilemma BP faces in this case? A project that is on a large scale faces some issues, including: . There are concerns about the coating of the pipeline and examining, the risks of leakages, in particular in Georgia, where oil spills might significantly impact the genetic definition, countrys strategic water resources in the Bojorni National Park. Concerns were also raised over the fact that the pipeline runs through earthquake zones, which leakages nearly inevitable or could not be avoided. Applied ethics , Business ethics , Deontological ethics 649 Words | 2 Pages.

focused on British Petroleum's problematic management culture and its catastrophic effects, aired on October 26, 2010. Around then, the oil giant . Essay On Gay! BP had suffered a crisis with its latest off-shore oil rig, the Deepwater Horizon. Modification Definition! However, this was just the latest in accidents concerning its oil operations. In the years before the The revolt against Essay, Deepwater Horizon accident, BP had also suffered major accidents in its oil production fields in Texas and Alaska. Genetic Modification Definition! Its CEO, Lord John Browne, had greatly expanded the company. BP , Drilling rig , Exxon Valdez oil spill 2343 Words | 6 Pages.

BP CASE-STUDY 1 BP Case-Study Ethics in Todays Organizations Nicki Marzolf March 1, 2011 BP . CASE-STUDY 2 Company Summary Beyond Petroleum ( BP ) is a British oil company that was founded over a century ago by an affluent business man, William DArcy. DArcy put all of definition his money into searching for oil in genetic modification the Middle East; a decision that nearly bankrupted him, because it took six years before any oil could be tapped. The Revolt Of Israel Congregation Against Aaron And Moises Essay! It is genetic modification, important to of baroque, note that locating the oil was not the only. BP , Ethics , Exxon Valdez oil spill 1567 Words | 6 Pages. crisis of the genetic, British concern British Petroleum ( BP ). At first I would like to provide more information about the crisis and its consequences, . then I will identify the kind of crisis we have to deal with, I will discuss the several communication strategies BP have used, I will explain the different reactions of the public on magic toyshop, the crisis. At last, I will give the oil concern some advice, in case a reoccurrence takes place.

The BP oil spill The BP oil spill was a big natural disaster in modification definition the Gulf. BP , Crisis , John Browne, Baron Browne of Madingley 2119 Words | 7 Pages. ?Deepwater Horizon Assignment On April 20th 2010 a BP licenses oil rig 50 miles off the coast of Louisiana exploded, killing 11 people. Characteristics Of Baroque Art! . For three months millions of genetic modification barrels of oil poured into the Gulf of Mexico killing sea life, altering the eco-system and affecting towns situated around the Parenting, Gulfs livelihood and quality of life. The Deepwater Horizon rig is responsible for genetic, the worst offshore oil spill in history. The corporation lost billions of Essay Parenting dollars due to genetic modification, the disaster stemming for systematic. Chevron Corporation , Crisis , Gulf of Mexico 1197 Words | 4 Pages. BP Oil Spill Chait, J, (2010). Dear Leader. New Republic, 241(10), 2-2. Retrieve June 21, 2010, from Academic Search Premier. This . Societal! article discusses the present oil spill in genetic modification definition the Gulf of Mexico.

The presidents has not changed the Minerals Management Service. In reality, the federal government has no agency tasked with capping undersea oil leaks. All the necessary equipment, along with the expertise for examining definition, operating it, resides with the private sector. BP will likely bear the full cost of the modification definition, spill;. BP , Chevron Corporation , Gulf of Mexico 1188 Words | 4 Pages. Reinventing Inclusive Growth in India. opinion makers too are no longer backward. People have started valuing qualification more than mere experience. Business leaders have started getting the . respect of Essay nations leadership at least if press is to be believed. The dream of reinventing India seems to modification definition, be coming true insofar as changing the composition of leadership is concerned. But have the things improved for the masses?

Who cares? True, with a few business houses minting money, the salaries in corporate sector have sky. Economic growth , Economics , Economy 670 Words | 3 Pages. BP is a British global energy company which is the third largest energy company and the fourth largest company in the world. As a multinational . oil company, BP is the UK's largest corporation, with its headquarters in London. BP's headquarters is in Essay Parenting Houston, Texas.

The company is among the largest private sector energy corporations in the world, and definition, one of the six private sector oil exploration, natural gas, and petroleum product marketing companies. Tony Hayward took over as the Chief Executive. BP , Exxon Valdez oil spill , ExxonMobil 862 Words | 3 Pages. BP oil spill is ranked as the largest environmental disaster in Essay on Gay the world history. As the genetic modification definition, oil from BP spill washes ashore, people . on Gulf Coast are suffering huge damages they have never met before. The U.S. government estimates that up to 60,000 barrels of oil a day are spewing out from the damaged BP drilling rig to Gulf of Mexico. Free Latin Music! It has ruined the definition, shoreline, killed animal and sea life, threaten the ecosystem and harmed the tourism and fishing in Louisiana. Characteristics Of Baroque! After the spilling happened, US government. Drilling rig , Federal government of the United States , Oil platform 1509 Words | 4 Pages. Business Management Ethics Issue at Bp Name: Date: Class: Professor: MANAGEMENT ETHICS AT BP . Abstract Beyond Petroleum, BP is among the largest Oil and other energy companies in the world.

Its targets and confidence in the market has enabled it reduce Carbone dioxide waste and enhance alternative sources of energy like solar power. This upward success has, however, in genetic modification definition the recent past been challenged. BPs environmental image in the globe has been tarnished. Business ethics , Environment , Ethics 1879 Words | 5 Pages. BP Disaster at Sea . In 2010 the The revolt congregation against Aaron Essay, nation was dealt the worst oil spill in the history of the USA, the BP oil rig Deep water horizon in genetic definition the Gulf of Mexico. This major catastrophe destroyed some people, millions of The revolt congregation Aaron and Moises Essay aquatic wildlife, birds and genetic modification definition, the reputation of BP all in one fatal event. What caused this mind blowing. Environmental issues with shipping , Ethics , Exxon Valdez oil spill 1520 Words | 4 Pages. ? BP OIL SPILL IN 2010 April 20th was a tragic day for BP and the crew of the Transoceans Deepwater . Horizon. Music! Floating fifty-two miles off the coast of Louisiana in 5,000 feet of genetic modification definition water was an oil rig drilling in the Gulf of Mexico. (Hoffman, 2010) What unfolded next will go down in history as the societal vs social, worst accidental oil spill in the world. The oil well a mile below the modification definition, surface of the Gulf blew up from high-pressure methane gas expanding into the drill.

As a result of. Alabama , Class action , Drilling rig 2171 Words | 6 Pages. Jeff Grisan April 7, 2011 Case Study #2 British Petroleum BP is one of the world's largest energy companies, providing its . customers with fuel for congregation Aaron Essay, transportation, energy for modification definition, heat and light, retail services and petrochemicals products for everyday items ( BP , 2011). The organization is the fourth largest company in the world, operates in on Gay Parenting over 80 countries and employees more than 80,000 people. BP produces approximately 3.8 million barrels of oil equivalent per day with more than 18.

Drilling , Drilling rig , Gulf of genetic definition Mexico 1220 Words | 4 Pages. Cover Sheet Case Study: BP (Beyond Petroleum) Focuses on Sustainability University Instructor: 03/15/2012 Abstract When a . person thinks of definition BP they image a green gas station and gas pumps. Modification! But BP has over 100 years of history behind it. BP was formally known as British Petroleum and the Anglo-Persian Oil Company. It was founded in 1908 by magic toyshop William DArcy, a rich British man who invested all his savings in his quest for oil in modification definition the Middle East. Latin! At the genetic, time BP was committed to protect the.

BP , Business ethics , Ethics 931 Words | 3 Pages. The BP Oil Spill Thank God men cannot fly and lay waste to sky, as well as the vs social, earth, said Henry David Thoreau on modification definition, environmental damage. . Societal Vs Social! The BP , or British Petroleum, Gulf oil spill has been widely referred to as the biggest environmental disaster that the genetic, United States has ever faced, with over four million gallons of oil pouring into the waters off the Mexican Gulf Coast. The BP oil spill occurred in congregation Essay April of 2010. It was, and still is, the biggest oil spill in all of U.S. history. The massive. Galveston, Texas , Gulf Coast of the United States , Gulf of Mexico 2831 Words | 7 Pages. 1. Modification Definition! Do you agree or disagree with Tony Haywards quote at the end of the case? Was this disaster strictly a BP failure or an industry accident? . (One of my biggest mistakes was that I allowed myself to magic toyshop, become the lightning rod for hatred and anger. He went on to say, I genuinely feel that this could have happened to genetic modification, anyone. This is magic toyshop, not BP . Genetic Definition! It is an industry accident.) I mostly agree with Tony Hayward because an accident of that size is a result of a complex combination of mechanical failures. Accident , BP , Decision making 943 Words | 3 Pages.

a burden on all of society in the form of rising oil prices and environmental damage. Magic Toyshop! Background British Petroleum was founded in 1908 and modification, since . then has rapidly grown to free latin music, become the eighth largest company in the world . However, as of modification definition late, BP has come under fire for several high profile disasters, including the Texas City refinery explosion and the Prudhoe Bay oil spill. In 2005, an explosion occurred at BP's refinery at Texas City. Fifteen employees were killed and 170 were injured. BP , Occupational safety and health , Oil refinery 1608 Words | 6 Pages. 96. BP case study: An example of free latin a TNC 1. Different stages in the companys operations ? . Use sophisticated technologies and genetic definition, triedtotrue techniques to find gas under the Earths surface ? use topographical maps, aerial photography, sound waves, 3D projections and other tools to help form an Essay, educated guess about the size, shape and consistency of the oil or natural gas that lies beneath the Earth. Modification Definition! ? plan and build a production facility, taking environmental, social and logistical factors . Ethanol fuel , Floating wind turbine , Sustainable technologies 1476 Words | 5 Pages. A BPS Approach To Outcomes Assessment. A BPS Approach to vs social, Outcomes Assessment The Bio Psycho Social Perspective The Treatment process Assessment Treatment Planning Treatment . Genetic Modification Definition! Outcomes assessment The Bio Psycho Social Perspective The Treatment process Assessment The Bio Psycho Social Perspective The Treatment process Treatment Planning The Bio Psycho Social Perspective The Treatment process Treatment Outcomes assessment it is not sufficient for a practitioner to The revolt of Israel against Aaron, know that a particular treatment can work ,or does work.

Assessment , Biopsychosocial model , Clinical psychology 568 Words | 19 Pages. British Petroleum is a global brand which is genetic, acknowledged worldwide for quality gasoline. The brand name BP appears on societal vs social, production platforms, . refineries, ships and corporate offices as well as on solar products, wind farms, research facilities and at retail service stations. BP has grown into a global energy group from modification definition a local oil company. It has employed over 96,000 people.

Strategic decisions are usually long term decisions which are often risky and speculative. On Gay! A strategic decision. Amoco , BP , Shell-Mex and BP 1943 Words | 6 Pages. Five Lessons from the genetic, BP Oil Spill It's very easy to pile onto BP right now. Latin! The accident, which may be due more to . negligence, is genetic modification, bad enough. The company lost 11 employees after losing 15 in a high-profile explosion at a refinery 5 years ago. The damage to the Gulf, its species, and the people who depend on it is almost incalculable. Magic Toyshop! But surprisingly, it's even easier to genetic modification, criticize BP's behaviour since the explosion the company has tried hard to downplay the scale of the tragedy and it has. BP , John Browne, Baron Browne of Madingley , Management 1317 Words | 3 Pages. 1. Originally, an vs social, Ethics and Compliance team was formed to monitor the formation and operation of the company guidance towards ethical issues in genetic definition BPs . company.

Just like to set up a communication consistent standard for all the employees of BP for The revolt of Israel congregation against, different location, culture and language. Originally, this is a good way to guide the company staff to maintain company standard and genetic, reputation. But the code did not effectively address specific high-risk activities for vs social, the scope of daily operations. It. Exxon Valdez oil spill , Hazard , Management 1639 Words | 5 Pages.

BP COMMUNICATION FAILure DURING GULF OIL SPILL CRISIS An important component of crisis management is response. Response can include . several actions such as communication with stakeholders, the public and the government. Appropriate and modification definition, effective communication can minimize the distribution of incomplete and inaccurate information, reduce speculation and magic toyshop, prevent or quell rumors. In fact, studies suggest that the message itself can affect the publics evaluation of the company and perhaps. Communication , Crisis , Exxon Valdez 2159 Words | 7 Pages. ? BP Oil Spill 2010 Elizabeth Morton University of Phoenix SUS/300 3/9/15 Tereza Marks Gulf Oil Spill Case BP Oil . Spill 2010 BP is a world leading international oil and Gas Company. The BP Company however had an modification definition, oil spill on April 20, 2010 due to a gas release in latin music the Gulf of Mexico. Modification Definition! A massive explosion followed the gas release on magic toyshop, the Deep Water Oil rig that was working on the exploration of British Petroleum. The explosive gas leak resulted in eleven peoples dead and several other. Biodiversity , Bioremediation , Ecology 1696 Words | 8 Pages. The 2010 BP oil spill that took place on genetic modification definition, the BP -operated Macondo Prospect claimed 11 lives, and is considered to Essay on Gay Parenting, be the . largest marine oil spill in modification the petroleum industrys history.

The spill flowed continuously for vs social, 87 days until it was declared to have been contained on 15th July 2010 and genetic definition, finally sealed on 19th September of the free latin music, same year ( BP , 2013). However, unconfirmed reports indicate that some of the well sites continue to leak (Pulham, Hilaire Fenn, 2010). The spill took a physical. Better , Galveston, Texas , Gulf Coast of the United States 798 Words | 3 Pages. done as well.

Since this is genetic definition, a worldwide problem, Monsanto has to The revolt of Israel against and Moises Essay, work internationally and perhaps even harder in countries where farmers are less informed . and more likely to genetic definition, misuse pesticides or not fully understand the benefits of crop rotation. BP : Q1. What aspects of BPs ethical culture could have contributed to the Gulf Coast oil spill disaster? The past behavior, specifically concerning the 2005 explosion in Texas and the Alaskan Pipeline leaks in 2006 show a general disregard for The revolt against Essay, safety. Bacillus thuringiensis , Environmental issues , Ethics 1326 Words | 5 Pages.

Deep Horizon oil rig occurred in modification the Gulf of Mexico Near Louisiana. Fifteen out the magic toyshop, of one hundred fifty men who were on board were injured. Approximately . two days later, the genetic modification, rig sang and oil began spewing. The oil leaked for over one hundred days. The BP oil disaster in the gulf has posed a threat on the people and the environment that surround the oil spill.

The effects of societal vs social offshore drilling can be catastrophic, especially after seeing what has happened in the Gulf. There are many concerns that come. Atlantic Ocean , Federal government of the United States , Gulf Coast of the United States 867 Words | 3 Pages. spewed out into the sky. Mr Darcy got the modification definition, news five days later due to the low speed of Persian telegrams . Mr William DArcy directly said If this is . true, all our troubles are over. Within a year , the anglo-persian company which one day became BP was in Essay business. Genetic! This huge success of this new company potential lead to magic toyshop, the opening of trading houses in London and Glasgow for the Anglo-Persian Stocks After the near loss of everything for William dArcy, he was richer than he had ever been in his. Amoco , BP , FTSE 100 Index 913 Words | 3 Pages.

9-21-11 BP vs. Exxon The BP oil . spill is the most resent oil incident. Modification! The oil spill was really big and caused a lot of on Gay mess and damage to nature. It killed a lot of animals and fish and made the water dangerous. BP says that they were working hard to clean the oil up. They were taking a really long time.

BP has responded to todays US Government report into last year's Deepwater Horizon accident, it says. Beach , Exxon Valdez oil spill , ExxonMobil 834 Words | 3 Pages. BP BUSINESS ETHICS AND COOPERATE REPUTATION. ? BP , COOPERATE REPUTATION AND BUSINESS ETHICS Introduction In todays oil and gas hypercompetitive business environment, social and ethical . Genetic! issues stem from the perception of stakeholders. This is seen in BPs chain of crisis event. In addition, Americas 16th president Abraham Lincoln illustrated the stakeholders perception idea himself in his statement Public sentiment is everything. With public sentiment, nothing can fail: without it nothing can succeed. On April 22, 2010, Green peace claimed. BP , Business ethics , Crisis management 1415 Words | 4 Pages.

BP was the ?rst of these companies to Essay on Gay, change from a reactive to a proactive climate strategy formulation. In 1996, it withdrew from the genetic, . oppositional Global Climate Coalition (GCC), which was characterized as the most powerful lobby organization in climate policy.28 BP then accepted the climate change problem as diagnosed by the Intergovernmental Panel on on Gay Parenting, Climate Change (IPCC) and gave its support to the Kyoto Protocol. In 1998 BPs strategy formu- lation developed further in a proactive direction. Climate , Climate change , Global warming 1005 Words | 3 Pages. the movement of genetic modification definition trade, capital, technology, and people. And undoubtedly the disaster has affected the examining, relationships between countries and genetic modification definition, affected the world . economies, be it the free music, relationship with the board of directors of genetic modification BP and the US government or the change in value of BP PLC on Parenting, the stock exchange. ?As a result of the oil spill the Obama administration imposed a six month moratorium on new deep water drilling operations which ended on the 12th of October. For twenty years previous to the oil. BP , Gulf of Mexico , International trade 1062 Words | 3 Pages. energy for heat and light, lubricants to keep engines moving, and the petrochemicals products used to make everyday items like plastic bottles.

We also . Definition! invest in renewable energy sources, which we believe will be an increasing source of value for BP . Latin! Our activities are focused on bio fuels and wind. As a global group, our interests and activities are held or operated through subsidiaries, branches, joint ventures or associates established in and subject to the laws and regulations of many. Carbon dioxide , Fossil fuel , Natural gas 717 Words | 3 Pages. Sea infrastructure Technology and genetic, BP 2011 01 Welcome Notes: Were excited that you want to take part in the Ultimate FieldTrip . 2011 competition. Examining Definition! From our first oil discoveries in Persia to todays enhanced oil and gas recovery techniques, BP has always been at the frontiers of science, technology and modification, engineering. The winning team of the Ultimate FieldTrip 2011 will have the opportunity to experience and contribute to the real challenges facing BP today during a six to eight week paid. Carbon dioxide , Energy development , Greenhouse gas 1129 Words | 5 Pages. invested in equity index funds and the money market fund.

The plan had 27,290 participants with an average of music $186,000 per participant, and contributions of . about $4,182 per year from genetic definition each one of them. Magic Toyshop! The company matched contributions up to 7% of pay. BP America had a different defined contribution plan. Modification! The company offered employees the opportunity to buy shares of company stock, invest in a stable income fund managed internally and seven public mutual funds. Characteristics Of Baroque! The mutual funds included three active. Bond , Exchange-traded fund , Funds 1333 Words | 4 Pages. Bp Strategy Toward Environmental Issues. BP Company: strategy regarding and non renewable energy 1-What are the main feature of BPs past business strategy toward climate . change and genetic, the energy production based on non renewable natural resources? What were the main rives behind this strategy? Before 1997, BPs management was not involve in climate change issue caused by the use of fossil fuels and did not want to recognize the link between economic activity and global warming.

Indeed, the company was a member of the Global Climate. Carbon dioxide , Climate change , Fossil fuel 1623 Words | 5 Pages.

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Analysis of Prompt and Utter Destruction. Modification. He contends that because of their lack of knowledge of the actual damage that the force of the explosion would cause, that American politicians including President Truman made a decision based on magic toyshop, certain assumptions. Genetic Definition. Now to address the query, was the assault on Japan with atomic bombs necessary? Samuel J. Walker had always been intrigued by the history surrounding the decision to assail Japan with the use of the atomic bombs. He was so fascinated that he made it a personal assignment to conduct research on the issue in his own time. We will write a custom essay sample. on Analysis of Prompt and Utter Destruction or any similar. topic specifically for you.

Walker did not do so as part of free latin, his obligation as the historian for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. His research reveals that President Truman came into presidency without any absolute knowledge of what was occurring on the part of the United States in the war effort. In addition, the Manhattan Project (the title given to the engineering team that was developing the modification, atomic bomb by Roosevelt) was almost a complete enigma to Truman when he entered his term as President (13). As President, Truman was concerned with ending the war as soon as possible in order to reduce the loss of American troops. It is logical to conclude that any leader would be concerned with the sacrifice of life affecting their country; however, abiding by magic toyshop moral principles must also be considered. Genetic Modification Definition. The bomb was considered by the American government to be the quickest and most effective way to end the war at the time, in addition to lowering the cost of American lives (36). The reason that the atomic bomb was considered to characteristics of baroque be very effective was because it had the capability to wipe out an modification, entire city, including troops, men, women, and children. Would an music, act of this capacity be considered as moral? Scholars dispute the morality of Trumans decision, some arguing it was warranted by Japans aggression and refusal to surrender, and other scholars suggesting that the assaults were the moral equivalent of the Nazi holocaust (109).

I postulate that to annihilate an entire city of people in onefell swoop is something that neither man nor nation should be able to decide, even if they conceive the other party to be deserving of such a punishment in retribution for their actions. Page 2 Analysis of Prompt and Utter Destruction Essay. In addition to the desire to end the war and thus the modification, casualties to The revolt of Israel against Aaron and Moises Essay the Americantroops, Truman had other reasons for considering the modification definition, approval of the atomic attacks. Truman was enlightened by Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson in a meeting on April 25, 1945 on the capability of the bomb, and the enormous expense incurred in developing it. This was one reason that Trumans conclusion was to use the bomb against magic toyshop, Japan, as there had to be a justifiable explanation for the expense incurred. Also, if he had not employed the use of the atomic bomb, he would not be able to justify to the American people why he had chosen not to do so, as there were so many American lives lost. It was alleged after the atomic assaults on Japan the genetic modification definition, decision to carry out the attacks was made in order to prevent as many as 500,000 to 1 million American casualties or deaths. However, there has been no proof provided that Truman received any information that an invasion on Japan would cause that number of casualties (39). Learning that the presentation of the number of estimated casualties was skewed to ensure a favourable opinion from the majority of the American public solidifies my opinion that the atomic assaults were unnecessary. If they had been necessary, why not be forthcoming about the lesser estimation of casualties?

Yet another reason that Truman and his cabinet decided to vs social attack is that American relations with the Soviet Union during that time were becoming strained. It was important to the American government to strengthening the United States ties to the Soviet Union. The desire for genetic modification, amicable relations with the Soviet Union was a factor in the conclusion to use the bombs against Japan (95). At the time, the Soviet Union was preparing to declare war against Japan, and joining them or preceding them in the war would apparently strengthen the relationship between the Soviet Union and the United States. The opinion was that the United States was a stronger power and that the Essay on Gay Parenting, Soviet Union would not be able to defeat Japan without U. S. intervention (41). However, with the Soviet Union and the United States working together, Japan would most likely be defeated in a short amount of time, making the atomic assaults on Japan even more unnecessary. Regardless of the genetic, option to Aaron partner with the Soviet Union, the United States decided to modification act alone in their attacks. Finally, the most pressing reason that the government and Truman argued that they had to use the music, bombs was the sentiment of outrage that the American public harboured over the attack on Pearl Harbour and their resulting fury if something had not been done in retaliation to that horrific event (20). In all honesty the American public would have been assuaged with a victory no matter the genetic, means by characteristics art which it was achieved. The American government was fully aware of the fact that there would be civilian casualties, in addition to the soldiers and sailors of Japan (62). Preservation of the lives of the innocent is genetic modification definition, of the utmost importance.

The American government had pronounced that there would be hundreds of thousands of American lives saved due to the bombings, but later statements by Truman stated the numbers to societal be in the thousands, which coincided with actual estimates from the military in the summer of genetic modification definition, 1945 (93). Examining. Truman and the government opted to genetic modification definition save thousands of American soldiers lives, and kill hundreds of societal vs social, thousands of innocent Japanese men, women and genetic modification, children. In addition to all of the reasons the American government had for dropping the characteristics, bombs on genetic definition, Japan, they came to the conclusion that there were not any viable reasons presented against doing the atomic assaults which outweighed the reasons in favour of dropping them. However, there were other options for the American government to examining proceed with in order to secure a victory. There was a planned invasion on Kyushu as well as continued aerial bombings and blockades (36). It is understandable that the American government would want to appease the genetic definition, American public, secure relations with the Soviet Union, justify the expense of developing the bomb, and reduce the cost of American lives, however; the societal vs social, dropping of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki was horrendous and morally detestable. The sheer volume of innocent lives lost due to the bombs, as well as the genetic modification, agony caused by free latin the radioactive material, was most assuredly not justified. There would have definitely been many more American troops lost if the bombs were not dropped, but I do not agree that it justifies killing innocent men, women, and children on such a large scale. I particularly enjoyed the way that Walker states it -The fundamental question that has triggered debate about Truman#8217;s decision since shortly after the end of World War II is, Was the bomb necessary? In view of the evidence now available, the answer is yes . . . and definition, no. Examining Definition. Yes, the modification definition, bomb was necessary to end the war at the earliest possible moment.

And yes, the bomb was necessary to save the lives of American troops, perhaps numbering in the several thousands. But no, the bomb was probably not necessary to end the war within a fairly short time without an invasion of Japan. And no, the bomb was not necessary to save the lives of hundreds of thousands of American troops (97). Bibliography Walker, Samuel J. Prompt and Utter Destruction: Truman and the use of atomic bombs against Japan. 1997. eBook.

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causes of wwi essay About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and definition, material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved.

Twenty-eight of examining these constituted the genetic definition, Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of Parenting competing nationalisms and genetic, ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August.

Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. Of Israel Congregation Aaron And Moises. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on genetic modification, the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated.

Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in free, the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the genetic modification, governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Magic Toyshop. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the definition, provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition.

Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. Definition. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to modification definition themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to societal vs social be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and genetic modification definition, authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia.

This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for magic toyshop the long-term security of definition their Empire if they did not support France and of baroque, Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events.

Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the genetic, Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the societal, following months it was ardently courted by France and definition, Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in free latin music, pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Modification. Romania prevaricated about which side to societal join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. Modification. The German response was swift and decisive. Definition. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by genetic modification, two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to vs social keep Germany in the war for genetic another two years.

Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at societal, war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of genetic definition Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India.

Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the magic toyshop, Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the definition, United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to latin an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and genetic, Belgium the latin music, French and modification definition, their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army.

Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of examining definition machine-gun fire, and modification definition, accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an The revolt congregation and Moises Essay enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the genetic modification definition, historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench.

Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. Magic Toyshop. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to definition positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and examining, ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918.

It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from modification definition French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to societal vs social disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of genetic modification 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of of Israel against Aaron morale in the French army.

For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the genetic modification definition, German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the The revolt of Israel congregation against Essay, war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to genetic modification achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and examining, later to the north in modification definition, front of Ypres.

No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. Vs Social. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and genetic modification, returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July.

At the Battle of of baroque art Amiens, on modification definition, 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the vs social, Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and definition, their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. Essay On Gay. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September).

These victories ensured the security of genetic definition Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the magic toyshop, war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and definition, the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia.

They also proved costly to societal Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by genetic, dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and art, national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the definition, war and desperate for peace.

This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in free music, the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of genetic modification definition 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. Magic Toyshop. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from genetic certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to magic toyshop Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the definition, Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of vs social organization.

On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in modification definition, two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the on Gay, Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against genetic modification, the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on The revolt of Israel congregation against and Moises Essay, the war. Genetic Definition. The Germans mocked it and of Israel against, declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against modification, climate, terrain, and disease.

The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from The revolt of Israel congregation against Aaron Essay their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by modification, a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to characteristics of baroque art the command of definition British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the Essay Parenting, war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to definition command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in societal vs social, Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to definition tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in latin, West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only genetic modification, after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known.

On and vs social, under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and genetic modification, Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Essay on Gay, Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Definition. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the free latin, Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. Genetic Modification. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by characteristics of baroque, the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat.

The geographical scale of the genetic modification definition, conflict made it very difficult for Essay political and military leaders to definition control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. Examining. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of genetic definition Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine.

It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to societal vs social much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by modification, Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to examining definition be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters.

Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model.

To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the genetic, First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an definition outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to modification recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of examining definition a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the modification, best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field.

The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to latin put an army into modification definition, the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the Parenting, first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days.

The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the genetic modification definition, German army, which was, in magic toyshop, John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the genetic modification definition, war'. The Revolt Congregation. The German army was a potent instrument. Modification. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the Essay Parenting, German state.

It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and genetic definition, NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on vs social, interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front.

The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the genetic, Central Powers. Essay Parenting. The power of the modification, German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the of Israel congregation against Aaron and Moises, German army,' wrote the modification definition, commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. Examining Definition. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control.

The second was Great Britain. German government rested on genetic definition, the tortured personality of the on Gay, Kaiser. It was riven by genetic modification definition, intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and characteristics, France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. Genetic Definition. When the vs social, Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence.

This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to genetic modification definition develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on characteristics of baroque, German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice.

Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. Genetic Definition. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated.

They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. Free Music. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and genetic modification definition, suspicious of art German policy; it ought never to modification have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the of Israel, world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned.

London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on genetic modification definition, the outbreak of on Gay war. From about genetic definition, mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of societal material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans.

This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. Genetic Definition. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the characteristics of baroque art, Franco-British alliance.

The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French.

Remaining military forces would be employed on modification definition, the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the free latin, German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of genetic modification State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. Magic Toyshop. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'.

They would win the war and decide the peace. Definition. For the The revolt congregation against and Moises, British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the modification, obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to definition acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief.

And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. Modification Definition. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and characteristics art, David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in genetic modification definition, particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against The revolt congregation and Moises, Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to modification definition do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army.

They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. Magic Toyshop. These imposed themselves on definition, Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Essay, Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to definition implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. Societal. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the genetic definition, German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. Societal Vs Social. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies.

Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of genetic definition joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of societal vs social performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on modification, the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the free, First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. Definition. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations.

Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of societal vs social males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Definition. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and definition, machine-guns transformed the genetic modification, range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in magic toyshop, any future war, scientists, engineers, and genetic, mechanics would be as important as soldiers.

These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in of Israel against Aaron, most European armies. Genetic Modification. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to characteristics of baroque art offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Modification. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by societal, generals of iron resolution, prepared to modification maintain the offensive in of baroque, the face of huge losses.

As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. Modification Definition. The results were barren of strategic achievement. On Gay. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough.

The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of genetic definition instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in vs social, the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive.

The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the genetic, war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to of Israel destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the genetic, war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect.

Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and vs social, artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Definition. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on magic toyshop, their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and modification definition, paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of societal flash-spotting and genetic modification definition, sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting.

The pre-registration of free guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against definition, barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible.

Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt.

From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and definition, bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed.

In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by genetic modification, a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and on Gay, mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of genetic crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the Essay Parenting, weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches.

The solution was to deepen the trench system and modification definition, limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to of Israel congregation against and Moises Essay make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned.

The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the modification, air. Their job was to examining definition disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to genetic definition survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on latin, their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and genetic modification, speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940.

The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and examining definition, increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the definition, First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory.

More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in Essay Parenting, a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of genetic modification their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. The Revolt Of Israel Aaron Essay. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and definition, a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from characteristics of baroque art North and modification, West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in The revolt of Israel against Essay, France at modification, the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Magic Toyshop. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916).

The grip of the genetic modification definition, skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and of Israel congregation against and Moises Essay, development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of definition Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of magic toyshop 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in definition, many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands.

Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and of baroque, the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and definition, used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to latin maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the genetic definition, major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain.

Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to art the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway.

The First World War redrew the map of Europe and genetic, the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at free, its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. Genetic Modification Definition. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium.

They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the definition, Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to modification definition them in examining definition, protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to genetic accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is examining definition, not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for genetic modification twenty-five years.'

The cost of all this in of Israel congregation against and Moises, human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to genetic definition superior civilization. Art. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed.

Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright 1997 by Oxford University Press.

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An analysis of a learning environment within a clinical placement. This assignment will reflect on the nature of teaching and learning processes within a surgical unit at a local Hospital. Some of the modification definition factors influencing a learning experience will be discussed and Essay on Gay Parenting, linked to known teaching and learning theories. Physical and psychosocial factors that affect the learning process will also be explored. Modification Definition? To assist in societal vs social the development of learning for definition, future students, an action plan will be formulated from the issues recognised throughout this paper. The learning experience discussed in this report has been chosen because it is felt that the mentor on this particular placement has been the most effective at contributing towards the of baroque development and progression of my learning as a student.

Reflection enables people to recapture their experiences (Bond Walker, 1985). I have therefore reflected on the placement as a whole. Any names mentioned are fictitious in accordance with the Nursing and Midwifery Counsel (NMC) Code of Professional Conduct (NMC, 2004). An introductory letter was sent by the student facilitator two weeks before the placement began. It covered all necessary details such as examples of surgical procedures the unit regularly encounters, and definition, required work hours. Using this information I was able to investigate the type of care that would be needed. I was also able to establish. An analysis of The revolt congregation and Moises Essay a learning environment within a clinical placement. An introductory questionnaire was also received.

Although this was a welcome difference compared to most placements, my answers were not discussed with my mentor upon genetic my arrival. This limited my opportunities to communicate any additional needs or concerns but I did have the chance to discuss the learning contract that I had developed prior to my arrival. Magic Toyshop? This is modification, again principally a self-directing, andragogical process, as stated by societal vs social Knowles (1990). Additionally, it is modification definition, well recognised that learning contracts can provide the means to meet the needs of the learner (Rogers, 1983). During the initial discussion with Anna I felt I was able to influence the upcoming learning events, because I was able to identify my advanced beginner status (Benner, 2001) which allowed Anna to magic toyshop, act accordingly to develop my learning needs. I voiced my expectations and the curriculum requirements, both of which factors are associated with the self-direction of the genetic definition adult learner (Knowles, 1990). We agreed to on Gay Parenting, be in genetic close contact for the initial 3 weeks and it was arranged that I shadow her work hours to Essay on Gay, ensure I had as much one-to-one mentoring as possible. This was extremely beneficial as she could track my progress and provide me with guidance during the first few weeks (Chow Seun, 2001). At this point my learning was being promoted because Anna was skilled in student-led strategies. For example, she consistently explored my understanding of genetic modification definition a task whilst providing support (Heron, 2001). Latin Music? I also felt positive about modification definition having the opportunity to develop a good relationship with her which is recognised as being beneficial to the learning process (Dix Hughes, 2004).

According to Maslow (1971) the humanist theory of learning is concerned with feelings and experiences. On Gay? My learning was definitely influenced by her positive attitude and manner, which, as suggested by Maslow leads to genetic modification, personal growth and magic toyshop, individual fulfilment. In addition, Anna had adopted a neobehaviourist approach to learning, which is identified by constant communication, planning of feedback and regular evaluation (Nicklin Kenworthy, 2000). During my time on placement it was clear that Anna was creating learning opportunities and resources at all times. I also found she was able to genetic modification definition, explain tasks clearly and to definition, answer any questions that I had. This is something typically favoured by nurse educators (Li, 1997). A question would never go unanswered and if she could not provide a full answer, she always directed me to a colleague whose knowledge was adequate enough to satisfy my learning needs. This is in line with the English National Board mentor guidelines (ENB/DoH 2001b). Anna was extremely approachable and would often demonstrate tasks with which I was unfamiliar.

I learnt mainly through observation until I felt confident to genetic, practice a task independently. This is an effective social learning method as learners are able to learn new behaviors as well as to modify undesirable behavior through imitation (Bandura Walters, 1963). This is associated with role modeling and I was also influenced by Annas enthusiasm and vs social, interest towards a subject (Bidwell Brasler, 1989). Annas teaching methods involved a lot of definition immediate positive reinforcement. Vs Social? This was an effective stimulus likely to genetic modification definition, produce a repeat action (Thorndike, 1986). Gagne (1985) proposes that information is more likely to be retained when encouragement and guidance is utilised by the teacher. Anna was able to Essay on Gay, acknowledge my efforts when I had researched a subject or task. This made me eager to learn and sustained my level of interest.

This theory of genetic modification learning is well established by examining definition the works of Skinner (1968). When I was required to learn a skill with which my mentor was unfamiliar, I was encouraged to research these areas. She gave me direct access to multiple sources of information including books and online databases (Neary, 1997). Genetic Modification Definition? Anna would regularly assign me to a different team member as a temporary mentor. I was grateful, but on magic toyshop, some occasions it was clear that I was assigned to a member of staff who did not have the same level of experience as Anna because they sometimes found it difficult to answer my questions. Modification? As the action plan states, ensuring that all mentors have the The revolt of Israel against Aaron same level of knowledge would be beneficial, albeit unlikely. Anna would consistently enquire about my existing knowledge on a subject or task which helped me to perform a thorough self-assessment, and to modification definition, re-examine what I had already learnt. Neary (2000) states that revisiting areas that have already been studied can enhance cognitive learning.

This is characteristics, associated with a major theme in the theoretical framework of Bruner (1996), who explains that learners are able to construct new concepts and genetic definition, ideas based upon their current or past knowledge. Feedback sessions were typically planned but were sometimes spontaneous. This was due to time restrictions and examining, nurse workload. These unprompted sessions could perhaps be improved if they were more structured (Hinchliff, 1999). Modification Definition? This is also supported by Quinn (2000) who believes that lesson planning is vital for learning because it ensures that all areas of learning are addressed, which results in higher productivity in terms of learning (ENB/DoH 2001b). Essentially, teaching and learning sessions should be conducted in an environment conducive to learning (Neary, 1997). Typically the physical learning environment was acceptable. There was adequate space, privacy, appropriate lighting and satisfactory noise levels. However, one teaching session was conducted in the surgical Recovery Room. I found this learning experience particularly memorable as it was far too cold and definition, there were a large number of distractions. The action plan at the end of this report states that this problem could be alleviated for future students by organising a consistent and suitable area prior to such meetings (ENB/DoH, 2001a).

Psychosocial factors that encouraged my learning included my first impressions of the staff. Most were accustomed to having students and were friendly and helpful. This made me feel safe and accepted within the team. The majority of staff on the ward demonstrated adequate levels of knowledge whilst also being approachable and supportive. Staff members would often seek out learning opportunities for me which was particularly valuable. Morgan (2002) states that it is vital that qualified nurses ensure students become part of the genetic modification ward team, because this can be beneficial to their learning. In addition, the NMC requires that nurses support the development of student nurses. Essay On Gay Parenting? This was evident because each member of staff readily contributed to my learning experience through their willingness to share their professional knowledge with me (NMC, 2004).

In conclusion, this placement was a positive and genetic, memorable learning experience. Primarily I learnt by observation and role modeling whilst utilising cognitive processes. Teaching behaviours that are humanistic also motivated me to repeat an magic toyshop action when praised and modification definition, supported. Andragogical processes involving self-directed learning were also important to my learning. Regular discussion is vital to ensure the learner is provided with some form of of Israel congregation against direction, as well as provide the opportunity to express any needs. Planned and structured teaching sessions are particularly beneficial to the learner because they enable the mentor to teach a session logically, and to maximise learning efficiency by utilising time effectively. Multidisciplinary team members with the modification same level of knowledge as the main mentor are also preferable. Additionally, factors influencing learning with regards to societal vs social, the physical learning environment are significant in the enhancement of learning for students, as stated in the action plan overleaf.

Questionnaire answers were never discussed upon my arrival at the placement. Mentors or educators could allow time for students to express all particular needs and concerns with regards to their learning. Provides students with the genetic definition opportunity to direct studies more effectively and The revolt of Israel, perhaps reduce any anxiety or stress. Teaching sessions were sometimes spontaneous and unstructured due to modification, time constraints and / or nurse workload. To protect time needed for of Israel Aaron and Moises Essay, teaching sessions / student evaluation by agreeing on and adhering to a set date and time. Increases learning outcome by encouraging a more thorough and consistent teaching session / evaluation. One particular physical environment chosen to evaluate my progress was not conducive to my learning as it was uncomfortable and was surrounded by distractions. To ensure that future meetings take place in private, comfortable, well lit, quiet rooms where there are minimal distractions. Increased concentration and focus, which will allow for greater progress in genetic context of examining learning and teaching aspect.

On some occasions temporary mentors had inadequate knowledge levels due to inexperience. For permanent mentors to genetic definition, seek out appropriate team members to enhance the learning for the student. Results in examining definition higher productivity in terms of genetic modification learning as student can inquire about skills or information the permanent mentor may be inexpert in. Table 1: Action Plan to highlight problems associated with teaching and societal vs social, learning. Bandura, A. and Walters, R. (1963) Social learning and personality development . Holt, Rinehart Winston, New York. Benner, P. Genetic Definition? (2001) From novice-to-expert: Excellence and power in clinical nursing practice. Prentice Hall, New Jersey. Bidwell, A.S. and Brasler, M.L. Magic Toyshop? (1989) Role modeling versus mentoring in nursing education.

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Nurse Education Today. 21 :350-358. Dix, G and Hughes, S. (2004) Strategies to help students learn effectively. Genetic? Nursing Standard . 18 (32): 39-42. English National Board for Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting/Department of examining definition Health (2001a) Placement in focus . ENB/DoH, London.

English National Board for Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting (2001b) Preparation of mentors and Teachers: A new framework of guidance . ENB/DoH London. Gagne, R. (1985) The conditions of learning and theory of instruction . 4 th Edition. Holt, Rinehart Winston, New York. Heron, J. (2001) Helping the Client: A Creative, Practical Guide. Sage Publications, London. Hinchliff, S. Modification Definition? (1999) The Practitioner as a Teacher. Magic Toyshop? 2 nd Edition. Bailliere Tindall, London. Knowles, M. (1990) the genetic modification Adult Learning: A neglected species. 4 th Edition. Gulf publishing company, Houston.

Li, M. K. Art? (1997) Perceptions of Effective Clinical Teaching Behaviours. Journal of Advanced Nursing . 26 : 1252. Maslow, A. (1971) The Farther Reaches of Human Nature . Penguin, Harmondsworth. Morgan, R. (2002) Giving students the confidence to take part. Definition? Nursing Times . Neary, M. (1997) Defining the role of assessors, mentors and societal, supervisors: part 1. Nursing Standard . 11 (42): 34-39. Neary, M. (2000) Teaching, Assessing and Evaluation for Clinical Competence: A Practical Guide for Practitioners and Teachers . Nelson Thornes, Cheltenham.

Nicklin, P.J., Kenworthy, N. Genetic? (2000) Teaching and assessing in magic toyshop nursing practice: an modification experiential approach . Of Israel Congregation Aaron Essay? 3 rd Edition. Genetic? Bailliere Tindall, Edinburgh. Nursing and Midwifery Council (2004 ) The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) Code of professional conduct: standard for conduct, performance and ethics. The Revolt Of Israel Against Aaron? [Online] Available at: Quinn, F.M. Definition? (2000) Principles and Practice and Nurse Education. 4 th Edition, Nelson Thornes, London. Rogers, C. (1996) Teaching Adults , 2 nd Edition.

Open University Press, Milton Keynes. Rogers, C. (1983) Freedom to Essay on Gay, Learn for the 80s . Merrill, Ohio. Skinner, B.F. (1968). The Technology of Teaching . Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York. Thorndike, E.L. (1986) Animal Intelligence; associative processes in animals. Psychological Monographs. 2 (4). Ausabel D (1968) Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View . Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York NY. Dix, G and Hughes, S. (2005) Teaching students in the classroom and clinical skills environment.

Nursing Standard . 19 (35): 41-47. Gopee, N. (2004) Effective clinical learning in primary care settings. Nursing Standard . 18 (37): 33-37. Reece, I and Walker, S. (2000) Teaching, Training and Learning: A Practical Guide . 4 th Edition. Business Education Publishers Limited, Sunderland. Williams, M. Genetic Modification? (2004) Concept mapping a strategy for assessment. Parenting? Nursing Standard . 19 (9): 33-38. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Coursework essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of definition expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Essay On Gay? Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Coursework work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.

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