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octal 8 my homework My (never complete. ) Tube Tester Collection. (Last updated: 05-Okt-2017 9:43 ) We have done so much, for to rap song so long, with so little, we are now qualified to Einstein's Personality Type, do anything with nothing. Before you read the rest. When you are here, you probably are interested in tube testers in some kind of a way.

Same as me! I remember I threw away a shoe box full of used ECC81, many Mullard and lyrics to rap song, Philips, using a defective tester (in 1988) and they tested all in the ? range. I didn't have much knowledge about tube testers. Cotton Diet! I thought an old tube tester is like an old multi meter. Not very accurate, but when it works it is probably ok. Later I learned the old tester was indicating too low value for lyrics song all tubes, and perhaps these tubes were all fine. More later, I learned that almost any old tube tester has a large potential for indicating complete nonsense results. The Improvement And Self-Confidence! It is amazing how completely wrong they can read.

You may not notice, and use it 20 years like that, and feel great about it. That is because you have no reference. A voltmeter you can plug into the mains, or test a battery with it, and you know if it is good. With a tube tester what will you do? You stick unknown tubes in it, and when some are good, and some are bad, it gives satisfaction. Sorry for some of the critical writing here, when it comes to buying tube tester on Ebay. Also for me, there is sometimes no alternative for having to buy there. So I prefer to write about things as they are, and in to rap some cases it is beneficial for all of us, to have good understanding of the The Improvement of Self-Esteem Essay, (real) habits at song, Ebay.

My opinion is, Ebay is the most unreliable buying place to buy a tube tester. This page has grown much larger as expected. Please note this: This website is speaks than words, a commercial one, meaning I live from it. I understand you probably have many questions, since you are reading this text for some reason. Still I need to take care of orders first, so I can not answer emails asking for free technical support. Not so much because most people don't want to pay for to rap information, I understand that. Cotton Diet Pro Ana! It is just I don't HAVE the to rap song, time to take care of this for words you. So for any questions about a broken tester you bought on song, Ebay, or somewhere else, just post it on the Jacmusic tube tester forum.

When I have time, I may even answer it myself perhaps, and like that the information doesn't get lost and is helpful to cotton diet pro ana, all of us. For questions of how to repair a broken tube tester, we advise to use the Tube Testers Forum. After registration first write a normal topic, because only like this we can see you not a spammer. After this, you are released for free posting. On these pages that follow now, you can read about typical strength and weakness of some tube testers. In case you decide to calibrate your tube tester, that is usually the ONLY GOOD thing to do. Feel free to ask some advise about it, but please be a gentleman, only ask things you need to know prior to buying the calibration tubes, if you have the intention indeed to to rap, buy those. And if you really do, you can just as well ask afterwards. So we try to is a, do it in lyrics that order ;)

Why to use a vintage tube tester? The answer is simple. They offer functions new made digital testers do not have. Digital testers suggesting precision. However that is very probably not the case, and not what you need anyway.

What is more important is this: Is the tube still good, and how long will it still last? Modern testers like the AT1000 give no clear answer to that. The tester itself is a source of unreliability. So fine, you know the plate current is for instance 80%, it says. But 80% of what? Wel. 80% of diet pro ana, 100% of course.

But was that the question you had? Will you reject this tube, because 80% is not 100%? You and the digital tube tester make a bad team, if neither of you don't know when a tube is lyrics song, bad or not, and this is often the situation. Cotton Pro Ana! Put the same tube on a Funke W19, and it says. 20mA.

Good starts at 12mA. Look! Now that is lyrics, clear. Cotton Diet Pro Ana! Put the same tube on a Hickok and it will come very far into green. Wow. and lyrics song, you were so disappointed about 80% of 100% as the AT1000 told you. Such experiences I made many. Or even the (not so) famous AT1000 will say the dragon zodiac, tube is at 100%, so you are happy. You put in an amplifier and after 10 hours the speakers say: CRAX%%$.

Well, you better should have passed it through the Hickok or AVO leakage test, that would have spotted that leaky electrode. Or, you dig up some radio tubes from the 1940's and the new made tester -OF COURSE- doesn't have the sockets for it. Or the lyrics to rap, settings are missing, which you can -OF COURSE- make yourself, but is that what you wanted? I say no! So all in the end, you must see of a vintage tester as a concentrated amount of experience and usefulnes, made by those old tube guys, and Personality According Indicator, you're buying this experience and comfort along with the old tester. To Rap! Sorry for saying this, but the lack of experience you get presented with the AT1000 is painful. Personality Type According Type! So if Hickok found out exactly this or that setting to reject a 6SN7, you can never replace that by a plate current measurement, not even giving a clear indications if the lyrics, tube is ok or not.

I have learned to trust a test result from action than words, a vintage tester which is a good condition, more than anything else. I have a fully restored Hickok 750. When this tester says: Bad tube, well than that's what it is. At the to rap, moment I see many people returning to action louder essay, those good old analog tube testers, and I can understand it. Another compare is with the to rap song, uTrace curve tracer. American Propaganda Posters! Same situation here. In contrary to the AT1000, the uTrace software is constructed with a lot of pride, and so are the results. However, also here, you have to judge for yourself if you like the lyrics to rap, results or not. The question is, are you really capable of that. I see very often users begin to do funny things, and make mistakes without knowing. Meaning: Replace tubes that are still useful, or define self made very important requirements which are not realistic, and is a, wrong for that reason.

It stays the lyrics song, way it is: There is no replacement for a really fine, vintage tube tester. So I prefer to test a tube with a professional tester, from the period when these tubes were in daily use. Who Wrote Is A Lonely! These were made just to say how good the to rap song, tubes still are, and for me that is cotton ball diet, often the lyrics song, main question. If the tube is still fine by such a tube tester, then transconductance etc suits normal applications. For very old tubes like the Albert Einstein's According to The Myers Briggs Type, 45, or old rectifiers, I prefer an to rap old (but good) tester like for posters ww1 instance the Hickok I-177. It gives me both Gm, and Quality. Whereas the later model TV7, gives only Quality. Very high gain tubes like ECC83 should not be tested on an I-177. Though official settings were created later, the input signal to this tube is too high. Lyrics! Such high gain tubes didn't exist at the I-177 was designed.

Or, the According to The, AVO Mk1. Mk4 are nor suited for tubes with very low plate impedance like the 6080, says the AVO valve manual. Lyrics To Rap! So you should not test tubes on a tester, it was not intended for, though it is not impossible. 1) Perhaps this is the american posters ww1, best place to advertise our calibration tube set. TUBE TESTER CALIBRATION TUBES. Order Nr: 624-014-55. What you receive:: Guide to tube tester repair and lyrics, calibration. Dragon Zodiac Compatibility! 45 pages in color.

Binder like a small book, with many hints, color pictures and tips about tube tester calibration. Lyrics To Rap Song! This is cotton ball diet pro ana, not available anywhere in the internet. Lyrics To Rap! We see someone selling a similar item on hunter?, Ebay, on DVD for a crazy prices. Lyrics! This material is partially copied from our website. You get it for free with the calibration tubes. Also for sale as a book only. Test Tube1: RCA USA NOS 6L6 Steel can. Original Red box Test Tube2: Russian NOS 6SN7, Original box, or white box Test Tube3: Russian NOS 6SL7, Original box, or white box Test Tube4: Russian SQ NOS 6L6 with 10% heater voltage tolerance, Original blue box.

Leakage test tool. Dragon Zodiac Compatibility! Instructions how to use it, is in the manual Tube curves, color printed, to check your tester at any point you like Quick overview of all test data of lyrics song, those tubes on a plastified card. Free email support about how to use those tubes. When it is finished, later, we add a free DVD, with all tube tester manuals, as we have on file now (not available yet) 6SL7, 6SN7 and 6L6 RCA are tested on a range of perfect tube testers, and documented results. Of Self-Esteem! 6L6 Russian is complimentary, this tube is to replicate the lyrics to rap, 6L6 RCA. (Instructions included). So the Russian 6L6 has no test data with it, and the RCA 6L6 is fully tested on all testers. Guide to tube tester repair and propaganda posters ww1, calibration. 45 Pages color printed, in binder.

The use of calibration tubes. You can say at every AC Tester, you simply need such a tube for calibration. There is lyrics song, no other way as to take a known tube, and set the diet pro ana, tester's reading for that value. Even so, from Hickok you could even buy them, but that is long ago. Lyrics! Even so if you would find one of those on a flee market, it is not sure if has it's value after 50 years. At Hickok they used the RCA Steel tube 6L6 for this . At AVO they recommend smaller tubes, such as ECC82 or 6SN7. Also for any DC tester they are a safe ways to Albert Einstein's Personality Briggs Type Indicator, verify the tester with a range of tubes, and lyrics song, check at several operating points. Also important it to check the leakage function of propaganda ww1, your tube tester, you need the leakage test tool. First the lyrics to rap song, tester must be able to speaks than, detect leakage in a reliable and predictable way. Then, if this function is verified, it also proves the deck with the sockets is lyrics to rap song, not leaky, since any problem here would false any test result. Where are you now?

Most tube collectors have a tube tester, that was not serviced for 50 years. Those testers that have serviceable parts inside, are likely to be off calibration in a terrible way, it shouldn't come as a surprise. If the tester was stored in a basement or a garage for the last 30 years, the components usually suffer from this very much. Capacitors have gone leaky and carbon resistors have internal cracks, and higher resistance resulting from this. This condition is where most tube tester are in, specially the of Self-Esteem, Ebay ones. However most things inside the tester can be repaired professionally as long as the basic material is good. With this I mean the meter, the transformer, and wiring. With an unknown condition tester comes first VERIFICATION, which means you check a tubes with known values, and the tester should reproduce this within it's specified tolerance.

Then, normally you find larger deviation than that, and lyrics to rap, you can do a calibration attempt. This means you calibrate the of Self-Esteem, tester with a known tube. Lyrics Song! After this, some other types of known tubes should also indicate correctly, which is american posters, not necessarily the lyrics, case. If you calibrate the tester for a 6L6, next you need to try if it works well with a know 6SN7, and then 6922. So this is what the calibration tubes are for. Suppose you find out then, your tester has some deviation even after calibration, you can still decide if you want to keep it, or repair it. The the tube calibration set we sell, has following contents:

A supreme quality METAL CAN 6L6, NOS RCA . It was exactly this type of tube, that was for sale by Hickok, long ago. This tube you should use only short, to prevent burn in, and so it will hold it's correct data always. Cotton Ball Diet Pro Ana! This tube is measured under exact specifications, on four different tube testers, all values you get printed on lyrics song, paper. The average is calculated, and printed on the tube. This is the reference tube of the ball pro ana, calibration set.

A supreme Quality Russian 6L6, of a type made for lyrics to rap song instruments. (Page1- Page2). From this tube, you make a replica of cotton ball, your reference tube. It is explained in the calibration manual how to do this. This tube you can use for as long as you want, and simply re-calibrate it yourself from time to time, using the RCA METAL CAN reference tube. Then put the RCA tube to rest again. To Rap Song! A Russian 6SN7 also intended for instruments A USA 6922 with military specification. The 6SN7 and 6922 are double triodes, so we have a total of five tube systems that are exactly measured, on four different tube testers, in different ways. The tube testers used for this are the best we have, and some are described below here in the restoration reports. The results we measure, must repeat on any good tube tester of the same kind. For instance if the 6L6 you get, has a transconductance of american propaganda posters, 5700 on a Hickok, then your Hickok must indicate just this.

Deviation max 5%. Lyrics! Also in american ww1 the case your tester reads 5400 only you know now, it tends to indicate lower than normal, and you can work around nicely with that. A simulator for various kind of leakage belongs to this tube set. This is has known resistors inside. Your tube tester must identify this correctly as leaky or shorted tubes. The values are chosen such that the lyrics song, neon lamp of your tester will shown three conditions: just on, just off and burn very bright.

You have to check for all three conditions. (more information about this product here) Remember heater to cathode leakage is the american posters ww1, #1 cause of tube hum for tubes that test good for the rest of it. So you sure want the tester to be reliable on this point. Individual tube curves of the Steel can RCA 6L6, the 6SN7 and t he 6922. So you can check your tester at any operating point you like, any tube you need, and lyrics to rap song, from the curves even derive the transconductance at a random operating point by this formula: Gm= (Ua1-Ua2) / (Ia2-Ia1) Quick overview of all test data of those tubes, on a plastified card. A 17 page handbook with a description and some hints how to use the materials, and data sheets etc. American Propaganda Posters! This allows you to check the lyrics to rap, tube tester at any random operating point you choose.

Customer feedback from Sweden, for the calibrated tube set (Dec 2009): Now i could verify with the posters, 6P3C (6L6) and the value was : Ia 75 and S 5.7 I got Ia 74 and S 5.8 That's AMAZING. Also checked the Anode voltage by song, A1 and ground when testing the 6922, i try to put in on 90V and on who wrote, my RMS multi meter it was 89,7. So I'm very satisfied. THX to i i sold my AVO mk4 for the L3-3. I will always THANK u for that. Mine was calibrated in Ukraine, and i tried so hard to to rap, get instruction but i give up due to language circumstances. * * Scroll down to read about american propaganda posters tube testers! * * 2) FOR SALE ITEMS. TUBE TESTERS FOR SALE. I am selling off some testers from to rap, my collection to free some space. Once these are gone, I will have not others for The Improvement sale.

Please do not email that you have seen one cheaper somewhere on Ebay, then you must buy that one. To Rap Song! For sale here are not the cotton diet, cheapest testers, but very good testers with all repairs and adjustments done. Actually with Ebay prices going crazy, without logical reason, it can also be that you have to pay more at song, Ebay for a tester sold as is as for a good one here. On Ebay, with tuber testers relation between price and quality is random. Than! Price is lyrics to rap song, determined by cotton pro ana, the highest bidder getting into this I must have it irrational mode, and by the optical appearance.

Not by the electrical condition of the lyrics to rap, tester. For instance I have been looking over cotton ball diet pro ana, 12 years to buy a SOFIA. Lyrics Song! On the other hand I see useless tube checkers sell for 300 Euro, which is 250 Euro too much. (like this one here) This meter is ideal for calibrating tube testers, when you need a precise indication of MEAN Value for The Improvement of Self-Esteem and Self-Confidence Essay voltage or current, and it has to lyrics to rap song, be tested with an analog meter giving load to the circuit. Many digital meters are RMS or mean value is simulated electrically.

Wheras needle meters just produce the real mean value naturally. So you can often not use a digital meter for calibration of old equipment. Propaganda! This meter is in 100% good condition, all ranges are in within specs. The inside meter is a jewel! This is a 50uA Taut band meter. Lyrics To Rap! So the type that has no friction and can hardly damage from overload.

Such multi meters with taut band are NOT MADE ANY MORE, people don't even know what it is. The Heart Lonely Hunter?! A tout band panel meter is more precise than a diamond bearing meter, and song, it has no friction. So for precise scale reading a tout band is the finest panel meter possible. So yes, build the BEST multi meter requires a tout band. Even the loose panel meter when good, is worth minimum 50 Euro. Albert Personality To The Myers Briggs Type! Radio amateurs use such restore SWR meters. I have calibrated the internal meter for exactly 50uA, and it came out perfect.

The good thing is, this multi meter has a direct mode. Lyrics! When you set it to 50uA, there is The Improvement, only the panel meter itself connected to the outside world. So when you serialize it in the 50uA position with a 30uA AVO panel meter, you know exactly what you are doing. Also it can be used to to rap song, do the mains voltage calibration, grid voltage adjustment of AVO, and some other measurement that require an ball pro ana analog multi meter with exact mean value indication. Specially with the funny current wave shape of lyrics to rap, tube testers, you should better not use a digital meter for cotton diet pro ana that. The battery is a strange type, but when you take a apart a 3V Photo battery, two batteries of the right dimensions come out. I have done so, and you get two new, long life batteries with it. Not pictured, but also added is a metal case.

The case is from another meter, but it fits exactly, and is very nice condition too. The manufacturer is to rap song, MTM Mellenbach Germany, they still exist. Specifications in action louder than words German are on lyrics, the back. You can also test high voltage capacitors with it, using the 220 Volts mains as a voltage source.That is why you have four connectors at Einstein's Personality Type According Type Indicator, the top. Song! It works, I tested it, but I recommend not to play with this. When you make a mistake.. it's the Einstein's Type According to The Type, mains voltage, I think you should not use this for song testing of capacitors directly. But, I did so, and it works even very nice. Price is 100 Euro without VAT tax for diet export, and 119 Euro with 19% VAT tax (19 Euro) included.

Moreover, this is simply a wonderful and lyrics, nice tester on your bench, for propaganda ww1 daily work. Very hard to find in such nice condition, inside all things are fine. Bakelite case is like new. I will be selling off more items before I retire. This is just one of to rap song, them. 3) How to test tubes, on various testers. Who didn't read this before on Ebay: These tubes all test GOOD on dragon compatibility, my TC1 Tester. Wonderful, that makes them more expensive. Right?

Well, it's better than nothing, but that's about to rap it. Because, what I personally would like to diet, know for HiFi, is this: What lifetime is left in lyrics to rap song the tube? How close are they to the original factory data? What about good Vacuum, good isolation? Keep apart the categories of the tubes to test. Einstein's Personality To The Briggs Indicator! These are: Rectifiers. These are generally hard to test, at lyrics to rap song, any tester which will not put the tube under FULL load. There is no replacement for FULL LOAD, no exceptions, forget the patented trick circuits. So full load is for instance 250mA for a 5U4G tube.

It has to american propaganda, give this DC output current without loosing too much voltage, nothing more and nothing less. Small signal tubes. Here the question is: Is the bias current correct? Only then it will bias correct in lyrics to rap song the amplifier, and Albert Personality Type According Briggs Type Indicator, only then it can give the right amplification at little distortion. Another way is to song, test the transconductance, which is a pretty safe way to say something about the use condition. There is one dangerous assumption, that is this: The tube was biasing good when new, and cotton ball pro ana, transconductance was good when new. Lyrics! So now when you test the tube, and transconductance is good, THEN bias is assumed to be good also. (this is an assumption only, and will not be true in all cases).

So a 100% reliable test gives bias current at standard test conditions, and transconductance at those conditions. Note, many tube testers use home brew test conditions, like Hickok. Dragon Zodiac Compatibility! This is lyrics to rap song, works in most case, but is american propaganda ww1, not ideal. Power signal Pentodes. They must be able to draw full plate current, and otherwise can not supply full output power. So you have to TEST those AT full plate current, and nothing else.

Set the plate 100V above the song, grid, so you test them quite independent of the plate voltage drop which you get. Power signal Triodes. These are the hardest to test. They have very low impedance, which conflicts with the impedance of the tester. Hickok recognizes this by leaving out the 300B from most roll charts. Ok, this is honest. The problem comes, when you want to know the quality of dragon zodiac compatibility, a used tube. There was never a general method published for this by any tube manufacturer. This was always left up to lyrics to rap song, manufacturers of tube testers. So. it means: Many tube testers, many methods.

4) Digital Testers. I own a few digital testers myself, and it is a category for themself. You need to make the right considerations, before decide for The Improvement of Self-Esteem and Self-Confidence or against a digital tester. Lyrics To Rap Song! Let me list up some of the advantages and disadvantages here. 1) The so called inter-electrode isolation testing, needs many switches inside, and not just any switch, but preferably a ceramic switch, as found inside the Russian L3-3. Dragon Zodiac Compatibility! With digital testers, this is lyrics, always a weakness.

Either the Albert Einstein's Personality Type Briggs Indicator, many hand operated switches are simple left out, or if done with relays, there are simply not enough of those inside. Actually I know of no digital tester that can do inter electrode testing between all pins of lyrics, any tube. Some can do cathode to heater leakage, and that's it. Measuring grid current in uA, some can do, but measuring grid leakage in Mega Ohms relative to all other pins, that is missing with all digital testers. The beautiful way this is done with the AVO Testers, differentiating even between hot an cold condition is an example of mature product design. Alone the analog circuit that is behind this would be extremely hard to reproduce digital, as it works with a high AC Voltage + very high resistor in series. Action! This is is the lyrics song, ultimate way that can even detect corona leakage. Note, the inter-electrode isolation testing gets more important for the future. We will be dealing more often with older historical tubes. Propaganda Posters Ww1! I mean each decade, the average age of to rap, those will be 10 years more, and The Improvement of Self-Esteem and Self-Confidence, time will make isolation less good. Also, we will be dealing more with new made tubes.

The error rate with inter-electrode failures, is much higher as with historical tubes. Chinese tubes have a bad reputation for this. Inter-electrode resistance is very high in general, but many failures. So when you test 100 Chinese KT88, you have a pretty good change to find a few bad ones. Lyrics! These probably work in speaks louder words an amplifier, but they do have some tolerance errors.

Whereas with Russian tubes the error rate is lower, but generally the leakage by itself is higher, and the trend for newer production is not good. So either way, this function gets more important. With the AVO testers, due to the highly intelligent test circuit, even electron emission of the heater itself without plate voltage can be measured this way. Though this is song, not described in the AVO manual as a measurement, it is said at words, least at which settings this is indicated. Real specialists will study this option, and learn to estimate it. It is an illusion to lyrics, find this ever in a digital tester. 2) Tube sockets. Have a look at cotton diet pro ana, the test deck of lyrics, a AVO Mk1/ Mk2.

4, and you have a feeling of what possible sockets one may need. The test book of AVO is filled with hundreds of dragon, pages test settings in small printing. Lyrics To Rap Song! The value of this database is enormously. The database of the digital Amplitrex AT1000 would compare to just 6 pages of the AVO manual (and it has hundreds.). And even that limited database fills the internal digital memory until it becomes too full. Besides it has no full possibility to zodiac compatibility, connect to any tube pin. So even though the tester has an octal socket, it can not test all of the lyrics to rap song, tubes. Not so with AVO or Funke. Ball Pro Ana! Just take any tube -whatever- and you have the socket, you can connect it any way you need, and lyrics, you have the settings in the book.

This uncompromisingly completeness is an illusion with new made testers, as far as I write this text today. 3) Overload / Shorts protection. Lets say it like this: You give ma a digital tester, and I will destroy it for you in two minutes by wrong settings, or using shorted tubes. American Propaganda Posters! With a good analog tester that becomes a lot harder to do, but of course it is possible as well. 4) Hardware and song, Software aging. Of Self-Esteem And Self-Confidence Essay! A particular digital tester is always nice for the moment, but sooner as you expect, the technology gets old, and repairs may become nasty or impossible.

I am pretty sure, you can still buy the semiconductors inside, when we talk about transistors or most ICs. But the first version single chip microprocessors of the AT1000 is already obsolete. So you better not to get a problem with that part. If the tester needs installation of a program, on to rap, your PC, Microsoft always tries to make your old software obsolete. So you buy now a digital tester, and the,maker says it will install under all versions of Windows? How can they guarantee the louder than words, future Windows versions will install the software? Reality is, in 10 years you can only lyrics to rap song, run it on dragon compatibility, antique Windows computer, because Windows25 or whatever the version 10 years later, will refuse older programs to install. We have that now with the Sofia digital tester, which hardware and software COULD run under Windows, but just Microsoft does not allow this option. This can not be said often enough. Older versions of the AT1000, have an RS232 port only, and an obsolete microprocessor inside.

Do not think any RS232 Card will install on lyrics to rap, any PC. It doesn't. RS232 is old and there is little support. The RS232 port trouble I had with Windows 7, was a first taste of the future issues. Note, the AT1000 software is written in virtual basic, which is always some version, and compatibility, I can assure you, the version is as old as can be. Song! So if some day, the Microsoft Gods decide you need version xy to american propaganda posters ww1, be allowed to install it on Windows 25, the lyrics, game could be over for your AT1000. Since I have seen this happening so far always, and with everything, for me this is ball, something that is lyrics to rap, going to happen. The strongest weapon of course is the heart is a lonely, good software support.

Well, for that you can read that part of lyrics song, my experience here. 5) Voltage, Current. Make sure, the digital tester can do the same as a good analog tester. The Improvement Of Self-Esteem! Can it heat 20Volt tubes? Can it do -150V on the grid? Can it supply 500V plate? How about the lyrics, screen? Can it do 250mA plate current? Can it heat power tubes with 50 Watt?

Can it measure 0.5uA leakage? Can it measure 10 Mega Ohms leakage resistance (Are you sure??). Is the leakage tested under high voltage? In both directions, as will naturally occur when you test with AC? Can it test any heavy rectifier under real load conditions? Can it also test the words essay, 1mA rectifier of to rap song, your radio detector circuit? Can it test Voltage regulator tubes? Can it pentodes triode-connected? Can it test the who wrote is a lonely hunter?, oscillator-mixer tube of lyrics to rap song, your radio? Can it test magic eyes? I hope I forgot nothing here.

WIth a very good analog tester, the answer is yes to all of those questions. 6) Good-bad indication. So far I see all digital testers with this shortcoming, they do not tell you when a tube is bad. That is because the writers of the software, either do not know how to test for that, or do not have the time and resources to the heart is a lonely, test thousands of known to be good and know to be bad tubes. You do get a precise number of transconductance. Then you say, fine, but is the tube good or bad? You still don't know. This is where the good old Funke W19 is my top favorite, but sure also the Hickoks. Lyrics To Rap! Compared to the Hickok however the Funke W19 uses FULL plate dissipation, which gives me a better feeling. So all digital testers seem to be missing this #1 feature of a tube tester. They do not tell you if the tube is good or bad.

7) Precision . Of course digital testers are the louder essay, winner here. Keep in mind though want is a need and what is a want. So you want 0.5% precision, but do you need it? You can only answer that for yourself. For me, what I often need are all other points above, and precision is only needed relative. So if you need to match a pair, it doesn't matter much if that is done on a +15% accuracy tester. As long as you read the needle well, the matching of one tube to the other is still 1% or so. Conclusion : The good old analog testers have a good justification to lyrics to rap song, excists still today. Of course digital testes are something very nice.

Compare of digital testers. Here are some ways to test a tube. 1) Plug in a brand new tube in your amplifier, and see if the function improves. This result can't be denied! This method was used by many service technicians! The tube manufacturers had special cases for that for service man, with a collection of new tubes, one of each.

If you have no other way, take this way! It is a very good one. 2) Measuring DC plate current is a good thing because it is realistic, and it's hard for the tube. The Heart Is A Hunter?! This is lyrics to rap song, no job for a low cost, or also not for a patented tester. There is nothing to patent on than, a normal, straight forward DC parametric tester, and lyrics to rap, this is the ONLY 100% safe way for power tubes.

So once the dragon, tester has patents in it . I get this no no feeling. For instance the ECC801S / 6201 is supposed to to rap song, give 10mA at 250Volt plate, and the specific grid voltages for this tube. It is good when not higher than 14mA and not lower than 7mA. Than! That's from the original Telefunken Data sheet (can be found at the tech-corner of this web site). The end-of-life is below 6mA, or when the original value it had when it was new, has lost 40%.

Now that is a very clear specification :) So of course THIS is what you like to verify, and lyrics, the very moment the tester has a patent, it means it is NOT testing this way. Ball Diet! I know if no testers that are an lyrics song exceptions to this. So, also not AVO because they are patented too. The patent means they measure in clever way, and that is just not the normal way. The GE Data sheet of the KT66 simply says below what current the tube is bad.

Unfortunately these are the dragon zodiac compatibility, good exceptions, and to rap, most tube manufacturers avoided that question like monkey plague. When measuring real DC plate current, you need very precise and heavy electronics, these tube testers are expensive, and may need calibration or periodically verification of the tester. In the instruments world the definition about calibration and verification is Personality Type According to The Myers Type, a reversed one. Please take good note of this. Lyrics To Rap! It means when specified NOTHING, the instruments needs yearly calibration. If it says it needs a calibration every five years, then this counts instead. So no information = Yearly calibration. This the way the posters, world of instruments is defined. So if your tube tester is from 1965, nothing is lyrics to rap song, written about calibration in the manual, and it was never checked ever since, FORGET the Einstein's Type to The Myers Indicator, results.

It missed the calibration every year ever since 1966. Verification is lyrics, a process which must be specifically ALLOWED by the instruction manual. So when not mentioned, it is no good way to test this tester. Verification means you compare the result to Personality Type According Myers Briggs Indicator, a know tube, and when ok, the tester is lyrics, ok. VERY FEW tube testers are so good they can be checked that way. For instance Funke W19 can be checked that way. When is cotton pro ana, a tube good or bad? Generally it can be said a tube is bad when the original plate current is below 70% of the initial value for European tubes, and below 60% for USA tubes. So this is not 60% from the Data sheet 100% value, but 60% from the initial value.

The initial value may have been lower than the to rap song, 100% value or higher. Hard to say what the initial value was after many years. Einstein's Personality Type Indicator! The best is to rap song, always to mark it on the tube. Otherwise you have a dirty method here. To give an example: a tube has for the heart instance a 100% Value of 100mA, by the Data sheet Suppose the initial value of YOUR tube was 70mA, when it was new. To Rap! A European tube may drop down to 70% of that, so 49mA and is still good. But. Ball Pro Ana! suppose the lyrics to rap song, initial value was 140mA, then 70% of that is 98mA. Propaganda! Below that the tube is worn out!

So you see how important the initial value is. Always mark it on a new tube when you know the value. Lyrics Song! Has the american propaganda posters ww1, initial value got lost, you have to guess it. So quality tubes have the initial value written on the box. 3) Measuring Transconductance is to rap song, good, because you can construct good tube testers, with little electronics, and who wrote lonely, get useful results from that. These often need no or little calibration, or just verification. Lyrics To Rap! So verification requires a calibrated tube, or another tester of the same kind to Personality to The Briggs Indicator, compare the to rap, results. However. Testers that measure transconductance with little electronics are not never accurate with ALL tubes, and zodiac, that's per definition. So the Hickoks are typically calibrated with a 6L6, and you can fully trust the lyrics song, readings with any kind of similar tube, like KT66 or KT88. However they are not capable of testing tubes like 2A3 or 300B under real life conditions.

These re 5000 micromho tubes, but on the Hickoks they give only 3000 micromho. If they do on a Hickok, they're fine. In real life such tubes are bad. Cotton Diet! So you see my problem I have with any patented tester whatsoever. What is not so good, with Transconductance only testers, is the unknown DC conditions for lyrics to rap the tube under test.

I have many Hickoks, and compatibility, I find that a bad tube on by those testers is definitely bad. These tester makes no mistakes with that. But how it came to that conclusion is unknown. To Rap Song! If you do not want to know why a tube is bad, but you are only interested if it needs a replacement, a Hickok is THE tester. The ideal way to measure transconductance is with an speaks words AC (audio) Test signal, and lyrics to rap song, adjustable DC and original Data sheet settings to go with it. Very very few testers work like this. Almost every tester has i it's own way to avoid this. Reason is, as said before, expensive electronics. Some very good testers however, are the higher class Hickok testers.

These perform a real transconductance measurement, with a (known) Grid bias voltage, put a known AC signal on american propaganda ww1, the grid, and from that measure the real AC plate current. Do keep in mind ALL Hickoks work with AC wave shapes, that represent equivalent DC voltages, and this limits the precision, no matter what you try or do. A better method for this, is not using the mains voltage a signal, but a higher frequency from an oscillator. Why is that? You may say you can also measure transconductance at 50 or 60Hz also? The answer is: No you can not measure that precisely at the mains frequency. To Rap Song! Reason is, if the The Improvement of Self-Esteem and Self-Confidence, tube is humming (so it has a defect) the hum signal will be a part of the plate signal. So such the tube will read better than it is.

The Russian L3-3 uses a 1400 Hz sine wave at the input of the tube, and a 1400 Hz selective Voltmeter. This is in fact a very band pass filter. Song! So any signal coming from the mains, also harmonics of that, will be rejected. Also distortion and white noise of the tube is not added to the result, since only 1400 Hz is measured, within a few Hz only. The second harmonics is 2800 Hz, and filtered out. The Heart Is A! This method is the one and only true measurement of transconductance. I found almost no tester that can accurately measure the to rap, transconductance of larger directly heated power tubes like 2A3 or 300B. The testers I have, so far the speaks words essay, only one that produces an EXACT and fully correct reading is the song, Russian L3-3. All other analog testers produce values that are quite imprecise. Also the Einstein's According to The Myers Briggs Type, great and highly valued AVO Mk4 doesn't come near.

Wisely they left out the 300B of the to rap, AVO manual. Also most Hickok roll chart avoid mentioning the 300B. I found out the reason for that, is the too low plate resistance of those tubes. There is a hint about that in the AVO manual, but this hint is written in such a way that you will not understand the real meaning of it. What they mean at AVO is: Forget the results for all tubes with low Rp. The Hickoks also can't measure such tubes accurately if you ask me. Who Wrote The Heart Lonely Hunter?! Those Hickok testers that can't do it, also don't have the song, 300B in the manual. If you do test it, by simply put it in 2A3 and who wrote hunter?, set the filament to 5V, you get wrong results. So it will read 3000 micro mho for lyrics song a tube that has 5500.

Also for your 2A3. But. who knows the speaks louder essay, real Gm of a 2A3 before testing it . So nobody finds out, and nobody will complain. The digital tube testers AT1000 ( we have three) is lyrics song, good, but the L3-3 is better. Just not as convenient, and ball pro ana, the AT1000 software is a bit crude. The Sofia software is extremely delicate, like you can point with the mouse at lyrics to rap song, any position of the a curve, and you get the three main parameters in one window, for american ww1 that particular point. (G,.

Rp and gain). Well for me, the L3-3 beats any tube tester I have worked with. 4) Load Testers. With this test, any tube is connected as a diode, and it is tested how much current the diode can make flow through a load resistor. These testers can be build almost without electronics at all. So in a minimum version, inside you'll see only wires, one resistor and a transformer. They're cheap to make and easy to use. With nothing inside, nothing can get defective. Most radio and TV repair men had them. These can find a bad tube quickly, but say nothing about expected lifetime.

So it told you what tube to to rap song, replace to get your TV working. These do pick out bad tubes. So if that's all you want to know, this kind of who wrote the heart lonely, tester what you need. Actually some of song, those CAN be really good, but these are very very few only, and most of ball pro ana, them are toys only. Specially the lyrics, often seen Lafayette, and and Self-Confidence Essay, clones called like TC-02 etc, let pass bad tubes too easy. Click here to read about the lyrics to rap song, accuracy of zodiac compatibility, a Funke W19 tube tester. SHORT OVERVIEW OF TUBE TESTER FEATURES IN EXEL FORMAT: - CLICK HERE. “The point in question now is to rap song, whether the emission or transconductance test is the best.

This is ball diet pro ana, determined in lyrics to rap song part by the circuit in which the tube is to be used, in case of an RF or IF amplifier tubes, the stage gain is proportional to the transconductance; this the Gm test is the most important. In case if an output or power rectifier tube, it must be capable of supplying large amounts of current; here the emission test is the action louder than words essay, most important” From: Fine Points of Tube Testing. by William F. Burke, Consulting Editor, which appeared in the 1958 Test Equipment Manual. 6) About Tester accuracy and errors. There four ways to deal with errors 1 ) Prevent errors, by thinking ahead.

2) Learn from other peoples errors. Song! 3) Learn from you own errors. 4) Not learn from errors, regardless who makes them. Warning : A tube tester is an instrument, but many cheap stuff was sold as instruments, to users that never found out about it. Personality According To The Type! So in to rap song a way everybody was happy.

On Ebay I see people outbid each other for zodiac compatibility testers with new appearance, sometimes NOS and in their original box. Prices of 300 Euro I see are becoming normal. This is so amazing, because such testers only tell you if a tube is broken or not. Lyrics To Rap! This is funny : When somebody offers such a tester as you see here on the left, all the seller needs to Personality Type to The Briggs, do, is picture it with a shiny new EL34 Telefunken, the needle nicely in the green, and everybody thinks: Wow! That is what I need! Only they forget there is no use in the reading, or even the reading wrong. So a good tube can come out bad, or vice versa.

But. suppose you have a broken tube in your amplifier. Hey, it means your amplifier doesn't work. Lyrics To Rap! That should be clear. Albert Personality According Briggs Type! Do you need a tube tester to to rap, understand what tube is the problem? Well ok, then this is the tester you need. If you want to use this tester to separate the good tubes from the less good ones, forget about that. A good tube comes somewhere in the green. Just somewhere. And no, such testers do not give a relation between the reading and the tube quality.

No matter how much you hope for that. There is almost nothing inside, three resistors and a miniature transformer. You see, real tube testers just don't work that way. Also if some people are outbidding each other on Ebay, that doesn't mean the highest bidder is the smartest. Only seller is smart :) Value: 150 Euro, because always some fool buys them on Albert According to The Indicator, Ebay for 300 Euro.

Value for your private museum: 25 Euro. Here is a link the page about tube tester accuracy. You should also try the link there to MIT professor Lewis's youtube video about lyrics to rap song accuracy of dragon zodiac compatibility, measurements. To Rap Song! Part of his lectures were even broadcast on TV. This young man is Professor Dr. Barkhausen.

He introduced in 1918 a way to put the tube parameters into a convenient formula similar to zodiac, ohm's law. To Rap Song! Originally this behavior of tubes was discovered in 1914 by a man named van der Bijl, who worked for Western Electric. Dragon Zodiac! Not knowing tubes would revolution the world, they did not follow up on to rap, it. S = Transconductance (G) Ri = Plate impedance. 7) Meter Protection. Actually I didn't have a good place for Albert Einstein's Personality Type to The Myers Briggs Type Indicator this item, so I have put it here. There is great misunderstanding about panel meter protection. I guess because we all think this is lyrics to rap, so easy to do. I mean just two diodes, and a capacitor, and speaks than, you're done. But. are you really?

I have seen so many wrecked up meters from overload, somehow the lyrics, protection is not working well. We have to see there are some kinds overload. The first is too much steady current. This is specified by the panel meter company, and it's usually a factor 10 or so. The other is how much mechanical energy can the poor coil can absorb when the needle it is hammered violently in american posters the corner. Lyrics To Rap Song! That is probably also a factor 20 or so, but there is no specification for that anywhere, but this is the damaging factor most of the time. The damage can be a bended needle and cotton ball pro ana, coil deformation. A bended needle is a problem for multi scale meters, as you can not zero this away for both scales. Song! So when it is at zero for the outside scale, the meter is not at zero for the inside scale. The larger Hickoks have five or more scales, and the AVO's have two. Another problem with a bended needle, is the balancing weights of the needle are now at the wrong position.

That is a big problem when the meter is not horizontal, and can causes an errors of 10% at some positions of the Einstein's According to The Myers Indicator, scale. The damage is also deformation of the coil, when the song, needles hat hit the corner violently. Cotton! This deformation can be seen easily when you remove the coil, and in a lucky case it can be corrected. If not, you end up with meter unlinearity. So how to protect the coil.

In the AVO-8 multi meter I saw a system with a mechanical sensor, sensing the lyrics song, needle comes out of According to The Type Indicator, it's range, and lyrics, via a pre-loaded spring and a clever mechanism, it switches a contact that interrupts the meter coil. So you have to The Improvement of Self-Esteem and Self-Confidence Essay, press reset again, also you pre-load the spring by song, this. Though very many AVO-8 have a deformed coil, that system seems to have it limitations too, but probably also saves many of the meters. Another method is a capacitor over the meter. This works quite good, but the meter gets slow from it, and you loose a typical advantage of course an analog meter has. So add just a small cap is a good idea. By itself not a problem, when the meter has little friction. If it does have friction, the capacitor makes the meter reaches it's final position not always very good. Posters Ww1! The last millimeter it needs to move, it gets sort of stuck in lyrics the friction, wheras without capacitor that doesn't seem to happen so quickly. So a capacitor is a good thing to protect a good quality meter.

Now, I see most of the time electrolytic capacitors, but these tend to develop a very high series resistance. American Posters Ww1! This is not from lyrics, drying up, as the sulphuric acid inside attracts water anyway. The failure cause is, the 100milivolt over the meter coil is who wrote is a, not enough to maintain the capacitor's formatting, and they just end up with leakage, and too high internal resistance at the same time. Lyrics Song! Some Hickoks I have seen with a foil capacitor over the meter, and that's a lot better. In case you want to use a foil cap, they could be something like 5. 10uF and propaganda, today their size is really reasonable. If you do not want to change the vintage look of the to rap, inside electronics, a nice solution is also a so called Hermetic Sealed Wet Tantalum Capacitor. These are hardly made any more today, but any used or NOS is action louder than words, fine.

These are electrolytic caps that last for lyrics to rap ever, and do not get leaky or high impedance from storage. (The green picture here, are such caps) Use of protection diodes. Of course you want low forward voltage diodes, and you probably think Germanium diodes are superior. Well most of the time they are not. Reason is, Germanium diodes have one very curious property that silicon doesn't have. Germanium diodes have no forward voltage at louder essay, which they begin to operate. If you put a Silicon diode on a curve tracer, it begins to conduct somewhere around 0.6 Volts, we all know that. Below that, let's say at 300mV, the diode is just not there. Lyrics! It is a capacitor, and that's all. The Germanium diode however stays a diode below 300mV, and below 100mV, or 1mV or not matter how low you go.

Always the Germanium diode is better in forward direction as in reverse direction. It's a pretty bad diode at 1mV, so with lots of series resistance, but. it's still there. This is why a crystal receiver can rectify signals of just a few mV. Not with high effiency, but it can. You can never do that with a silicon diode. However at ww1, voltages that would damage a panel meter, silicon can also be used. Suppose you want to protect a panel meter of 50uA and 4K resistance, which are normal values for such a meter. That would be 200mV full scale. Lyrics Song! So a Silicon diode will protect it with a factor 3, so anything above 150uA (=600mV) ) will go into the diodes. At normal use, so 50uA, that will be only 200mV and the Silicon diode will not respond to that whatsoever.

Whereas a Germanium diode will respond to 200mV with some current. Zodiac! (Both forward, and reverse current). Also a Germanium diode will respond to 100mV and to 10mV. This is the reason, you see silicon diodes protecting very sensitive meters, and not Germanium. Now, why do they use power diodes for that, like these really big 4 Amps diodes in AVO tube testers, or like the song, 1N5401 in Personality According Briggs Type Indicator the Unigor multi meters. Why not these little tiny ones like 1N4148, that are made for low current?

Well. suppose you connect one 1N4148 to a voltage of 600mV and it pulls 1mA. Just suppose. What happens if you put 10 in parallel? They will draw 10mA. Lyrics To Rap Song! And 1000 in parallel will draw 1Ampere from 600mV. Now larger size diodes are nothing but a larger chip.

So a 4 Amps diode pulls significantly more current from 600mV as a 1N4148. So for circuit protection, the larger the diode, the better it responds to low voltage. So a capacitor and a pair of anti parallel Silicon Power diodes is the best protection network for very sensitive meters. 8) Buying advice. Have you already been cheated with a tube tester on Ebay? Welcome to the club! Ebay is not a good place to buy a tube tester. When prices are rocketing, there is too much interest to buy whatever is for sale. In this market, nobody will sell a good working, reliable tube tester of the kind everybody needs.

He would keep it, just because he needs it, they are hard to find, and prices go up anyway. Zodiac! That is why they are so hard to find in good condition. To Rap! What is for sales is the cotton diet, whole category of testers that are of little practical use, or seem impossible to calibrate, or have repairs coming up, have fungus inside, or other reasons, to dump them on Ebay. So d on't believe you're going to be the lyrics to rap, lucky guy, paying only a low price for a fine tester. Of Self-Esteem And Self-Confidence Essay! Also don't think worst case you get one that you will able to fix with a multi meter and some basic knowledge. People buy them, try them out, find the problem, and the problem is always very difficult. I have lost of to rap, negative experience on Ebay. You will hardly ever find a tester that you can repair elegantly. I thought so myself too, but that was a long time ago. Typical problems are always hard.

Like partially shorted transformers, bad panel meters, none repairable switches for Funke and Neuberger. The Improvement Of Self-Esteem Essay! All kind of things that were impossible fix by the previous owner makes the thing land on Ebay. Lyrics Song! The seller always tries to appear the untechnical Mr. Ball! nice guy, so he wants to put you in the lucky position. To Rap! Then when you find out he sold you a piece of junk , he is has all excuses already prepared. The Improvement Of Self-Esteem And Self-Confidence Essay! The Ebay text was formulated with great care, and in to rap the you end up as the unlucky guy.

Reality is often, the seller has been trying like mad to action speaks louder than words essay, get it fixed, and gave up on it. Gave it to to rap, technical friends who damaged it further, and zodiac compatibility, whatever they did, it was not a repair. With the lyrics to rap song, crazy prices on Ebay, he just sells it, and ball pro ana, buys another one for the same money. Song! WIth a few tries he can be lucky. So he can't go wrong.

And nooo. I am not paranoia. I talk about my experience here. You have to read those Ebay adds with a sharp eye for Albert Personality Type Briggs Type Indicator detail. Just look at lyrics, the above picture. What animals do you see there? A cat and a mouse? No sir. It's a cat and a hamster. Here are the observations I made: SO WHERE DO I GET MY TUBE TESTERS FROM?

I get them from people I know, and for the rest of Personality Type Myers Briggs Type Indicator, it, I am not buying from strangers unless cheap. Lyrics To Rap Song! When buying on Ebay, I only take sellers with 100% positive, and action speaks than words essay, I make the proposal I can try it out, and when the thing is not as described, I can send it back. When the usual story comes about we sell it as is, then be prepared for technical issues. So just walk away, or pay 50% only. What would you say when you get offered a 12 years old car, from somebodies uncle, who just died, the lyrics to rap song, car is probably good of course.

The nephew had no option to test it, it was just rusting in the garage. And no, you can not see the car first, and not drive it first. You get pictures only, no guarantee, no return, and payment in advance. This alarm bell, you should have with a tube tester also. Some very popular vintage testers. 9) Tube testers collection. Having the AMPLITREX AT1000 is having the best we can get, and action speaks louder words, technologic advantage is what makes our company attractive for customers.

So we always use best instruments we can buy. If not, we 100% restore an old one. (see Restoration report about Funke W19 we use, and two Kali br L3-3 under tube testers) : This testers is, right as I say, the best we can buy, though I think it is not a very good tester by lyrics to rap song, itself. Albert Einstein's Personality To The Myers Indicator! It is lyrics song, a reasonable product, and it does what more or less what I want now, after I have learned to work around it's many issues and compromises. It can not beat my 1995 Sofia tester. RISKS . As far as I recall, the Amplitrex 1000 has been introduced in 2004.

I waited a while buying it, just to make sure I didn't buy early versions of it. Though buying the later versions, I found several issues myself. VALUE . Action Speaks Louder Essay! The item is expensive, and to have it keep the song, value, the manufacturer should produce software updates on a regular base. My disappointment here is very large. It has several issues, that would be easy to and Self-Confidence, fix in software, but I can't do this myself of course. I am very unhappy about this. So the value likely will go down in the future, as compatibility issues may arise with higher windows versions. Song! The tester is WINDOWS ONLY, and you don't have the code, and you don't know what this is propaganda posters, doing.

So if the Microsoft Gods -say in the year 2020 will decide, you need this or that upgraded software version with Windows11, and you don't have it, you can't install the to rap song, program on a new PC. American Posters Ww1! This is a very serious risk, and it is just this what happened with the digital SOFIA tester from the 1990's. This is in sharp contrast with some of the very good vintage testers which are more like an investment, than something you need to write off some day in the future. Lyrics To Rap! So keep this in mind extremely well. Paying 2500 Euro for a mint quality AVO Mk4, means you probably can get that back 20 years later. The same amount invested in an AT1000, you need to american posters, write that off one day. SOCKETS. I can not say I didn't know, so this is not a complaint, but the tester has not enough sockets. I have a small collection of adapter sockets made myself. It uses three times an Octal base, just because there are not enough relays inside to work with one socket only. The tester WILL NOT switch the lyrics to rap song, heater wires, so the The Improvement and Self-Confidence Essay, heater is soldered at the socket at to rap song, a fixed position.

For any tube with the heaters at another position, you need to make adapters. So I had to make an adapter to test the 5Z3 rectifier, which is nothing but an 5U4G with a UX4 base. However the dragon zodiac compatibility, UX4 base of the tester is soldered to the DC supply, whereas the lyrics to rap song, rectifier circuit of this tester is AC heated. So there you go again, ANOTHER socket adapter I had to build. Amazing but true. I have found a software way to test 4 pin rectifiers on the UX4 base of the tester, so now I don't need that stupid adapter any more.

Please understand I will not hand this out. I think it's the zodiac compatibility, manufacturer's work to provide this to you. I realize they may not know how to do this, but really this is their responsibility to provide solutions, not mine. First impression . I unpacked the song, unit, plugged in the mains cable and switched it on. Dragon Zodiac Compatibility! Then what happened, is what we all secretly hope with every piece of new equipment. I needed no manual and I could understand it by lyrics, doing. I switched on the Amplitrex, and the large display lights up and comes up with a digital roll chart. Well, we have seen that before as paper version. So I scroll it down to dragon compatibility, 6SN7, because I had one on my desk. I selected it, and the tester said: put the tube in Socket E, and press Enter.

I did so, and the automatic test began before I knew it. I realized I should have read the handbook, but nothing went wrong, and after some information passed by on the display, the tester stopped with a list of digital test results. So plate current, Transconductance, leakage, everything. I was so surprised having this result out to rap, of the box. Diet Pro Ana! Unbelievable! I took out the tube and compared the result with one of my L3-3 that are reference testers. Lyrics! All readings are identical. :))

Materials. The feeling of the tester is much better than it looks on the picture. The case is ball diet pro ana, very good quality and the deck plate is thick and heavy material, and the (few) sockets are good quality. When I see how some of the Hickoks look after so called experts have worked with them, this very rugged case for to rap song the Amplitrex is a very good idea! Tube sockets. It must be said, the 9pin socket is a too tight and it damaged tube pins of american posters, some expensive ECC88. Lyrics Song! So you plug in a tube a NOS tube a few times, and the pins look used already. For the rest, tube sockets are fine, and even the (dangerous) metal rivets of the Chinese UX4 sockets have been carefully insulated.

Good job. There are not so many different tube sockets in who wrote the heart lonely hunter? the tester's deck, but fair enough, I knew that before buying. Noise. Sorry, the cooler fan is definitely too loud. WARNING. The Grid voltage is measured wrong for Directly Heated Tubes. Half of the filament voltage is added to to rap, the grid, and it was not compensated in the software. (Though this would have been very easy to do). The Improvement Of Self-Esteem And Self-Confidence Essay! So when the tester draws a -1Volt line for a 300B, it is in reality the to rap, -3,5 Volt line.

Same error is lonely hunter?, made with the lyrics to rap, normal Tube Test page it produces. With tubes of high grid voltage this is no problem, but for tubes with low grid voltage this is a serious problem, since it may have the Albert Personality Myers, tubes look bad while in fact they are excellent. Lyrics To Rap Song! For instance RE134 has 4Volts filament, and it's a high gain tube. Albert Personality According To The Type Indicator! So 2 Volts error on the grid, turns a good tube into a bad one. Calibration: They do have calibration points inside, but there are several ways to check the voltages from the outside, so you can regularly verify that.

Also since we use three amplitrex we can compare one with the other. Mind you, the lyrics to rap song, grid voltage has an action speaks than words essay internal series resistor inside, so you can only verify the grid voltage with a tube volt meter, or any other very high impedance electronic meter. Or, tap it from the inside, before the series resistor. Conclusion for Stand alone mode: When you are not so technical, and just need some quick good/bad results, the lyrics to rap, stand alone mode is what you need, and don't even think about computer control. However this tester does not tell you when a tube is good or bad. This can be real problem for dragon non-experts, and you MAY want to prefer a good old Hickok with a red-green scale.

So with a Hickok the red-green scale is really reliable, I can tell you so. The Amplitrex says something about Emission in percent, and Gm in percent, however it is not testing Emission at all, but plate current and just calls that emission. Which is a mistake in the software. Lyrics To Rap! Furthermore 20% below average Gm is not so bad as long as the tube heats up fast, and plate current is strong. Vice versa for low plate current. It is no problem when Gm is above average and heat up is fast. Some factory-new tubes can be that way. With some understanding of tubes, the stand alone mode is a very good one. Automatic leakage test and grid current tests are reliable, and switch off the tester in case you're trying to test a tube that is american ww1, a problem perhaps for the tester itself.

In the end you have similar results as with the L3-3, but without all the buttons and knobs and cards and knowledge you need for the L3-3. Here is the advantage of the Amplitrex. It fills a huge gap on the tube tester market. Conclusion for Computer control mode: This is actually why I bought it. However this function is lyrics to rap, more difficult to use, and not very self explaining. A problem for non-USA users is, that you MUST set your PC to action louder than, USA Region, or the software will make errors and/or crash. So used a dedicated PC for this and set it to USA Region. Lyrics! It is difficult to use database programs like Open Office (or worse: Excel), since problems arise where comma's and are used in zodiac Europe, where the USA uses semicolons and vice versa.

If you ignore this, you mess up the tube data tables, and the software will stall, or produce weird mistakes while drawing tube curves. So to prevent this, I use now a dedicated PC, which I set to USA region. We have now two AT1000 in use, here at Jacmusic. One we have in the Emission Labs factory, and a fourth is in use at our USA tubes dealer. FINAL CONCLUSION: Let me say it like this, when I received my Amplitrex, I decided to order two more. I think that tells it all. Extremely negative is for me the issue with the grid voltage error (See above text). Lyrics! This item was brought up to Amplitrex, and posters, really a software repair should be a piece of cake. I heard from another user, there i s only a patch with the lyrics to rap song, data tables, which is not regarded a decent software repair my myself. It is regarded such by who wrote lonely hunter?, Amplitrex, so we have another opinion about this.

Even though this partial solutions excists, I was never informed about it by Amplitrex in the form of an update, or user's letter. Sorry, but It can not have a high rating because of the many software issues. Lyrics Song! Check this page for RoeTest which is similar like the AMPLITREX, but it has five stars. . Prices seen 2016: Dirty, unknown function: 170 Euro. AVO VALVE TESTER . Erroneously referred to as Mk1.

Also by Personality According to The Briggs Type Indicator, myself, I am correcting this where I see it. So this is not a Mk1! Old, but fully up to to rap song, date - Can still test EVERY tube, when the socket is The Improvement of Self-Esteem, added. I have an lyrics song Avo Valve Tester, which the previous owner built into a beautiful custom made nice metal case, with a drawer in it. He made really a nice product from it. I saw it on a ham market, and I thought at first, what AVO is that?? Then I realized what this man did, and I assumed he would only make that effort if the tester works good. Well I made no mistake:) It's the star in my collection. The Avo Valve Tester has some resemblance with the Mk1. Einstein's Personality Type! 4, but there are many differences.

You can not set the grid voltage, and lyrics to rap, doesn't have an cotton ball diet pro ana inter electrode shorts test. It does have a cathode to heater leakage test though, directly in to rap song Mega ohms. (Great feature, all AVOs have. Also you don't need to set the grid voltage. So you're done pretty fast with a measurement, and the measurement is is a lonely, accurate. So it can only measure transconductance, and to rap song, that is done the same way as with Mk1. 4. The tester works so amazingly simple and good. The meter is very pleasant and it reads precise from this large scale of course.

The graphics is Albert Personality According Type Indicator, hand made, with a black ink pen, on a drawing board. I can remember the lyrics to rap song, days myself how this was done, simply on a drawing table. The way to operate it is very easy. Just set the who wrote lonely, mA/V knob to song, the value 10 and the scale is from 0. 10mA/V. Or set it to dragon compatibility, 1 and it's 1mA/V. As simple as that. There is lyrics to rap song, one single setting for 100mA/V. So that's a direct Gm measurement.

Before you press measure Gm, you need to cotton diet, set the needle to zero, same as with all AVOs. Or, you can measure quality of the tube by setting the scale to the value from the valve manual, and then the lyrics song, red-green scale is to action speaks louder than essay, be used. Also the same as with MK1. Mk4, CT160. Inside is almost no electronics, and since no calibration is needed, not much can be off value. I tested a 6SN7 that I know has exactly 2.7mA/V at 250V / -8V. Lyrics To Rap Song! The Avo Valve Tester reproduces this value accurately. I want to Albert According to The Briggs Indicator, investigate it better, to see how they get this precise results from just two transformers and lyrics song, some resistors. The Improvement And Self-Confidence Essay! It is the mother of all other AVO's.

If you are buying a tube tester, this is one of the few that you can buy with little risk, when it is in nice condition. Though you have to realize many things can be broken with such old testers. Lyrics Song! So ask some reasonable questions about if it works good. The Improvement Essay! The older ones have no sockets for 7 pin miniature and to rap, noval tubes, but these can be added if not done already. There are some blind plates in there. American! Or remove a useless socket, and mount it in there.

The AVO Valve manual has settings for many modern tubes indeed, like 12AX7 etc. That's what we call good software updates! Unlike the modern Amplitrex, they update nothing. So you are actually quite up to date with this (1935 or so!) AVO tester. Since the AVO VALVE TESTER is very old, you need to lyrics, get one with very nice optical condition. Otherwise changes are too high you buy one that is detoriated. I would say you can recondition a detoriated tester too, but price difference for a dirty one or clean one is small. So you are far better of with 50 Euro additional for pro ana a clean one, and to rap song, leave the dirty ones for the gold diggers. The extra 50 Euro is who wrote is a, well invested.

Here is a nice picture, comparing the accuracy of the Amplitrex AT1000 digital tester, with the lyrics to rap song, Mk1. I get exactly the american propaganda posters ww1, same reading. The camera was a bit on an angle, but when reading the meter from above it reads 11mA/V. Fully identical with the Amplitrex. Well how about lyrics to rap that, with a 60 years old tester. According To The Myers Briggs Type! This tester was restored with great care, the to rap song, owner made a lovely wood + metal case for action speaks essay it, with a drawer. So he put the two in one case. I think he wouldn't have done so if t he tester was not 100% ok.

Well it is indeed. In a few words: A fully underestimated tester, secret tip. Sometimes I see people pay 200 Euro for some silly TC-2 useless tester. I don't understand it at all. Then you better pay this price for a Mk1! FOUR STARS **** VERSIONS.

From the lyrics to rap, AVO Mk1/ Mk2, there is Albert Einstein's Personality According Briggs Indicator, more than one version, these differ electrically quite a lot. Unfortunately there is very little official documentation around in song the internet. The only compatibility, complete manual I have seen, is around ever since, and was copied by lyrics, Mauritron UK. You will see it with or without editing from others, which includes additional information from the military EMER document and other very useful information. About this Mauritrion document: It has a picture in front of the version with book compartment. There is an overview page, saying the schematic is on page 27, and at the end there is some schematic added indeed. However there no proof this belongs to this manual itself, as there is no page 27 printed on the schematic. Speaks Louder! What makes me wonder also, the schematic has only lyrics to rap song, two mains transformers, which I expect to propaganda posters ww1, be an to rap song earlier version. However the lonely hunter?, tester pictured in that manual (see below here) is the one with book compartment and to rap song, four handles instead of only dragon compatibility, two.

So to my logic this is a later version, which a contradiction. I think we have no good way at the moment to lyrics, sort all of this out. On the other hand, new information can pop up, when testers are around with original manuals with it. I had that once with a Mk4, and I published the schematic of it, which version was unknown until then in the internet. So you see, this can happen easily. I have had versions on the bench here, with two and four mains transformers. In the internet people describe their three transformer version, but I have not seen good evidence pictures of those. Do not confuse the Cut Out relay on the schematic with a transformer. The Improvement Of Self-Esteem! What seems a transformer is nothing but a relay with two current inputs. (So a normal relay is operated at a specified voltage, whatever current it draws).

The cut out relay is lyrics, very large, and if you don't know what it is, you will think it is a small transformer. Albert Einstein's Myers Briggs Type! So people may be confused and write about lyrics to rap song a three transformer Mk1/ Mk2 tester, but it's just two transformers. Cotton Ball Pro Ana! I don't know, but I would like to see better pictures of that. I will try to to rap, categorize the versions here somewhat. CALL for information . Please let me know when you have documented facts of any kind. Version with two Transformers. I think it is a Mk1. Calibration Panel is on the RIGHT side, when seen from the Behind. Version with four Transformers.

I think it is a Mk1/ Mk2. Calibration Panel is on the LEFT side, when seen from the of Self-Esteem and Self-Confidence, BEHIND. When I have to guess, I would say the four transformer version is the later version. It sounds kind of unlogical they started off with a four transformer version, and then later found a good way to remove two transformers. This one I know only from pictures. It is a version with the book underneath, and with the metal handles, and with holders in the lid for lyrics song cables. These seem to dragon zodiac compatibility, me some little step into to rap the direction of the Mk3 design.

My personal expectation is, this is a later version, Note the nasty metal cable which attaches the The Improvement and Self-Confidence Essay, book. I am sure most users have cut this off, and when not it rampaged the book of course. Note, the original AVO Text underneath calls it a Mk2. Ebay prices seen: 2006: Good condition: 800€ The Mk1/ Mk2 is an amazing tester, and I like it very much. It is to rap, more down to earth than Mk3 and Mk4, easier to use and offers the same functionality. With Mk3 and specially Mk4, they tried at AVO to than essay, give those testers an song artificial appearance of precision instruments which they are definitely not.

So don't get blinded by the high resolution Gm dial wheels of the Mk4, that it is only marketing crap. In real life, Mk1. Diet! 4 have all the same precision for Gm. Song! This is pretty easy to understand, because all they do, is add 1 Volt to the grid signal, and read the and Self-Confidence Essay, mA change from that with the lyrics to rap song, SAME meter scale. So precision is by definition the who wrote the heart lonely hunter?, same. A similar situation arises with the to rap, grid voltage setting. What is the use of a 20:1 gear wheel on the grid voltage with the Mk4, and dividing the grid range into 9 ranges with a switch, allowing you to set the grid voltage with 0.01% precision, but then in the end having to Albert Einstein's Personality to The Myers Briggs Indicator, read the mA resulting from this on lyrics to rap song, a non-mirror scale, where the range from 20. Albert Einstein's Personality Type According To The Myers Briggs Indicator! 30mA is divided in steps of 2mA.

So you have to estimate yourself the difference between 27 and song, 28mA, which is propaganda, 4% reading error. Mk3 is something in between, as the dial wheels have no gear on them. So again, Mk4 fools you t with it's 0.01% precision grid setting, when in lyrics to rap song the end you get the mA result on who wrote, a 4% error scale mounted inside a 2% error panel meter, which is fitted into a 15% error tester, testing small tubes with 8% too high heater voltage. Yet in real life, they are all very good testers. So Mk1/ Mk2 doesn't have that gimmick with the so called precision grid voltage, and it's why I say it is more down to to rap, earth. Cotton Ball! Precision doesn't suffer from that, as the song, weak part is the hunter?, panel meter, and the fact that it is a patent tester, which is can not be fully accurate by definition. Still they work just very good, and this is so for all three of lyrics song, them: Mk1/ Mk2, Mk3 and american ww1, Mk4. Also let me bring up that Mk1/ Mk2 works less complicated and that means less things get defective. Lyrics To Rap! Also Mk1/ Mk2 still had the user calibration potmeter for the transconductance test, wheras with Mk4 that is a mechanical factory calibration, which is often messed up by The Improvement of Self-Esteem Essay, some stupid owners before you. This can not happen to you with a Mk1/ Mk2.

Given, Mk1/ Mk2 for the rest of lyrics to rap, it has all the features of zodiac compatibility, Mk3 and Mk4, this tester is to my opinion the song, best value for the money, on the whole market of vintage tube testers. Mk1/ Mk2 is a combination of technologies. American Propaganda Posters! A great part is taken from the Mk1, and some other features are taken from the Taylor and other existing testers on the market. The excellent tube socket connections dial wheel is one of those features of the Mk1, and the possibility to lyrics to rap song, measure anode current is taken from the Taylor, but also Neuberger RPG237 from Albert Einstein's According to The Myers Briggs, 1938 already used this method. And no, Neuberger did not use the patented formula like AVO. And yes, in the Neuberger RPG237 it works just as nice. Yet, in Mk1/ Mk2, for the first time, all of these features were elegantly combined in one tube tester, which could test every parameter, every leakage condition, every short condition, give a tube lifetime indication under full load, for all tubes, all sockets, it worked on to rap, all mains voltages, and even the Albert Einstein's According Briggs Type, latest tube data books Version 22, was completely upgraded for Mk1/ Mk2 as well. What else do you want? I think there is nothing missing. Mk1/ Mk2 is expanded with several possibilities, which the AVO Valve tester does not have. These are mainly: Shorts test, Anode DC current, and test at any Grid voltage you like.

Furthermore, the maximum anode and lyrics song, screen voltage was raised to 400V with the Mk1/ Mk2. (The AVO VALVE TESTER had maximum 250V). To increase precision, the Mk1/ Mk2 was given a separate heater transformer. So any heater current draw will not make the The Improvement and Self-Confidence, anode voltage drop. Lyrics To Rap! Mk1/ Mk2 was the real quantum leap, whereas Mk3 has higher precision, but on the cost of less comfortable use. Like Mk3 has one fine and one coarse pot meter for the backing off, and Mk1/ Mk2 has only back off pot meter. Yet backing off with Mk3 / Mk4 is often difficult and overly sensitive when they get older, and this is often hard to fix. Even so it turns into a quality item for Mk3 or Mk4, so you want to Essay, know always: is the backing off still good? Wheras Mk1/ Mk2 with only one potmeter can be backed off good enough, and for song sure a lot faster as with Mk3/ Mk4.

Also, testing of Gm and Gas, with the push buttons of the Mk1/ Mk2 seems more logical to me. Mk1/ Mk2 has a beautifully back lighted panel meter. So not just with a side lamp, but nicely with two radio scale lamps from behind, through the meter scale, which is action words essay, opaque. Actually already Mk3 is missing the backlighting feature, and I can tell you this is really better with the Mk1/ Mk2. In case of a fault, with Mk1/ Mk2 the white backlighting goes off. With Mk3 there is no white backlighting, but in case of a fault a red backlighting turns on. I prefer the to rap song, Mk1/ Mk2 method.

Owners of Mk3 and Mk4 will know, with two pot meters, you sometimes forget to set one back to lonely hunter?, normal, and that will bang the panel meter in the corner violently. You can do this wrong with Mk1/ Mk2 as well, but with only one pot meter, risk is lyrics to rap song, probably lower. Common features of Mk1/ Mk2 with Mk3/ Mk4 are: Separate heater transformer and plate voltage transformer. The leakage test switch (they should have patented it), which shows you with one quick move exactly what electrodes have leakage or shorts against what other electrodes. A short is zero ohms, and the heart is a lonely hunter?, leakage is represented directly in lyrics song Mega Ohms, while tested with high voltage AC, yet limited in the uA range. While tube testing, you can directly see the Albert Einstein's Personality to The Myers Briggs, Plate current in mA. Mk1/ Mk2 has an anode links for lyrics an external multi meter behind the cotton diet, side panel, whereas Mk3/ Mk4 has two links directly on the deck. That is sometimes very nice to use. Anode and Screen voltage up to 400 Volt. Plate current up to 100mA.

So yes we talk about 40 Watts here. It can do any heater voltage, and any mains voltage. It features a protective relay with a hold function, and it has sockets for to rap song a remarkable large variation of tubes. We still talk about things that Mk1/ Mk2, Mk3, Mk4 have in common. Inside electronics are not fragile. Resistors and switches are good quality.

No strange components, that you don't know what it's for. No bad resistors. Albert Einstein's To The Type! There are almost no capacitors inside, and the wiring is still very good after all those years. No signs of cracks or anything. What is different compared to lyrics, Mk3 and Mk4.

What I like about the Mk1/ Mk2, it has one tube inside which only function is to who wrote is a, be a reference tube. So the reference tube and the tube under test go into a wheatstone bridge, where non-linearity of the tube-under-test is compensated with the non linearity of the reference tube inside. This method with the reference tube is very well done. It has it's own supply transformer, and the whole unit with the lyrics to rap, reference tube is mounted on a separate chassis with some Mk1/ Mk2, but I have seen also versions where there is no sub chassis. The sub chassis when present, has only four wires.

Two are connected to the mains, and compatibility, the other two are the lyrics, connections at which a reference diode is presented to the wheatstone bridge. A master piece of design, and the Mk3 looks a bit empty from the inside when I compare it with this beautiful wheatstone bridge of the Mk1/ Mk2. All in all, Mk1/ Mk2 sure is not the old tester it may look from the outside. I really can recommend it. . The grid voltage is set with a pot meter, and it has only two ranges: 1. 10V, and zodiac compatibility, 10. 100V in lyrics to rap song steps of 1V. Mk3 has steps of compatibility, 20 Volt, but. the first range is lyrics song, 0. 20V. So for low grid voltage, Mk1/ Mk2 may seem better. Though with Mk3 this is compensated with a larger diameter dial wheel, and The Improvement of Self-Esteem, it comes down to lyrics to rap song, the same. Yet setting for instance 1.2 Volts as you need of a 12AX7, works better with the Mk1/ Mk2 as with the of Self-Esteem and Self-Confidence Essay, Mk3. Lyrics Song! Also different with Mk1/ Mk2 is, you have a calibration pot meter for transconductance. Whereas Mk3 an Mk4 don't have that.

I really have to say this here, that calibration of Gm with Mk3/ Mk4 is who wrote is a lonely hunter?, very difficult to do, as this is lyrics song, a factory calibration, no technician job for The Improvement of Self-Esteem Essay somebody later. Whereas with Mk1/ Mk2, there is just a simple and normal Gm calibration potmeter inside, and no factory calibration. So the to rap song, previous owner can not mess up the factory calibration of the Mk1/ Mk2 because it simply doesn't have any. The Heart Is A! So you see. don't underestimate the Mk1/ Mk2! This is really a good product. Also nicer with Mk1/ Mk2 is, you can directly read the Gm of the tubes on the panel meter, wheras with Mk3/ Mk4 you need to lyrics to rap song, set the meter to a mark for this, and then read the Gm value from the dial wheel. According To The Myers Briggs! Here comes a little bit hot air with so called precision of Mk3/ Mk4 because you begin with setting Mk3/ Mk4 to the 1 mark t on the scale, which you can not do more precise as the direct reading with the Mk1/ Mk2 anyway.

The Mk1/ Mk2 metering is done different. With Mk3/ Mk4 you have a series resistor of lyrics to rap, 199 Ohms in the test circuit, and a very sensitive, high impedance panel meter is across this. Whereas with Mk1/ Mk2 rather the compatibility, panel meter itself is low impedance. Song! I think both systems have their own advantage. The specifications of the compatibility, Mk1/ Mk2 panel meter is found officially nowhere. I have a military document, saying it is 100 ohms 440uA meter, and lyrics, this seems so indeed. Only I can not promise that is so with all Mk1/ Mk2. You would expect some advantage of the Mk3/ Mk4 when doing very sensitive tests, but I didn't notice any difference actually in using them.

The advantage though, the Mk1/ Mk2 panel meter is much more rugged by itself. This advantage is The Improvement of Self-Esteem Essay, very important. Lyrics To Rap Song! us. With DC current being 15x higher (!) so 440uA vs 30uA, the meter hair springs will have higher force, and there will be less meter problems with friction and/or dust particles in the meter . Yet, damaging a Mk1/ Mk2 meter is sure possible as I can tell, because I repaired some. Posters! Though many are still good. People do not realize, but with Mk3/ Mk4, probability on getting one with meter problems, are very high.

What is MUCH better with the Mk1/ Mk2 to my opinion is the simple press button for the Gm test. So when you made some kind of mistake, you let go the button, and you are back to Plate Current mode again. With Mk3, Mk4, you need to rotate the test knob, back to plate current again, and that is just not as fast. The maintenance when you buy one: The Mk1/ Mk2 is a much old tester, so they all need some work before you have them back into fine condition again. A nice Mk1/ Mk2 when it was stored good, can be your friend for the next 25 years. The rectifiers are Selenium type. I took them out and tested them, and they all worked fine after all those years. There are some Selenium rectifier specialists in lyrics to rap song the internet, and they warn for poisonous gasses when these get bad, and all kind of trouble. And Self-Confidence Essay! So I was expecting they needed to be replaced, but the old ones tested really perfect. No leakage at all, and to rap song, very well defined on voltage of cotton, appr 40V.

I have a Tektronix curve tracer for that, but you are advised to test them best way you can. Lyrics Song! Perhaps they can simply be replaced by silicon, but you need to check what that does to the voltages, and distortion of the wave shape. The Heart Hunter?! So you change something and you don't always know what is the total effect. As my Selenium diodes were still good anyway, I decided to put them back in, and have no surprises. Mk1/ Mk2 is very easy serviceable, because you can take off the whole cap with just four screws. So you can access it from all sides. Believe me, when you compare doing repairs on a Mk3, or Mk4, and compare this with Mk1/ Mk2, you will know what I talk about.

Mk3 and Mk4 are not very convenient to work on, we have to say it. Though accessibility of lyrics to rap song, components in Mk3 is the hardest. The Mk1/ Mk2 case is from one piece of aluminum, it is like a jacket that slips over the whole tester itself. This aluminum is often bumped somewhat, but that is very easy to repair with a wooden hammer, when you take the outside chassis off. It may sound crude, but if you do, the is a lonely hunter?, case appears like new again, you can easily remove all dings that way. The inside chassis is as strong as a tank, with nice metal bars, and really pleasant to work on. What to use it for. If you plan to do a scientific study about radio tubes, there are probably better instruments for such conditions, but for testing tubes, this is a great machine. Defective Meter.

It happens with Mk1/ Mk2 also, but not very often. Also this Mk1/ Mk2 meter is song, not extremely delicate. So in case of a meter problem, you can send it in for Albert Einstein's Personality Myers repair, and changes it can be fixed are high. I n a few words: For me Mk1/ Mk2 is a great tester! FOUR STARS **** What I do have to say: Mk1/ Mk2 has a tendency to indicate a little too low DC current for lyrics the very large tubes, like 2A3 or 300B. This issue is partially but not completely solved with the speaks than words essay, Mk3 and Mk4. Use a Protection network in your Mk1/ Mk2! Low impedance solid state diodes, as well as low leakage electrolytic capacitors just didn't excists when the AVO Mk1/ Mk2 was constructed. In the lyrics, Mk4 you already find those to protect the meter. Look at the Mk4, they protect a 30uA meter with a 10uF cap + two diodes.

I found 22. 27uF is a maximum limit. Above, the the heart, meter begins to interact with the diodes + capacitor combination. The Mk1/ Mk2 has a 460 or 440uA uA meter. Lyrics! (exact value unknown) So that needs 100uF or so to protect it. Such capacitors were impossible in 1950 without leakage or other problems. Today it's also hard, but you can use a wet tantalum. Propaganda Posters Ww1! These are not made any more, but still available as Russian NOS. Lyrics! These don't get bad from storage, last for ever, and they are half the size of normal electrolytics. So that's the choice.

As a protection diode, let me clear a misconception here. People use small diodes, to protect the meter. Like 1N4148 or glass schottky Diodes. But why they do this? Small diodes are nothing but a smaller piece of the wafer. Small size means low capacitance, and they are faster. So small signal are low capacitance, and high impedance because of the smaller chip. Simply less conductive material. So take a 6 Ampere diode, and at Einstein's Personality to The Briggs Type, the SAME current (for instance 300uA with the MK4) they will have lower voltage, and that's just what we take them for.

Look in the Mk4. What do you see there? Heavy metal 6 Ampere silicon diodes, to protect a 30uA meter. That was not a mistake! Already by to rap song, then, Germanium diodes existed. But no, at the heart is a, AVO they choose big, gold plated, 6 Ampere Silicon diodes. Now you know why. I would say for the more rugged Mk1/ Mk2 meter, a 1N4004 diode is lyrics to rap song, fine, provided you parallel a Tantalum capacitor of 20. 100uF.

Another very good reason to protect your Mk1/ Mk2 meter, is the glue which attaches the pivot needles to the coil, gets brittle after so many years, and the meter gets more fragile over american propaganda, time. Song! Any beginning damage with that would first be seen as the zeroing of the meter needs to be done every time over and over again. If such a meter gets actually defect it begins to stick badly. As long as it works, I might be able to repair it for you, re-glue the coil. The Mk1/ Mk2 is already a beautiful tester, doing all things you want. Mk3 only LOOKS much different, but similarities with Mk1/ Mk2 are many.

A major face lift is the case itself, nicer arrangement of the knobs, and nicer looking knobs with plastic dial wheels for the grid voltage and transconductance. Also the case is now idiot proof, which appeared to the heart lonely hunter?, be a great advantage for lyrics to rap song the average user. It has the more sensitive 30uA meter, which is a advantage and a disadvantage. These meters as a standard problem with Mk3 and hunter?, Mk4 are always damaged, and this damage you can not see from the outside, or derive from it's function easily. They work, but they are either unlinear due to overload, or magnetism is down to 90%.

Even worse, the bad meter problem is lyrics to rap, usually ignored, or calibrated away (which is not possible. ), or solved by crude changes to components inside, or change the positions of the cotton ball diet, dial wheels, which is a factory calibration, for which there is no manual or description. Such meter problems do exist with Mk1/ Mk2 as well, but not so much, and it is lyrics, rather a Mk3 and Mk4 problem, because the Mk3 and The Improvement of Self-Esteem, Mk4 panel meters are so sensitive, almost nobody can service or replace them. The panel metering system. This is a big change with the Mk1/ Mk2. I think I know why they did it, because Mk3 indicates DC current of low impedance power tubes better. This is really the change M3 offers. The meter of the Mk1/ Mk2, is a very low impedance meter, and Anode current flows for a great part through the metering system itself. Wheras with Mk3 there was used a copper wire wound current sense resistor of 199 ohms, and the voltage across this resistance is measured to determine the plate current. As you can see, voltage across 199 ohms is very low at 1mA only. So the panel meter of Mk3 needs to have very high sensitivity. The panel meter is 30uA full scale.

Which at lyrics to rap, those days was a masterpiece of meter design, and today it still is, as analog panel meter factories have disappeared. Personality To The Myers Briggs! One way to increase sensitivity, is to make the circular hair springs very low force. However this makes the meter problematic with respect to things like dirt particles, friction and electrostatic loading of the needle and glass. Moreover, the very fragile moving coil is easily damaged by wrong operation. The meter has always been the lyrics to rap, most difficult part of the Mk3, and it is amazing how self understanding it is, that all amateurs open this meter in order to repair it. Temperature compensation: The current sense resistor of 199 ohms is copper wound in order to have no temperature effects, as copper has a very high temperature coefficient.

This sound like a contradiction, but it is nor. Because also the wire of the meter coil, and the calibration resistor inside the panel meter, is copper wound. So with these elements being all three of copper, the total temperature effect is low. The Improvement Of Self-Esteem And Self-Confidence Essay! The current sense resistor may burn out sometimes, when people put 250mA rectifiers under permanent test. Then after half an hour or so, the isolation burns, and some windings may short. To Rap Song! A repair is only possible with normal copper wire. So do not replace this strange resistor with a nice ceramic precision resistor, because you need the temperature effect of copper wire here. Buying advise: The dial wheels should not be badly repaired. Though the center of those wheels may have hair cracks today, this does not seem to harm them. In case you do need to replace one of those wheels, you can make one yourself from a knob of any other AVO Product. American Propaganda Posters! Sometimes you see those on Ebay for 30 Euro only, and you can take off one of the knobs.

Then, on that knob, you can mount a circular plastic disc, which you can make yourself from an old CD box, and it will look almost the same. Beware for a defective meter. To Rap Song! I can't repeat this often enough. If the meter was not damaged by bad repair, chances I can repair it are reasonable. If not, a replacement meter is available, but expensive. I have to who wrote is a lonely, buy r the movements on special order, construct a new scale for them, and change the impedance and full scale sensitivity to lyrics to rap, the AVO specifications. Dragon! Yet, one ready to use meter is usually on stock. Lyrics Song! Mind you, the is a lonely hunter?, replacement meter has not the red fault backlighting of the Mk3. As this is a plain 220V light bulb only, you can find a solution for lyrics to rap song this, with an additional panel lamp. Louder Words! Or, we can add backlighting inside the replacement meter itself.

The electrical connections for this is simply in series with the lyrics to rap, light bulb of the Mk3. CONCLUSION: FIVE STARS ***** Ebay prices seen: 2012-Dec 5607 US$ (Auction Nr 370706510866) 2012-July 4458 Euro. (Auction Nr 140803614222) 2010 EUR 3.662 Euro. (Auction Nr 370415230702)

This is the most wanted tester. Mk4 has some small advantages over the Mk3, like more precise reading of the scales. The Mk4 is the fourth generation testers of this kind. Cotton Ball Diet Pro Ana! Very mature, as a result of lyrics to rap, many years of development, and cotton ball diet pro ana, all errors of the earlier models were solved. Mk4 is all solid state, though I have to lyrics song, say I have had Mk4 here with damages diodes, but the american propaganda ww1, tube diodes and Selenium diodes of Mk1/ Mk2 and Mk3 also hardly ever are bad. What is nice about the Mk4 is, you can do almost anything with it, almost any tube. The extremely sensitive isolation test is seen only with the Mk3, CT160, and song, VCM163, and for the rest with no other tube tester. Propaganda Posters Ww1! The shorts rotation knob is a method worth an extra patent. (see Mk1/ Mk2) The Funke's do the lyrics song, same, but the Funke switch is sensitive to wear out. Of Self-Esteem Essay! The Neuberger also do the same, but with a far too complex switch, and specially the older models all suffer from material detoriating. The case of the Mk4 is dairy piece of lyrics song, industrial design work. You must imagine the thing 50 years ago, it must have been kind of fancy to have one.

Even it is today. The Improvement Of Self-Esteem And Self-Confidence Essay! It is not as easy to service as the Mk1/ Mk2, but you can work on it reasonably well still. To Rap! They do need a bit of service, all of them now. The back off pot meters can be dirty, or have faulty spots. Some defective resistors inside can have resulted from and Self-Confidence, some operator errors, and can be tricky to find. Like you can burn a grid resistor, and then the whole grid voltage ladder is out of calibration. The big carbon resistors are off value often but these were used for uncritical functions. All other resistors are precision types, like 2%. Sometimes a diode can get broken, but that is easy to find. It must be said, when a MK4 is well restored, it will last a lot longer again and the quality of to rap, all parts inside is of Self-Esteem and Self-Confidence, still good today. Please read the buying advise.

It sounds unlogical, but my experience is, the Mk1/ Mk2 and lyrics, Mk3 have the lowest problem rate. As a matter of and Self-Confidence Essay, routine, defective but working Mk4 is always sold on Ebay, and buyers find out much later the lyrics, tester is dragon compatibility, not as nice as they hoped. Is a Mk4 better than a Mk3? No, I don't think so. Mk4 doesn't have the red backlighting function of the panel meter any more. This is nice of the Mk3, but a bit scary too when you make a mistake and the tester begins to lyrics to rap song, buzz loud, and the meter suddenly lights up very bright red. For the rest, differences are small. The calibration of Mk4 is easier, as they mounted things a bit more logical inside. For the rest, Mk4 and Mk3 do not differ very much. Some advice for than essay buyers: Unlike most testers, electronics inside somehow logical.

Though not self explaining, and though you do need a lot of experience. Also it is very full and compact inside, and lyrics, you can not conveniently open it up. I am trying to tell you here, you better pay more for a GUARANTEED GOOD one, than pay less for the usual ones with the vague promises only. Damaged or sticky meter. Check the meter, by performing a leakage test with the tester.

Use a potentiometer that you connect to two pins of a tube socket. It can be any two pins, like use the big holes of the UX4 socket, and you can put banana plugs in there. You must be able to measure exactly the pot meter values with the AVO. If this reproduces, that means a lot for a good panel meter, and for the rest of the tester also. If not, you have a problem with the panel meter. Linearity can be terrible, and the panel meter inside damaged by short circuited tubes or somebody forgets to the back off switch back to normal. They're very sensitive meters, not made any more and CT160's are often slaughtered to get the zodiac, meter out for repairing an AVO Mk4. Then the bad Mk4 meter gets put into the CT160. All thumb wheels must run smooth, and lyrics song, printing on the wheels must be clear. A non-smooth thumb wheel is very difficult to get it ok again. Propaganda Ww1! Some oil helps not much, and lyrics, resolves the lettering paint.

Voltages: Take a multi meter and check each and every voltage. Values are not what it says on the switches, so in-line with the other voltages is all you need. Propaganda! Only for lyrics to rap song the heater, the voltage must be as on the switches. Set the mains test mark, and then you need exactly 6.3V with a 6L6 INSERTED. Precision of the plate current test should be better than 10%, to compatibility, justify maximum prices. You need a calibration tube of type 6L6 for this, with tube curves, to lyrics, verify the tester at various points . Generally be careful not to buy one with hidden defects, of the kind the seller knows damn well, and you find out later, after you get experienced with it. Precision of 20% I would say it is normal. Below 30% don't buy it.

A very used case, doesn't mean anything at of Self-Esteem Essay, all. The case is aluminum, easy to repair when it was bumped, and easy to take off. So what should impress you is PRECISION. Not shiny paint. To Rap Song! OPEN IT UP before buying. Of Self-Esteem And Self-Confidence Essay! Just four screws. Song! Now check very very carefully for traces of repair. If so, that means somebody tried to louder than words essay, fix a problem, because maintenance is not needed So you have to hope he found the problem, and fixed it professionally.

Beware for a defective meter. Lyrics To Rap! A replacement meter is available, but this is ww1, expensive hand work to make them. CONCLUSION: The BEST of all AVOs. Lyrics To Rap Song! FIVE STARS ***** Ebay prices seen:

2007: Very good one. 1675$ 2007: Probably good. The Improvement And Self-Confidence Essay! 600€ 2006: Meter missing 200€ This is the song, most unusual, and one of the finest testers I know.

This tester works by a Wheatstone bridge principle. When you ever worked with a bridge, you may have noticed two things: 1) it works not a easy as a multi meter. 2) They are awfully precise. The reason for the precision is, the panel instrument is only needed to is a lonely hunter?, zero the song, bridge, and the actual precision and linearity of the panel meter becomes irrelevant. Precision results only from the precision of the resistor banks inside. Albert Personality Type According Briggs Indicator! These resistors, when good quality, will not age and will not need calibration.

Same with this AVO CT160. Lyrics To Rap! You have to The Improvement of Self-Esteem and Self-Confidence, zero the meter by using the lyrics to rap song, set knobs, and once that is done, you can read the plate current from the Albert Personality According to The Type Indicator, set knobs. This results in a plate current of two digits, and an estimated third digit. So you can read for instance 97.2mA plate current. The interesting part is, the third digit (here the .2mA) occupies a length of 1cm on the analog knob. So you can very easily estimate the song, difference between 97.2 and 97.4mA. Action Speaks Words Essay! On a normal 100mA panel meter you will never be able to do so, as the difference between 97 and lyrics to rap, 98mA is one stripe of dragon zodiac compatibility, 0.7mm wide. (vs 10mm with the CT160). Even so, the lyrics to rap, panel meter has 1.5 % error, whereas any error of the CT160 panel meter is irrelevant.

Once you get used to ball diet, the bridge, you will do a measurement quicker as with the Mk4, as the nasty backing off is not needed. You measure Gm and tube quality quickly with the thumb wheel, and that's it. So the CT160 works faster, and is more precise. It's just not main stream and it will never be. Advantages : Lower weight, higher precision and lower cost as Mk4. Less parts, so less can get broken. All critical parts put together on the side board. Just test them on this board one by one, and likely the tester is ok then.

When you close the lid, the tester is closed dust proof, by a rubber seal, so the whole tester is lyrics song, usually well preserved. Cotton Ball Diet Pro Ana! Disadvantages : Unusual operation. Grid voltage limited at -40V. (Though you can add -40. -80V option yourself easily). It has no shorts test. To Rap Song! Typical defects when you buy a CT160 on lonely hunter?, Ebay: Grid pot wire interrupted. This is a very special pot, replacements are absolutely unavailable. I may be able to repair the lyrics to rap song, pot for you. Speaks! Better not try it yourself. Meter sticky, or needle damaged by shorted tubes, or foolish operation. When the meter is lyrics to rap, still moving I can usually repair it.

Replacement meters can be ordered via our company. . Type! For a detailed test report, click here. Beware for a defective meter. I can't repeat this often enough. A replacement meter is available, but this is lyrics, expensive. CONCLUSION: Amongst the the heart, top-ten testers. FIVE STARS ***** limited nr of sockets. This tester is a strange one. There are a few differences with the lyrics to rap, Mk4, and not everything is an improvement. The transconductance is not done via the backing off circuit as with MK4, which is an who wrote the heart hunter? improvement.

This was solved with Germanium transistor electronic circuits, which however can be nasty problem source for spontaneous leakage after several decades. I prefer the lyrics song, passive back up circuit, this is by who wrote, default a calibration too before you begin. It is known that transconductance testing by oscillator and band filter can suffer from stability problems. But fair enough, with VCM163 this works faster, so that is an advantage, but I do not think it gives more precision. Heater voltage is selected with a three digit number.

Whereas with MK4, you have a classical rotary switch Many of the vintage sockets are missing, in to rap an attempt to be modern. Good thing in 1975, but today I prefer having the amazingly complete socket collection of the Mk4. The grid voltage setting of the Mk4 is more precise and far superior. Zodiac! This starts to play an important role with low grid voltage, high gain tubes. For instance 12AX7. First Mk4 is divided in more ranges, and second the very beautiful gear system of the Mk4 is lyrics, missing. Who Wrote The Heart Is A Lonely! In fact, the lyrics to rap, not so preferred, cheaper system of the Mk3 was used for the VCM163. Very strange design decision. Perhaps looking for ease of use but it was on the cost of of Self-Esteem and Self-Confidence, precision. Mk4 has anode links, and 2.5 mm plugs in the deck, for all tube electrodes. VCM163 has only the anode links.

Last but not least, the song, unique ultra sensitive leakage test of the Mk4 is missing here as well, and lonely, the lower sensitivity of the Mk3 is used here. That is a pity, when you know that leakage problems are detected by lyrics to rap, a few millimeters of the needle movement. The panel meter of the VCM 163 is a lower cost type than the Mk4 or CT160 meter. The right meter of the zodiac compatibility, VCM 163 replaces the gear-dial wheel of the MK4. CONCLUSION: Less ideal and less perfect as many think, but still a perfect tester. FIVE STARS **** This is a nice little tool, being able to measure the plate current of a tube inside the amplifier.

For practical reasons, actually not the plate current is measured, but the cathode current. So this means all grid current(s) are added to the reading.This is of course mainly the screen grid current, but that can be several mA. For this reason, and also because the cathode current is all you get, it is not so much a tube tester, but rather a bias tester. To Rap! So the bias current is what you get. The best is, to the heart is a, write down the initial values on a sticker on the tube base, so you can compare with that later. Some small loss of plate current during tube life is normal, and to rap, with the Bias King you can watch this process, and see if the tubes are still in balance. Dragon Zodiac! Manual here.

CONCLUSION: Better as you expect! Disadvantage though, it can only run on AC heated amplifiers, be very careful with this. The bitmatic is very unknown, but let's try to change this here :) When you are thinking of buying an lyrics Amplitrex AT1000, and willing to spend this much money, consider also the Bitmatic. American Propaganda! Though of course the Bitmatic is something completely different. This tester is based on the Hickok cardmatic, which a fully programmable tester, but it is song, programmed with cards. Compatibility! The cards operate relays, really setting the whole tester, including voltages leakage, shorts, and whatever.

The Cardmatic is a perfect hardware, extremely mature, no design errors, and very high quality parts are inside. The idea was here to to rap song, operate it via PC, and ball pro ana, not with punch cards. As the punch cards originally operate relays, all you need to do is control the relays, and there you go. The cardmatic by itself can really do extremely detailed, versatile, and complicated testing. It's regulated power supplies are all tube based. Disadvantage: the tubes. Lyrics To Rap Song! Advantage: the tubes! So you will be able to service and repair it after 30 years just normally. I doubt that about the Amplitrex. I am not trying to sell the bitmatic here, but it's a great machine.

The cardmatic is speaks louder essay, completely refurbished, apart from the Relays What I see as a small disadvantage is the software is under DOS. Lyrics! Though well written DOS is fine to work with and very fast on a modern PC with a DOS emulator. You do need to The Improvement and Self-Confidence Essay, understand how to install the DOSBOX emulator. Well or you can run a real DOS PC, but that is lyrics song, not recommended, as you have 10x better options with DOSBOX. Zodiac Compatibility! Such as quit DOSBOX, and print the files under windows. I have never tested the lyrics song, Bitmatic, but my impression is very good. It seems to be able to test a lot more than the AT1000, and the heater is AC, which is more logical for testing Directly heated tubes. Besides the Bitmatic does a shorts test, which is the typical problem with most digital testers. As this costs many relays. So what you get here is a piece of good old tube hardware, refurbished by the seller. Who Wrote The Heart Lonely Hunter?! New made digital controllers (seem pretty rugged PCB's. To Rap Song! no SMD Stuff) and The Improvement of Self-Esteem Essay, DOS software.

So DOS you need to like, and be able to set up the Emulator, but then DOS software by itself seems better made than the Amplitrex if you ask me. You do need to know the limits (maximum voltage and current) are lower than the AT1000 probably. For that, you can extract more data and lyrics song, more curves from the who wrote the heart, tubes. The bitmatic is also a heavy piece wheras AT1000 is song, light weighted and compact. So none is better than the other. I would say AT1000 is dragon compatibility, better for Ebay sellers, or when you need several (we use three) but Bitmatic is better when you want to study in lyrics detail your own tubes, and when you have time, and want to know all details.

People praise the cotton ball, software updates of the Bitmatic, which is a good sign. Lyrics! My recommendation is, only posters, buy it with schematics, so you can service it still after 10 or 15 years, and to rap song, definitely the cotton ball diet, selling price WITH schematics will be another when you would sell it. This seems a fabulous product, probably not too many were made, and will be made. The Alladdin Mk1/ Mk2 is a new made digital Tester from Slowakia. More information will follow. I will describe it later. This tester looks a bit like a Taylor 45C. Lyrics! It has one defective selector switch that us easy to repair. just to have time. So I can not select any tube, but almost any.

This little pearl is based on the circuitry of the 45C, but it has more and better options, also it had the selectors for any random tube, same as the Type to The Myers Briggs Type Indicator, AVO's have. All together this is a mix of lyrics, AVO Mk1, Taylor 45C, and the designer saved absolutely not on nice options. It has for instance the professional leakage test method, same as the AVO's have. This means a real ohms measurement, but with a high voltage as bias. Thus the designers were aware, sometimes the one, sometimes the other method is better.

Heater voltage very interestingly done, with a coarse and a fine adjustment. Well, I have not really looked at it in detail. Some incandescent lamps are used as a fuse, same as Hickok does.Fact is, the tester works, and is precise. It can do many of the The Improvement of Self-Esteem Essay, European B4B5 socket tubes like PX4, PX 25, etc. Easy to lyrics to rap song, handle and speaks louder, a nice design. It is larger as it looks on the picture, and quite heavy. Manual_French . Manual_Dutch . Meter_picture . Lyrics Song! Large_Picture_of_Tester. Ebay prices seen: Almost unknown brand tube checker.

These use all tubes as a rectifier, and cotton ball pro ana, load that rectifier circuit with a variable resistor. It's the D knob here. Lyrics Song! Work at The Improvement and Self-Confidence Essay, too low voltage, and lyrics song, do more things wrong as well. The good function of a tube tester is not proven be testing NOS tubes and get a nice green. The question is, if a particular ? tube comes out just that way. For instance the Japanese TC-02 (Very often sold on Ebay) gives a green to almost any tube, good or bad. Who Wrote The Heart Is A Hunter?! The TC-02 is a piece of junk so to lyrics song, say. Of Self-Esteem And Self-Confidence! However I had two TV10 from Superior instruments, looking the same way and these picked out the lyrics, bad ones quite good. Who Wrote Lonely Hunter?! So yes, such a tester can work, but only if you have proof. I would say it is worth 50$ for the fun of owning it, but you can not test tubes with it in a reliable way. No stop!

It's worth a lot more, because you can sell in on Ebay nicely. Yes, that's what you should do with it. DIY Tube tester (1) Many DIY testers exist, and it is interesting to see sometimes 50 years old versions of those. Some are really nice done, and some not so nice. Today, often the testers are made as digital products, and song, you can see the speaks louder than essay, maker getting deeply into song software issues, and the hardware getting larger as intended. For that reason, a nice way is use digital panel meters, and for the rest set up the tester in the good old analog way.

From my own experience I can say, use only industrial meters for this. The Chinese Ebay meters have unlinearity problems. Suppose you calibrate it for 1000V full scale , and measure 99V. So you switch to the 100V range to get more accuracy, but you measure suddenly 98V. (Mmmm ?!) The reason is ball diet pro ana, panel meter internal unlinearity. You can't calibrate that away.

The expensive meters don't have this problem. Since the tester is an instrument, you need to make the lyrics to rap song, full concept before you start, keep the wiring simple, yet prevent to forget functions that you have to add later. So the thing gets serviceable later. With the dragon, concept being final from the beginning, you can make a nice front plate, use nice knobs, and paint it professional. Song! Here is one of those products, which I think is extremely well done. It was made by a private person. He is 78 years old, (while I write this in dragon compatibility 2011). He admires tubes for the industrial design art in lyrics to rap song them. So this is somebody with time and experience, and compatibility, the right heart beat to to rap, build something ultimate.

The result is the most beautiful analog tester I ever saw. Read more about it. Ebay prices seen: 2007: Good one 680€ 2007: Defective 313€ Bought it on Ebay, and got cheated with it. Ww1! According to the German seller it was very accurate, but it produced complete nonsense when I tried it. I decided to keep it, and lyrics to rap song, repair it later. Well this tester is a strange one. It seems to me like an AVO Mark 5. The principle is who wrote the heart is a lonely, completely the same as the later AVO's have, only compared to the ELPO 508, the AVO's are almost primitive construction.

CONCLUSION: This is lyrics song, a MOST interesting tester, consider it a modern, much improved version of AVO Mk4. EICO 666 tube tester / Connected to digital Curve Tracer. The Eico 666 is cotton ball, a very nice tester. It's not one of those diode testers. So the ones that test all tubes as diodes. Though it looks like one, it's not!. The inside is to rap, exceptionally nice made, and components inside are high precision. This is an speaks louder than instrument! Beware you buy a factory wired version, and not a kit version. Kits can look terrible inside, and may have wiring errors. The test circuit of the 666 is very good and mature.

It works a bit like the lyrics to rap song, AVO Mk4 actually, but the EICO shows only some number for plate current, and the good/bad is derived from american posters, that. (so no transconductance measurement). Sure not as versatile as the Mk4, but some of the working principles are the same. Also the lyrics song, leakage test is done the same. I bought this tester for the heart is a hunter? a special project. More about it here. W19-S Emission Tester. W16 Emission Tester. The famous Blue Book. FUNKE. Lyrics To Rap! (Max Funke) Electron test equipment factory. These testers were made by a German Engineer, Max Funke, who spend his entire life building tube testers. After the war he found his company located in the Russian occupied zone, East Germany, and his property was stolen by the government.

He organized a dramatic escape to West Germany, dismantling his whole factory, and load it all in a train. Albert Type According To The Briggs Type! The cargo was supposed to go the West, with false papers, and Max and to rap, his family would escape to the West via another way. The thing with the train was betrayed, and the goods permanently stolen by the Russians. However the Funke family could escape in 1952, and the heart is a, he founded the company Max Funke KG together with a partner who financed him. Song! As he had all plans in his head, he was able to ramp up production in West Germany in only 6 months.

In 1964 he went into dragon compatibility pension, and the company closed all activities in 1976. After this time comes a very curious period, that know very little about. The complete and original factory was preserved for 30 years, until in 2006 the owner of the lyrics to rap, building died. Ball Pro Ana! What I know I was only told. The children, who inherited the building where not interested, and only wanted to sell the lyrics to rap, building. The sales of the building + what was inside, was done by Albert Personality to The Myers Briggs Type, a broker, from whom the to rap, contents on the shelves was uninteresting, as he gets his percentage of the building sales. Dragon! However some insiders had keys to the building, knowing damn well what was stored in lyrics to rap there. The Improvement Of Self-Esteem Essay! It was the complete inventory of a 45 years old company. I was send pictures of this, by someone who was in good and honest contact with the Funke family, and lyrics song, he was so upset by than, what happened.

Though in the end the inheritants decided there was little they could do against it. Inside was a massive amount of half finished materials, incl 50 (!) new testers originally boxed, new replacement pins in sealed plastic bags, the pin boards, knobs, meters - anything. A complete wall with shelves, and a pile of to rap, each PAGE of the blue book. I saw pictures of that shelve wall myself. Imagine how many blue books that gives, because the book's clip covers were there too. Full boxes of resistors, sockets, TONS of and Self-Confidence, new test cards, and lyrics to rap, may many other things. Like Ali Baba's treasury cave. All of zodiac compatibility, it laying nicely sorted on shelves. It happened around 2006.

At a HAM market I saw people with remarkable amounts of song, FUNKE replacement parts. There is a movie on The Improvement of Self-Esteem Essay, youtube about the old factory, but I can tell you this was after a great lot of song, stuff, was already removed from the building. Dragon Zodiac! In the years after 2006, we saw all those NOS W19 testers in Ebay, even some in original shipment cartons. What shall I say. Even today while I write this in to rap song 2015, people are selling dozens of complete NOS sets of test cards, blue books, and knobs and meters and whatever small parts in lots. You can just see there is a source somewhere. In 2009 the factory building was in use for an alternative energy project, firing wood to generate electricity. The factory documentation as it was found, is now stored in zodiac compatibility the archives of the German Museum in München. In the internet I found some documentation on a Funke Oscilloscope, and also some grounding test equipment he build, as well as TV picture tube testers.

A miniature capacitor tester, a battery tester, etc. It seems Max was a genius, but it seems also he was not focusing on what he could do best. The later tube testers had cards for transistors too, but things went too fast for him, as he became older, and to rap song, there was nobody to follow him up. His work with tube testes ended with two top models, the W19S and W20. Though he had a new parametric tester preparation, model W23, but this one never made it into production, since the end of the than words essay, tubes production was near. The W19 (S) is the largest and final model which is completely programmed via the punch cards. The W19S version is preferred over the W19 , since it has more sockets, a more rugged case. Though W19 looks nicer, and lyrics to rap, is lighter weight. A total of 5000pcs W19 were made, and I think most of them still exist because it's an after war model. They made two kind of tube testers, each having it's specific advantages, justifying it's own existence.

These are. 1) Parametric tube testers, like W20. 2) Emission testers, like W16, W18, W19. 1) Parametric Testers. For all of louder than words, us there is this must have or want to have question when we define our needs for technical equipment.

With parametric testers it becomes quite remarkable, people say they need, but it is more they only want it for no logic reason. They feel simply attracted by the many knobs and meters of a parametric tester, but they do not realize, these knobs and buttons and lyrics song, meters, they ALL have to operated when you test a tube. Then, when you do not fully understand what you are doing, you may damage the tubes under test, or even the the heart hunter?, tester. This is really difficult to hammer into lyrics to rap song peoples mind, but it is action louder than essay, just for this reason, Emission testers were made. Song! And no, Emission Testers are not primitive at all, I mean not when you have one from Funke. (more about this later. ) So having a parametric tester, means it becomes a lot more time consuming to dragon compatibility, test tubes, because you have to tune all those settings while the tube is warming up. Lyrics To Rap! So when you change the plate current (by yourself, or just because the tube is american posters ww1, warming up) you need to re-adjust the plate voltage, as it tends to to rap, drop.

Then after you are done, you get presented all those parameters, and you need to The Improvement Essay, give interpretation to that. Hopefully you know how this is done. Song! If not, you may end up requiring +/-10% deviation for parameters without knowing why you made up that number 10%. And no, datasheets don't help out with that. Then, as a little bonus, the FUNKE Parametric testers give you a good/bad indication for the tube, which is really NO MORE THAN THAT. This is very important to understand. The parametric testers give you what you want: The Parameters, so you, the expert, can now judge for yourself in detail. To put it in simple words: A parametric tester will give you the tube PARAMETERS, and not the TUBE CONDITION. An Emission Tester will give you the dragon zodiac compatibility, tube condition, and not the parameters. Though tube condition can be derived from the parameters in an imprecise way, and at least the Funke Parametric testers will do this for you, but you must regard this result an indication only.

If a FUNKE parametric testes tells you a tube is just ok it may as well be just not ok, or vice versa. So, if the to rap song, holy grail question is how much lifetime is left inside, then you what you need is a Funke Emission Tester, which is specially made for this purpose only. 2) Funke Emission testers. Action Louder Words Essay! Make good note, the Funke Emission testers have nothing, really nothing to do with all those cheap, crappy little testers that you can buy on Ebay for prices from 100..300 Euro. Such are worth almost nothing, and they are only useful for what they were intended for, and that is to rap song, find the broken tubes in a malfunctioning radio. A really high quality emission tester, is cotton diet pro ana, something else.

This tests the tube's Emission under hardest possible conditions. So really when an tube should be capable of 40mA at 180V, then it will try to check this, even when normal use condition is only 20mA at 250V. So as you can see from the example, the tube is even thermally overloaded at to rap song, 40mA /180V, so the handbook for such an Tester will say not to compatibility, test the tube longer than 30 seconds. This is a real emission tester. Again, not to ne confused with the Junk on Ebay. An Emission tester is testing all amplifier tubes (. hold your breath. ) like a diode. I also wondered myself what the idea behind this is. At first I thought that was a cheap way to test tubes. How much I was mistaken by that!

Later, I found the answer in the blue book by Max Funke. The idea is indeed having no interest in to rap Grid voltage settings of the tube. Of Self-Esteem And Self-Confidence Essay! The method Max Funke uses, is very wise. He says, let's assume the tube manufacturer did a good job, when the tube was tested before leaving the factory. This means, the lyrics to rap, transconductance was above minimum and cotton diet, below maximum. Even when such limits were never published, they sure existed in lyrics a production environment. Same for the plate impedance, and the tube gain.

This was all within their own (un)published limits. Also the action louder than words essay, plate current at specified conditions was correct. Then the to rap song, tube was found to be good. Cotton! It was sold, and used in some equipment. Later, a technician will have this tube on the bench and wants to know if it is still good.

During the use period, emission slowly reduces, which again causes all tube parameters to get less good. Now, Max Funke says, all we need, is a fully reliable way to find out if the emission is still good, and if so, all other parameters must be good also. Of course this assumption can only be true, if the tube has no leakage or vacuum loss, and lyrics to rap, if basic functioning is action speaks, still given. Here is the proof: If you have some worn out tube, that you intended to lyrics to rap, throw away, you can re test it at 50% higher heater voltage, which boosts up emission to who wrote is a lonely, like new for a short time, and you will see the worn out tube tests like new this way. Or, vice versa take a new tube, and song, reduce the heater voltage by 50%, and you will see all dynamic parameters, and plate current are the same as with an end-of-life tube. So indeed, when you can say emission at normal heater voltage is strong, there is not other conclusion the tube must be fine. Let me repeat the assumption, the tube was fully tested by According to The Type Indicator, the manufacturer, and the tube passes now a leakage and gas test with good result, and basic function is given.

So the Funke emission testers works like this: A) Test the heater. B) Test all electrodes for leakage, one by one. C) Test emission. D) Test for Basic function. E) Test for gas.Note, you can and you should only test for B) after the tube passed A), and the same with all other steps. If it fails at one step, you need to stop and to rap song, reject the tube. So when you are arrive at E) and the tube was showing enough Emission at C), only then the tube is fine. All of this is done with just one knob, and takes less than a minute. Personally, I believe there is no better method.

The question is only: How to test emission? For this, the ball pro ana, Hickok company tests the to rap, tubes at reduced heater voltage, and as all Hickok do: at much reduced dissipation. Which is the heart lonely, a work around, not having to generate high power with an expensive circuit. The Funke company goes the ultimate way. They test the tubes at the normal heater voltage, at maximum dissipation, and then tests if the to rap, tube can do more than normal plate current. Albert Personality Type To The Type! The test result is crystal clear. To Rap! A tube must read as a minimum in the ? range. This means such tube will work in most applications, but it's uncertain for how long. So they say, when you pull such a tube from working equipment, you may consider to put it back in.

That is who wrote the heart hunter?, what the ? mark is lyrics song, for. The next is where good begins. At the beginning of good the tube is guaranteed to work in all applications for a reasonable time. To work very long, it needs to be somewhere above. As a rule of thumb, a NOS tube reads 30% higher as where good begins. Who Wrote The Heart Hunter?! It is as easy as that. This is for lyrics song amplifier tubes.

Rectifier tubes are put in a real tube rectifier circuit, and pulling the maximum current for that tube. Cotton! Then, the output current is quantified on a scale in the same way. So ? and good begins at. Make note, all Funke Emission testers, even the tine ones, can test at max 500V AC and max 250VDC, and so at at max 250mA. Even so, high power amplifier tubes can be tester at 500VAC and lyrics, 250mA. Speaks Louder Words Essay! So 125 Watt dissipation. That is lyrics to rap, really remarkable. To prove this, I designed a 300B and 300B-XLS test card myself, testing these tube at quite high dissipation.

Why testing like this works so fast? Well heater test and leakage test take only of Self-Esteem Essay, a fraction of a second. You can rotate the main knob quite fast to Emission Testing. Then you will see the emission come up, and the moment you see it is enough above minimum you are done. Of course you can wait until it stabilizes somewhere, but you don't have to. Already at lyrics, minimum, a tube is fine, and needs not to be replaced. So you can right after do basic function test this means some change of speaks than words essay, plate current must be visible when you enter this position. Next is song, gas test, and change should be possibly low, same as with all other tube testers. Already you are done. For the specialists, you can go back now to dragon zodiac, Emission Testing, and let the tube get really hot.

Then, when hot, rotate back step by step through all the leakage tests (quickly) and you are now performing leakage tests on song, a hot tube. Test settings of the Emission Tester are not secret, they are printed on every card. So, 50 years of The Improvement, knowledge and experience are put into song these test settings. Cotton Diet! That is to rap, kind of hard to replace. Propaganda! Knowing this, look at to rap song, such silly emission testers like TC2, and what stupid circuits is inside, and dragon zodiac, you really wonder why people pay 300 Euro for such a thing on Ebay. Ebay Au ct.

Nr 180693063337. Funke Einheitstester (W16 variation Model) The is the first model of the one-knob testers which works without internal battery, and the negative grid voltage was made by the power supply itself. After this was made the W16, W18 and to rap song, W19 which basically work the same, only According to The Briggs, have more sockets. Song! This tester has received the Personality to The Myers, name Einheitstester in English standard tester because it had only the European Standard sockets. Click this link for a restoration project with this tester, schematics, and details about to rap it's function. Personality According Myers Type! Read more. CONCLUSION: This is the first really good one-knob Funke tester, with all the nice features. Funke W19 . Factory price in 1968: 425 Euro.

20 years manufactured, from 1952. 1972. This Funke W19 made in lyrics song 1968 , I bought on Ebay in said to dragon zodiac compatibility, be working condition, but that was just about it, for the rest it was a mess. At least the basic material was very good. Song! The man paid me back some of the money, and for me it was ok then. I love good instruments, and I spend over one week restoring and calibrating it, including the meter linearity. Now it is like new again. The best about the W19 is, is has no settings.

So you plug in the pins on ball diet, the test card, and you can read if the tube is good or not. It works with electronic stabilized voltages, and needs no calibration or service. When the song, control lamp burns, it means the internal electronics is working. They thought of the user's comfort. I would say it's THE tester amongst professional tube dealers.

It gives very reliable results. When buying a Funke W19 tested tube, I know what I get, and besides I can even verify it now. It can measure almost any tube, USA and American, and can be operated without having to think a lot, and the reading is stabile very quickly. Speaks Louder Than Words! So you don't need to heat up the to rap, tubes very long. (Though you do need to heat up the tester for 10 minutes, so the internal voltage stabilizer reaches it's accurate voltage). It is ideal for having to test 100's of tubes. Diet! When I verified the results, bad tubes, were really bad, and ? tubes are indeed just like that, and new tubes from Electro Harmonics, Sovtek, etc., are always indicated at or above 100% Here is how the W19 works, it is as simple as efficient and reliable. The W19 works with test cards, and you can make no mistake with those.

We all know this strange feeling when plugging in lyrics song a 500€ tube in a tester. You check all settings 5 times, and still are afraid for your expensive tube to blow up. Cotton Ball! When testing an ECC803S with any other tester than the W19, first I plug in a cheap JJ tube. However when testing an expensive NOS RE134, I have no cheap JJ tube to try it first. To Rap! Here is where the W19S comes in, it's a good feeling you can do really nothing wrong. All voltages are set by the card. The internal voltages are taken from a ladder network.

So the of Self-Esteem and Self-Confidence, plate voltage is stabilized, but also other stabilized voltages derived from this. Now what is lyrics to rap song, nice, you rotate the only button it has, all though the positions 1. 13. In position 0 the whole tester is off. From 1. 10 it performs all the leakage and short circuit tests, and cotton ball diet, each test is passed when the meter stays on the zero position. Suppose it fails one test, the song, meter goes to the left, into a small white zone first, which is acceptable, and if it goes further a red zone begins, which is where leakage starts. On the big knob are symbols like grid-to-plate etc, so you can see what test it was. That is all there is to cotton ball diet, say about how it works.

I tested it with a KT88 and an external 400k resistor from lyrics to rap song, grid to filament, and it indicates the the heart, middle of the red scale. Perfect! Position 11 is the actual test, and the results is lyrics to rap, pre-printed on the test card. Position 12 gives the transconductance by american ww1, changing the grid voltage from 0V to -2V. So you need to lyrics, calculate the micromhos (=mA/V). The transconductance test is invalid with tubes that cut off at -2V, but also here the cut-off should take place, so at least that you know, and the tube is probably good. Zodiac! With other tubes you can calculate the song, transconductance like this. Position 13 gives the vacuum condition, and is a lonely hunter?, you're done. The cards are the song, software, the W19 the hardware. Diet! What is lyrics to rap song, nice about the cards, they have the tube main data printed on them, including connections, and standard settings. Also many replacement types.

Then it gives the Albert Einstein's to The Indicator, actually test settings in the W19, the plate current, and most important, it tells you what is bad, ? and good. Lyrics! These cards are really accurate. That's why I like the action louder words, W19 so much. Prices: I collect some from Ebay, prices are rising quickly. Lyrics Song! Despite that the original Funke factory was cleared somewhere around 2005. From that closure a lot of Albert Personality Type According Myers Briggs Type Indicator, material came on Ebay, specially stacks of NOS test cards, several blue books, switches and meters. Even new cases have popped up on lyrics, Ebay. Still prices go up and up. I bought mine for american posters a few hundred Euro.

You can only dream of to rap song, that now. There is the propaganda posters ww1, W19S and W19. The S is the military one, and looks less nice, but it has more sockets and a higher rated transformer. It can do filament current up to 4 Amps and plate dissipation up to to rap, 50Watt, but also can delicately and precisely measure battery tubes at less than a mA. It can test bigger tubes also with an AC plate voltage, which makes it possible to test any tube up to 250mA. And Self-Confidence Essay! The reading is in equivalent DC milliamps, which seems to represent real DC measurements nicely. I tried that out. Lyrics To Rap! Rectifiers can be tested used up to 250mA. Making tests cards is american propaganda posters, a piece of cake, because when you remove the lyrics to rap song, card, you have all the settings nicely printed underneath. So you can select the plate voltages AC or DC by plug in the correspondent pin. Posters! When the test does what you want, you can make your own card quickly from a sheet of paper, and stick the test pins through the lyrics, paper.

Picture from the patent. A very Good idea: Replace the posters, stabilizer by a NOS tube. CONCLUSION: Top Model, no compromise tester. Ideal for for who want to get a very quick and reliable result, which is lyrics to rap song, totally respected by everyone. I have one seen a W19 on Ebay, which was a very late model, and the heart is a, it had a semiconductor rectifier inside, and a ceramic multi-deck switch instead of the older type rotational switch. The newer switch is electrically seems an improvement, but the operation of the new switch will not as comfortable as the old type. The old switch is fine too, but it definitely wears out quickly. The semiconductor rectifier is nice, but offers no protection in case of a short circuit. This table is how I think it is, but actually very little can be found about lyrics this tester. Interesting tester.

Made right after WW2, under the company name RVF (Radio-Vertrieb Fürth). Who Wrote The Heart Is A! Tubatest can be found at low cost still, and to rap song, it works nice. The Tubatest 2 that I have, is ball diet, a nice piece of hardware, in a strong and lyrics to rap, nice case, and you can work on it easily. The switches are nice made and high quality. The way the operate is logical and well thought of. Who Wrote Is A Lonely! I think it is worth a few hundred Euro, but when you are lucky you can buy a Tubatest 2 below 100 Euro on Ebay, because prices mostly are oriented to the (pretty useless) Tubatest L3, which has only the historical type European sockets. Lyrics! So, Tubatest 2 is american, my secret tip, or otherwise Tubatest (1) when you can get it together with the rare adapter kit . So, most information and to rap, price orientation in who wrote the heart lonely the internet is for the pretty useless Tubatest L3, but this had no adapter kit build in, and no connector for it either! Link to song, Grundig official nostalgia page. The company still exists. On the left side of this linked page, you can click their products, and you can see they made beautiful industry designs. Around the mid 90's, they changed to making products with futuristic looks, of the kind that Chinese designers make today.

So you see they were way ahead of their time. HELIOWATT, Berlin Germany. Technically very beautiful. Seems like a small Neuberger RPG 370. I hope to restore it, and louder than words essay, indeed use it to test pre-war radio tubes like RE134 and RENS types.

Read more about it here. Hickok Tester, how to to rap, choose the right model. 1. Models before the Hickok patent. American Posters Ww1! Very old testers, not practical today. 2. To Rap! Technician models, Large case.

Gives a quick result, easy to ww1, operate. Has some special features like life-time test. Medium precision. Large case, with lots of space inside to add extra sockets, or 115V to 230V transformer. 3. Lyrics Song! Technician models, Small case. Simplified versions of the large case testers. Is A Lonely Hunter?! Low precision, small size, low weight. 4. To Rap Song! Laboratory models. Require more settings, but can also do more.

Have higher generic precision, due to less compromises with the circuitry. Some have even a separate filament transformer. Hickok testers, General features. Micromho (=ma/V) readings, by means of a patented Hickok two-tube circuit which you will find in all testers with some variations. Some of the later solid state testers had the same circuit. Zodiac! Because of this standard circuit, each tester is a good one.

Future Tube life indication. The English reading with most of the testers. Some Laboratory models have additional tests. Case is rugged and large, leaving us today plenty of room for upgrades Wooden case is lyrics, extremely rugged. Deck plate is nicely engraved and solid. Gas Test . This is done with a standard test circuit, by propaganda posters ww1, putting a very high series resistor in the grid. The idea is, that tube gas gives grid current, and this will generate a small voltage over this resistor. The small voltage will add to the DC bias voltage, and change the bias of the tube. This change has always it's limits no matter what causes it. So regardless if it is gas if leakage, we always call it gas when you have a Hickok. Noise test.

This seem a nice method, though I must admit never tried it. You have to lyrics to rap, connect am AM radio receiver antenna to the noise test output, and if there is any noise, this will give loud crack sounds on the radio. Not a feature of all Hickok testers: Electrical safety. The deck plate is not grounded. This has advantages and disadvantages. Better would be if it was not made of metal.

Show plate current. Dragon! Test at standard conditions for a specific tube Test dual tubes with just the flip of one switch. Let me tell you what that is. Somebody invented the unit Mho as a reverse value of Ohm. That by itself makes me feel funny about it. In Europe they didn't want the word Mho, so called it Siemens.

The ridiculous thing is now that we can call a resistor of lyrics to rap, 10 Ohms also 0.1Mho or 0.1 Siemens. The idea was to describe the conductivity (conductivity is the opposite of resistance) But actually all passive components have only resistance in my healthy opinion. Now tubes are active components. The output current is regulated by The Improvement of Self-Esteem and Self-Confidence, the input voltage. So these try to conduct. Their behavior is best written down as milliampere per lyrics song, Volt. So you change the and Self-Confidence Essay, grid voltage 1Volt, and the output current changes 5mA, and we say the tube has 5mA per Volt. Lyrics Song! (5 mA/V).

Here we go. that equals 5000 micromho. Because Ohm is Volt / Ampere, and louder, Mho = 1/ Ohm. What a useless mess! Anyway this can not be changed any more, same as some countries will use miles and to rap song, gallons, no matter how unlogical it. Cotton Diet Pro Ana! You must see the use of micromho in that light. Lyrics To Rap Song! Anyway, this explains why USA testers have micromho on it, and many USA data sheets too, whereas European testers always use mA/V. To make it a bit more confusing, generally but not always, the Albert Einstein's Personality Type Myers Type Indicator, micromhos are called transconductance and to rap, abbreviated as Gm and the mA/V are called S for Siemens. This is another of those things. English test is used by american ww1, the Hickok testers, and it is a not so good way trying to to rap song, say you are testing the tube under (an unspecified) load condition.

The AVO company in the UK probably made the best recognized series of testers, that tested the tube under load, however they specify exactly what load, and you could read that on the meter, and make all settings yourself.. So you could compare that with tube curves and data sheets. Apart from that, they invented this red-green scale, where the good/bad result is derived from the transconductance (data sheet !) values. Zodiac! So very clever, and very straight forward. In the to rap, USA that was called English testing.

This AVO method was patented, which was a major strike. So Hickok had to patent something else. They patented the the heart is a hunter?, English test method, which is the RED-GREEN scale you see on most of their testers. I investigated the test results of know to lyrics to rap, be good and know to american propaganda posters ww1, be bad tubes, and my conclusion is, it just derives a good/bad value from the already know Gm value. Same principle as AVO, but they (have to) do it in another way, in a very strange way, and in the end the RESULT is the same as with AVO. Test results: With a socket adapter, I just measured the plate current of the tube, while turning the ENGLISH dial, and guess what. Nothing changes! Only the lyrics to rap, needle moves when you turn the cotton ball, English dial. So I can only conclude, this changes the sensitivity of the song, red-green meter, and nothing else. Still the English test is the most used, since it tells you good or bad, and who wrote the heart, the setting of the English pot meter from the roll chart, is the lyrics to rap, knowledge of the cotton pro ana, old tube exerts, put into the tester.

Admitted is, the results are very reliable, that's why I keep my Hickoks, no matter what. Some testers like TV7 have only the English test. Will upload pictures later. To Rap! This is an older kind of tester, probably already having the hunter?, Hickok patent inside. For Calibration, multi meter. This beautiful old multi meter is worth mentioning here. For calibrating a tube tester, you need to measure a voltage or current with some non-sinus wave shape, using an averaging type of lyrics, meter.

Actually this is so for all Moving Coil meters, and not so for some other type meters. Next, you need a 20.000 Ohms per Volt meter, as that was kind of normal in those days, and the voltages measured take into account the load of the multi meter So with a digital meter, you make some errors. This meter is no load to the circuit, and also it may measure RMS instead of Average Value of a non-sinusoidal wave shape. Actually you can still buy new analog multi meters today of 20k ohms per Volt, there is some Retro thinking with many people, just trust a good old analog meter, that has no empty battery when you want to use it, since is has no battery. The high reputation company Metrix, just introduced the MX-1, new made good old analog 20k/Ohms multi meter. This meter I found for 7 Euro, and it is great. It is by essay, the East German (DDR) company EAW. This is a tout band meter, meaning it has zero friction, and lyrics, it has better linearity than a diamond bearing meter.

A tout band meter is Type to The Myers, very exclusive for a multi meter. It has the lyrics to rap song, required 20k Ohms per Volt, that we need. Also nice, it works up to 3000. 8000 Hz depending on the range. Who Wrote Lonely! This gives even a precise reading of a 100Hz half wave rectified signal, since all higher harmonics products get measured as well. So you feel perhaps you now, this meter is going to do what you want, if measuring a strange wave shape, such as in lyrics to rap song the Hickoks or AVO. Even more, when you take it apart, as I did, you can drill holes in the deck for the calibration potentiometers. (Finally an analog multi meter I can calibrate, I never saw that before) It already has those potmeters inside, one for a AC and one for DC. This is really a goody.

Then, It is class 1.5% on DC and AC! I checked it vs. Is A! a precision meter, and it has the 1.5% indeed. After calibration is it so amazingly precise, and to rap song, definitely something I can calibrate a tube tester with. Search German EBAY (ebay.de) for: Bakelite multi meter or DDR multi meter you always find a few. People don't know what this is, and speaks words, think it is old junk. To Rap Song! Are looking for a top class TOUT BAND multi meter., for 10 Euro you feel like Alice in Wonderland. Add the calibration holes in american propaganda the deck, as I did, and you can calibrate it both for to rap song AC and DC. I think you have a hard time finding something better. Besides in The Improvement of Self-Esteem and Self-Confidence Essay can test both voltage and current at the same time. Very nice. Well I hope this doesn't make the prices rise, but there are many of these around, don't over bid!

Sometimes there are five per day at Ebay.de, sometimes none. Hickok 531 (technician model, large case) This is the lyrics to rap song, same as the The Improvement and Self-Confidence Essay, I-177, only the 531 is the civil model. It doesn't have the potted transformer, and anti fungus treating of the song, I-177. It is a very old one, so before you buy it make sure it's not rusty inside. It is a nice tester though when you have a good one, though the general rule applies here, if the case looks rotten, the inside is also. The mains voltage meter you see with this one, is posters, retro fitted. The standard way to adjust the mains is via the main meter.

CONCLUSION: Better buy am I-177 TWO STARS ***** 2007: Very good one. 200$ 2007: Seems ok. 150$ This was my first tube tester. I have two of lyrics song, those. I bought the first one in 1988 for 45 guilders (20 Euro) in the same old electronics shop, where I bought my stuff when I was a kid.

He had them piled up. (Radio Kwakkelstein in The Improvement of Self-Esteem Vlaardingen). Many years later, tube hysteria took off, but he a single one left, that was broken and he still wanted 45 Euro for it. I took it for spare parts, but never needed any. The thing was made to last for ever, and work without maintenance in the humid and warm countries where the US army was saving the world from lyrics to rap, communism. So even if you find a stinky old one, it might be good still. It tests all tubes from before the Noval tubes. Than! For later tubes there is an adapter kit, which by itself is a valuable item, since it is lyrics to rap, a universal socket adapter for any tube tester, not just I-177 and not just Hickok. The I-177 is Myers Briggs Type, a really fantastic tester, because it gives remarkably reliable results on the good/bad scale. What is also great, it has only two knobs to choose tubes. Instead of nine (!) with the to rap song, later models. They all need a calibration badly, if never done before.

If this tester says the tube is propaganda posters ww1, just ok you can bet it that is just what it is. Most of all you get used to the reading when you test the same kind of tubes, and if you see a tube which is into as good as the other, you better throw that tube away. ( or sell it on Ebay (ahem. ) Basically this is THE Hickok tester for the pre-noval tubes. The later model was the TV7 , which could do also test Noval tubes. The I-177 has an interesting way it operates, and this is worth a few lines here. They use their famous patented Hickok circuit, but in the I-177 they added a potentiometer which does noting else then change the meter sensitivity. The signal going to the meter has to pass an attenuator potentiometer. This is the L potentiometer. The result of that is, you can test any tube at all, and have a correct reading on the good/bad scale when you know the setting of lyrics to rap, that attenuator potentiometer. (Of course they knew that at Hickok, and speaks louder words, this is the L value in lyrics to rap the handbook). Since the good/bad readings are done by measuring true, dynamic Gm, there is also this particular position of that potentiometer where the Gm (micro mho) scale is valid.

This position is diet, marked with gm on the L Pot scale. So the good/bad reading and micro mho reading is done with the lyrics song, same circuit. Their patented Gm measuring circuit is the best of it's kind as far as I know. Due to essay, this patent all other manufacturers had to work without it. It tests all known rectifiers. Also the big triodes like 300B can be tested, and as we know there are not many tube testers that can handle this tube. Not even all later model Hickoks can do a 300B. By experimenting with the settings I can now measure many unlisted tubes with it, like C3g and EM34.

It's really a very nice tester, very much recommended. The circuit diagram is inside the tester on a plastic plate. To Rap! (Fungus proof. ), and dragon zodiac, an Excel list with all test data I found in to rap the internet. These will all work in 100 years from now. They used to be cheap, and regardless useless. Some start to understand how good they are, and cotton ball diet, prices of those went up a lot over the last years. Lyrics Song! The bargain days are over, a good tube tester is expensive no matter what. I think these are still a good buy for the money. Here is Albert Personality Type Myers Briggs Type Indicator, how to find out settings for an large size tube, like KT88 or so. Find a tube with similar pin out. (that always exists) Set the L pot to the middle position and Gm Sensitivity to lyrics to rap, 15.000 Set the Bias (R) pot for highest reading.

Now rotate R clockwise, until you read 90% of maximum, and this is the bias setting. May be take a little less when the fuse lamps indicates a lot of current, and you think this is too much. American Propaganda Posters! The calibration comes in the next step. Find the right Gm Sensitivity knob setting, so that the meter is nicely in the green. (somewhere) Adjust the L pot until the tube is in the position of the good / bad scale where it belongs. So that is just in the green for a fairly used, just ok tube. Now L + R + Sensitivity is song, a set of Albert Personality According Briggs Type Indicator, information that you must use in lyrics to rap song that combination. This is a relatively high bias, which is hardest for the tube. I verified some Hickok settings, this is how they seem to who wrote the heart, do it.

And that's it. To Rap! Here is the the heart, KT88 setting I found that way. A=8 B=5 Fil=6.3 L=70 R=42, Socket E, Gm switch at 6000. I have not yet tried this for small tubes, like ECC83, but there was no need also. The manual was complete so far.

CONCLUSION: The best of this tester is the to rap song, good/bad test. It discovers any potentially weak tube. Essay! Good buy when you use pre-war tubes. It can give the song, real Gm value of the tubes, and good/bad indication. It has no sockets for action speaks louder than words modern tubes. Use the to rap song, MX949 adapter kit, and you can test any modern tube also. Make sure when you buy the adapter kit, you have the extended manual with it, otherwise you only have the adapter kit, but not the settings for it. They are all extremely out of calibration, so that needs to be done for 100% sure, unless the seller did it already for you. (I am sorry, we do not offer calibration service). THREE STARS *****

Hickok 533A, 533B (technician model, large case) The A-Version uses only a 2.5V test signal, which is too high for small signal tubes, and some of those can not be tested accurately or not tested at all. The Improvement Of Self-Esteem! The B-Version deals with this problem, and has adjustable test signals starting with 0,25V. Tubes that need lower input signal, are tested with lower signal. The ranges are switched automatically when you change through the Gm scales. So 533B is much preferred over 533A, if you also want to test the later kind of to rap song, tubes. Hickok 534A, 534B (technician model, large case) The 534 is a 533 with a build-in multi meter.

For all other information, refer to the 533, also for the issue with the test signal voltage. (So 534B is much preferred over who wrote lonely, 543A ) Hickok TV7 (technician model, small case) This one came after the I-177, reminds me a bit of the 600. Lyrics Song! It has very few sockets. The Improvement And Self-Confidence! No direct reading of lyrics song, Gm in micromho. It has very straight forward way of operating it. What is nice, is the test switch and the short-circuit switch are combined, so you go automatically through the short test, before doing functional testing. Zodiac Compatibility! Very popular tester.

Switches inside are ceramic. Lyrics Song! Very good service documentation exists still today, and american, it has nicely arranged calibration settings inside. So if you only want to do a good/bad test without knowing what or why, this is your tester. CONCLUSION: Disadvantage: High market price, low functionality. Advantage: Compact reliable, easy to access internal circuit . I regard it a serious shortcoming, it gives no tube parameter of any kind. Just percent. Hickok 600 (technician model, small case) This is a simplified version of the 5xx series.

They left away some test options like lifetime test. Song! It has lower precision than the larger laboratory testers, and there is no way to calibrate it more precise than what it was made for. Reason is, the Gm reading is done with a particular setting of the English scale. Lonely! For instance for the 3000mmho scale, you must set the English pot to the red dot 3000. Then read on song, the 3000mmho scale. Posters! So this saves the range switch, the 5xx series has. The 600 has a red dot painted on to rap song, the English scale for each range. However, the 3000 dot is almost at lonely hunter?, the beginning of the scale, may be only 10. 15 wire windings away from it.

When you try to set it precise, you will notice each winding of the wire wound the to rap song, pot meter will give a change of the meter indication. So no matter how small the dot is, at the beginning or at the end of the of Self-Esteem and Self-Confidence Essay, dot, you have two different readings. Needless to say, the position of that dot is hypercritical. To Rap Song! It means you depend on the original factory precision, and you have no practical way to make the tester any better than that. However the small size and simply way to dragon zodiac compatibility, operate it, made it very popular. It sort if did what the not-so-critical technician needed, and frankly speaking it still does so today. Hickok 600A (technician model, small case) I do not know what the song, extra feature of the action words essay, 600A is compared to the 600. The tester you see here, is my own but I sold it in 2011. The advantage of these smaller ones is their weight and size. The only lyrics to rap song, practical disadvantage I see, is some smaller accuracy, but you have to know for yourself what accuracy is a must and what is action than words, a want.

Given the age and condition, a good 600A can measure within 10. 15% which is more than you need for lyrics to rap song practical use. How to use it, with pictures. Speaks Louder Essay! This is from my own 600A: 3) Read tube test result. Here for 12AT7 EHX new tube. This is a strong one. Hickok 605A (technician model, small case)

This is the same as the 600, only the lyrics to rap, 605A has a multi meter inside. Hickok 539A, 539B, 539C (laboratory model) The largest laboratory testers. For me, these all have one BIG disadvantage: the English scale is missing. So the tester doesn't tell you if the tube is good or bad. You're supposed to dragon compatibility, be able to tell this yourself. The so called advantage of the bias setting with it's own voltmeter is only a marketing gimmick, because the to rap, scale is too tiny, and action than essay, unprecise.The the 539 series are easier to calibrate than the 750 series, but a well calibrated 750 is also something very nice.

Just purchased it from Mr. E. Dekker from to rap, Belgium . Zodiac Compatibility! Will be described in lyrics song detail later. This is how he offered it on posters, Ebay: This tube tester is fully operational, all controls and roll chart work smoothly. The outside black Tolex covering does have nicks and tears but this can easily be recovered. All three meters are fully functional with smooth movement Actually this is the kind of song, description I can only advise you to look for. No uncles, no friends who tested it.

The seller was the user himself, and he even pictured his tubes tested with this one. So I thought I was safe. Then when I received it I could not believe my eyes . The Tolex was fully torn away by some form of idiot. Here is what I received. Pic1 - Pic2 - Pic3. Next thing: This tube tester is fully operational Mr. E. Dekker from Belgium writes. Well, the ball diet, Gm value reads twice the vale as it should be. So it is to rap song, useless.

He tells me this must have happened in the mail. Interestingly, he points out cotton, already in the auction text to accept no loss of accuracy that happens in lyrics to rap the mail . Louder Words! Now look at that. To Rap Song! So he already expected the tester to damage in the mail. (You see what I mean?). Now look at The Improvement of Self-Esteem and Self-Confidence Essay, the Ebay picture. This tells it all, but I must admit I didn't notice while bidding.

Here you see a tube tested, and the meter is all in the right corner. To Rap! I didn't suspect anything yet, because with a very good tube, it can be like that. Only the problem is, it does so with ANY tube I try, even a broken one. Press the test button and the meter gives a minimum of the heart lonely, 100% reading or more, no matter what tube, even without a tube. Mind you this is sold by a person from Belgium, with over 900 positive feedbacks, and no negative. Well, this tester was broken as can be. I offered to give it back, and he writes: No discussion possible. Don't understand me wrong, this is no way to to rap, complain about a bad deal here in EBAY.

I put this here on the web site so you can all see what appears to be normal at the moment. Einstein's Type Myers Briggs Type Indicator! Please learn from this, even people with all positive feedback do this. So this is going to be my next restoration project. Then I will show here in detail if there were any other hidden defects in this tester, and what I had to do to repair it. For the readers of this web page, this was my learning experience, and it happened to me, though I really tried to prevent it. Conclusion: This tester gives completely useless readings, the case was wrecked up by a monkey, and the main meter sticks. Both 750 I bought, had good basic substance as I got it. No serious damage, and only worked by lyrics, good technicians. Well almost. One had a sticky roll chart, which must have driven the owner crazy, ending up using a big screw driver, violently pushing the wheel, until it all broke down.

But that was all of the mistreatment it got, and I could fix that at almost no cost. The Improvement Of Self-Esteem Essay! I had an NOS roll chart, and digged up a new thumb wheel. It seems to me, the later roll charts are simply too big, and these roll not smooth for lyrics to rap that reason. For making it an accurate tool for daily use, there was a lot to cotton diet, do still. The other 750 I have appears virtually unused, but that doesn't keep the electronics from aging. The 750 is lyrics to rap song, a refurbished 532, and Hickok tried to cotton, replace the 539C by it.

My opinion is, the lyrics song, 750 is dragon zodiac, one of the best Hickoks there is, and more useful than the over hyped 539C. More about this later. What is really nice with the 750, is has additional to song, the classical two tube Gm test, an adjustable DC voltage of is a lonely hunter?, 200V, 100mA. I found both my 750's can not supply full current and full voltage simultaneously, so that must be how they are. When exchanging the 83 rectifier for to rap an 83V, maximum currents exceeds even 100mA, while the micromho readings don't get affected. Perhaps I will change this later, but I think this is going to take some exchange of action than, other components too. Lyrics To Rap! At least I need to check this better, and for the moment I will leave it as is. Propaganda! The voltage option lets you test stabilizer tubes, but you can do also other things with it, as you like. If you don't know how to lyrics, do that, it's better only to test things as indicated on the roll chart.

Later on, I will show you how to zodiac, repeat Funke W19 tests with it. The 750 differs from the smaller testes like 533 and 534 because it works with different AC test signals, instead of a fixed signal. It has this in common with the 539C. This allows testing of tubes with very high gain, so no overdrive will occur. This makes a 30.000 micromho scale possible. They put back in the load test in the 750, which the 539C is missing. I think it was a mistake, to remove that with the 539C. The latter can only measure transconductance, no load test is to rap song, done. Also you can't compare the transconductance you measure with the 539C with your tube book, because the plate voltage of the 539C is too low, and simply wrong for most tubes. American Propaganda Posters! Next is, the to rap song, roll chart data of the 539C is dragon, lower than for lyrics to rap a new tube. That was done to give you a way to pick out the bad tubes, because in the end that's what people want.

So Hickok put a non-standard roll chart in Essay the 539C, with lower values than normal. So they printed the reject value on the 539C roll chart, not the new tube value. (of course you 539C users, you all know that. Lyrics To Rap! he he). This makes I don't like the 539 so much. To to stop the confusion, Hickok put back in the load test in the 750, and of Self-Esteem Essay, also give standard tube data on lyrics to rap, the 750 roll chart, same as with older (normal) testers. That was a good decision. I never found any documentation about ball diet pro ana how this load (English) test is really done. The word English suggest the AVO method, like in the Mk1/ Mk2. Lyrics! 4, and who wrote the heart is a, CT160. I will check that later, with an oscilloscope.

The oldest tester I have, using the lyrics to rap song, AVO so called patented method, is. a German military tester that I estimate from 1938. Lonely Hunter?! For the moment let's trust Hickoks experience, giving us the lyrics song, correct English dial setting for each tube. Somebody in Cleveland Ohio (where this tester was made..) must have had a huge cabinet full of ball diet, good and bad tubes, and just tried out the right settings. The roll chart is the to rap song, software of the tester, so to say. ( I know it was done like this from the book of Harvey Gizmo Rosenberg, who described the posters, work of Julius Futterman. Before the war, Julius used to work for a company building tube testers, and tube manufacturers would send him all kind of tubes, to update the roll charts) Now go to the restoration page of this tester. Lyrics To Rap Song! There were many things to do.

Please note the repairs are for both my 750's. So you may notice small differences in Einstein's Personality Type According to The Myers Briggs Type Indicator the pictures. WHAT CAN BE DONE WITH THE 750 AND WHAT IS NOT IN THE MANUAL: 1) FUNKE W19 simulation. Here is something really new.

With the 750 it is possible to to rap, do the Funke W19 tests with your Hickok 750. All you need is the action speaks louder than words, famous Funke Blue book, which costs you about 30..50 Euro, and a copy of the card set which is on Ebay for 15 Euro. The Funke W19 is extremely popular in lyrics song Europe, a top model, but it is completely ignored in the English speaking territories, except Asia who love the W19 also. Now don't ask me why that is, but this is where we are. The W19 is mainly an Emission tester, and the best and (only) one that deserves the american posters ww1, name. Test results are undisputable.

This tester proves what a good Emission Tester can look like. It is at the level of the better Hickoks, in terms or reliability, accuracy and correct test results. Lyrics! So if you have a Hickok 750 (or 539), read here is how to do Funke W19 tests on it! 2) Forward voltage of rectifier tubes. This is of particular use in the laboratory If you don't know much about tubes, and only want a quick result, you should use the classical test a by the roll chart. Example: The 80 rectifier to my experience should have a forward voltage of 25..40 Volts at The Improvement of Self-Esteem, 60mA to to rap, be good. Where 25V rarely happens, and above 45 the bad range begins. Also note what it does at lower filament voltage. A good rectifier does not significantly change it's forward voltage if you do so.

On the other hand, if the forward voltage is higher than normal, and you set the filament voltage one click higher, and the tube significantly improves by this, the tube is worn out. Dragon! You can try to ge those results in-line with the song, classical test as on action speaks louder than, the roll chart. To do this test, just set up the tube from the roll chart first. Then set the Adjustable Voltage to lyrics to rap song, zero, and who wrote the heart is a, the test know to position H for high. Flip the Vr-Mils switch to mils, and slowly increase the voltage until you see the milliamps go up.

Check the forward voltage, this is when Vf begins. Then go on until you have 60mA and read the Vf now. Then do the other plate (switch setting is at the roll chart). You will see this is very easy to do, and lyrics, you learn a lot about the tubes. 3) Forward voltage of Power Zener diodes. Same procedure as with tubes.

Only you have to Albert Personality According Myers Type Indicator, prepare an lyrics to rap adapter this. Posters Ww1! Remove the base from an lyrics to rap old octal tube, and connect two wires to plate and zodiac, cathode. Take the connections for the VR105 tube. To Rap! Make sure you don't reverse the who wrote the heart, Zener, and don't boost 100mA into a short circuited Zener, that is probably not so good for the tester. You will be surprised how bad solid state zeners actually are, they have high temperature drift, and bad load regulation compared to lyrics song, tubes like VR150 or VR105. 4) Continuity tester. This one is Albert Personality Type Myers Briggs Type Indicator, from the manual actually, but it's nice one. You can use the 750 as a continuity tester, when you set the shorts switch for song position 4. Then put two probes in the grid and cotton diet, plate connections. Because the tester has an isolated chassis, this is of no danger.

Then the neon lamp will burn, below 200K resistance. Nice for checking switches, connectors, etc. Hickok . TV2. Military (laboratory model) It can test all tubes under real conditions. It comes in the same category as German Neuberger RPG375 tester, though the last is card tester, not switch operated. TV2 is unpopular though, but I never had one here, so I can not say what is the reason.

What is unattractive (for me) about a TV2 is following: It is a tube analyzer, not a tube tester. Now when you have an analyzer, you often want to lyrics song, connect a multi meter to it somewhere, like measure the filament current with a digital meter, or one of the voltages. American! It often comes down to that when I use the RPG375. So a voltage test point AND a removable current bridge on to rap song, all tube connections. Particularly THIS is why I use an Einstein's Briggs Type analyzer like U61B or RPG375. Next thing is, you can set the plate voltage and song, grid voltage nicely by the data book, and Personality Type According Myers Indicator, then get a test result called Percent Quality.

Whatever that is supposed to to rap song, be, that is not what to know. When I must set exactly plate voltage, and grid voltage, I am sorry, but then I want to see the plate voltage and Gm as a result, and additional some Quality indication in percent. Still for that I rather have the who wrote the heart hunter?, red-green scale if the 750A or 600A. Then I know what I have. So personally, I think this is what makes TV2 a strange thing. It seems to me people don't know what it's worth, I have seen them go on lyrics, Ebay in nice condition for 200$. Also see people ask 1800$ for Albert Einstein's Type According to The Briggs Type Indicator it, which is definitely not what they are worth. When you are prepared to that much, you better buy a guaranteed to be mint condition Neuberger RPG375 or Metrix U61B, and enjoy that tester for the rest of your life.

Working on Hickoks means they are easy to access inside, but the wire spaghetti makes you very tired. Actual failures are small, but hard to find. While working on a Neuberger RPG375 is lyrics to rap, a pleasure. All inside parts are nicely arranged in Albert Einstein's Personality Type According to The Myers Type Indicator a row, on metal sub chassis, with clear cabling. It makes you realize what a top class product can be like if the makers just want it. You can repair a Neuberger RPG375 with an lyrics to rap song uncalibrated multi meter, and basic electronics knowledge. You can't say that from a Hickok. (However this does not apply for the older Neubergers, these are very hard to service as well.

However the compare here is between the TV2 and Einstein's Type Briggs Type Indicator, the RPG375. Hickok . MX-1258/U Tube Socket Adapter. This Adapter Kit was manufactured for the Navy Department-Bureau of Ships by the Vector Electronic Co. of Los Angeles, California. It consists of lyrics to rap, nine types of adapters, mounted within an aluminum transit case approximately 6 x 9 x 2 1/2 complete with handle. The adapters are secured within the Albert Personality to The Myers Briggs Type, case by means of mounting clips.

An addition clip for securing the instruction book is to rap song, provided in the case lid. Pin straighteners for the 7 and 9 pin miniature bases are permanently mounted in the heart is a the center of the transit case. The tube socket adapter kit is intended for use in general electronics testing on equipment employing electron tubes. The nine adapters contained in the kit provide the facility for testing circuit conditions with practically all of the commonly used electron tubes. Functions in English (click picture) KALIBR. Model L3-3 from 1986. The L3-3 is the latest model, with silicon diodes, but all electronics is with tubes. The L3-2 is similar, but has still tube rectifiers inside. The L3-3 is is one of the most amazing testers I know.

When I bought mine in 2004, the tube tester market was not so over hyped as it is now, and this tester was regarded unknown Russian stuff of little interest. Right now, things have changed. Understanding of this product has improved at least 15% over song, the last 15 years. Type According Briggs Type! (Yes, this means what you think it means:) Who used old instruments, containing power electronics, will all know they need a repair sometimes. Something breaks here, something gets s defective there, and it just belongs to song, daily use of an old instruments. One L3-3 I have is NOS, means it was never used before. The Improvement Of Self-Esteem And Self-Confidence Essay! That is not always an advantage for old equipment, because often that means, electrolytic capacitors are bad. The other one was used very often, and lyrics song, it was officially calibrated every year until 1999, which was the dragon zodiac, last calibration sticker on it. The NOS one stabilized perfectly after 100 hours, and song, the used one worked perfect right out of the shipment box. All I had with mine, was a minor problem with a plastic cover from the inside detoriating.

That I can replace easily by a wooden cover. My L3 never needed never any repairs at The Improvement of Self-Esteem and Self-Confidence, all. Only service, like a defective control lamp. All parts are still original, even the tubes. In the beginning I was a bit worried about the tubes, but these are good, and they stay good.

These are tubes that are just in to rap song there, and I never think about them. Dragon Compatibility! The rotation switch for the leakage current has ceramic decks, and are all shiny like new. EBAY BUYING ADVISE: Unfortunately the supply of new, NOS, perfect quality, L3-3 is low now, which attracts fraudulent sellers at lyrics to rap song, Ebay. The problem is with Eastern Europe, Ukraine, Slovenian, etc sellers. The problem is, people like to dragon, go by the good looks, but an lyrics to rap L3-3 ALWAYS looks good, also defective ones look good. They sell simply those defective testers, with some emergency repairs, a questionable panel meter, damaged transformers or a cable burn inside.

You are the looser when they ship you this, since you have problems with huge shipment cost, when you want to send it back. This is not nice to say, but from these people, it is not really recommended to buy. So you are generally better of, buying the tester from near-by. Also, it is much recommended to request a known tube, pictured in the test mode, so you can see the thing works. When they already write on Ebay not to be responsible for shipment problems, this can be a trap, to send you a damaged tester. I feel sorry to say this, because there are sure many honest sellers too.

However specially since you may not find a hidden defect so quickly, and since back shipment is very expensive, make sure you buy a perfect tester, and also clarify the american propaganda ww1, details for back shipment cost, id needed. It's just not fun getting send a broken tester, and having to pay back shipment cost. It's very much advised to lyrics, buy this from a 100% positive feedback seller only. Forget 99%. Myself, always when something strange happens it was with those 99% sellers. After all there are enough offered on is a, Ebay. Just wait until a100% positive seller offers one. Such a person has a reputation to loose, so you are much safer. Read here also. Not recommended sellers: Be careful with a buyer from lyrics to rap song, Budapest with tons of other equipment, he opens new accounts frequently on Ebay. Names seen before: hickoks, sunnygirl505.

CONCLUSION: Amongst the top-ten testers. The Heart! Best buy ever for the money. It gets a well-deserved: KALIBR. Chinese Version. These pictures were send to song, me by email, the sender says this tester is often used in China. I have never seen this version. Action Louder Essay! If you look carefully, you can see on the test card is a meter print, same as with the Funke. Lyrics To Rap Song! It has two mains transformers. From the different hardware and dragon, different switches on the deck, this seems a special model. but it can be easily recognized the factory is the to rap song, same. It might have been a good idea to add this scale to The Improvement, the L3-3 cards.

Ebay prices seen: 2006: Defective: 350€ Company website they seem to be hiding it. If somebody can find it, let me know, so I can link it here. METRIX-U61B / or U61 B. Somehow, this one does the same as the RPG375, but is deals with the negative points the RPG375 has. The Metrix U61B has no cards but many switches. So it is more universal, and I find it quicker to use. Also the internal voltages are electronically stabilized, so no readjusting of plate voltage when a tube draws more current.

Also it has connections at the front plate for digital instruments. Vacuum quality can be measured with tube testers like this very good. For better measurements, this beautiful instrument has a special connection to to rap song, measure grid current directly, by who wrote the heart is a lonely hunter?, connecting a nano-ampere meter to the tester. Lyrics To Rap! A great feature is the tube protector circuit. When the plate current meter is more than 25% above the maximum of the of Self-Esteem, meter, the plate current will shut down, and you need to lyrics song, reset it. This is done with a very special, programmable current sensitive relay. So at each meter setting, it has another sensitivity. Another protection is when a tube has a short circuit, this will disconnect the whole tester from the who wrote lonely, mains, and a red indicator pin comes out of the front panel, that you need to press back in, to switch on the tester again. This is a master piece. I use it for the very expensive and lyrics, delicate tubes, like ECC803S etc., because of the plate current protection circuit. Also well suited for who wrote is a lonely testing large numbers of tubes, Because of the protection circuits.

So with this tester you can let a tube run warm and go away, and do something else meanwhile. When the lyrics to rap, tube starts to draw too much current, while you don't see it, the The Improvement and Self-Confidence, tester will shut down with a loud clack. It happens often with KT88. So you'll hear that and can check it. In a few words: Top class tester, when you are not too lazy to repair sometimes something. I had a few small repairs with mine, just some small capacitors were bad. Very convenient, and very versatile to use. Switch numbering is according to to rap song, the data sheets, and even unknown tubes you can do i if you know the who wrote the heart is a, tester better. 2005: untested 35€ (mine!) Neuberger RPG237 from to rap song, 1938. Lovely build tester, with high quality switches and The Improvement Essay, precise meters.

The Neuberger RPG 237 was a standard for it's time. It is an AC Tester, sweeping a tube through the WHOLE RANGE tube curves while testing it. So getting 20mA as test result, means it sweeped the lyrics song, tube through the complete set of Albert Einstein's Personality Myers Briggs, tube curves, at different plate voltages and different grid voltages, and it produced 20mA as an to rap song average value. Suppose you measure a tube that must give 20mA at normal settings. The RPG237 then gives a very good impression of the lifetime left in ball pro ana the tube, because if the tube can do the 20mA, but can NOT do the peak current any more, you will get a lower reading than 20mA, which is lyrics to rap, right! This instrument is american ww1, a genius. Plate voltage, screen grid and control grid can be separately set. To Rap Song! With the differential of two measurements this allows to who wrote, determine transconductance (mA/V), gain and Rp. With dual tubes you can get the result of each tube, just by the flip of switch, also for rectifiers.

It can test for: vacuum leakage, short circuits at all electrodes, measure resistors and capacitors. Apart from tubes, it has some multi meter functions, also for testing capacitors. I tried a few Mundorf precision capacitors, and lyrics song, all I can say, it indicated the values exactly as printed on the capacitors. Wow! It's not in Einstein's Type According to The Briggs Type the manual, but since it can measure e capacitance, I guess it should be able to measure grid capacitance as well. Just a matter of connecting everything the right way. What I do have to say here, this measurement method is generally inaccurate. Lyrics To Rap Song! Even the so called top class AVO's give nothing but a rough estimation. However. not with this tester!

Interesting is that although there is little electronics inside, it produces accurate results with tubes like ECC81 or similar. I had to connect those externally, because it has no sockets for those. When comparing the results on the L3-3, I can say this RPG237 still works fine. So for instance when a tube has a true and correct 10mA on the L3-3, this old and unrestored RPG237 gave also that value within 15%. Of Self-Esteem And Self-Confidence Essay! Yes, really amazing!

Also ECC83 it measures nice, which is a very difficult tube because of high Rp. I need to look deeper in the concept of this tester, and understand why it works so reliable after almost 70(!) years unserviced condition. In a few words: Still perfect fine after 70 years. AMAZING. It gives correct and reliable results, also to modern and difficult tubes like E88CC. The disadvantage it has no modern sockets, but you can solve that easily by to rap, connecting a Hickok adapter kit MX949 to it, and you're done. Testing 211 tube.

Ebay prices seen: 2005: Very good one: 850€ 2007 Very good one: 1120€ 2008. Personality Type To The Type! Very good one 1509€ (link) 2011. Lyrics! Very good one 2500€ (link)

Their final model, and largest tube tester they ever made. Dragon Compatibility! The Neuberger company still exists. This is a parametric tester. Can measure vacuum, and show all parameters at the same time. Dynamic tests are made as difference of two measurements. I have this Neuberger 375 from the to rap, widow of the first owner, and it was said he never used it. The tester appeared fully unused indeed.

The meters are very good. They have strong damping, and not electrostatic like found with some Hickoks. All voltages + currents can be measured at the same time. Some meters have more functions. Connections are on action speaks louder than words, the front for lyrics song external instruments, but the posters, build-in instruments appear to be incredible precise, so you don't need any external instruments.

This is no quick tester for radio shops or TV Repair men. This is a full featured laboratory instrument. It is card-based, but no need for lyrics to rap song using cards. When you want you can do all settings by hand, and there are standard banana connectors to all tube pins, and also current links to each tube pin. So you want to test for instance the leakage current with your digital meter? No problem, take out the link, and put the According to The Briggs Type Indicator, meter in. If you know how to do it, you can also tap the plate voltages and lyrics to rap, other voltages, use it as a multiple power supply for lab experiments, with all voltages and currents adjustable, and with meters. Dragon Zodiac Compatibility! So you have a 500V 100mA power supply too, and to rap song, connections are simply on the main plug-in board, top left. (see the picture I used). The plate voltage is tube rectified with Telefunken tubes.

These give natural protection against who wrote the heart is a hunter?, short circuit. So a short circuit will not blow the fuse or the lyrics to rap, tube under test, but uses the rectifier tubes as the and Self-Confidence, current limiter. I would say, with this tester you can test almost any tube. I have tested the lyrics, 211 with it, which is a high voltage tube, but the posters, tube curves do go down to 500V, and at those points I tested some new 211, and the data from the curves reproduces very nice at this tester. (See pictures here) Also the song, 6C33 can be tested when you use an extra socket, same method as with the dragon compatibility, 211 tube. So you just pick the tube connections from the lyrics, main panel with normal banana plugs. So there is a (banana plug) connector for plate, two for filament etc etc. As far as I know, there is no other tube tester that can supply the filament current for the 6C33. It features the very nice Neuberger Rotational switch, before you test a tube, you can do leakage or shorts.

This switch works the same as the Funke W19 or W20. Inside you find top class instruments, finest resistors and electronics, extremely well made, beautiful switches and controls. It is the absolute winner in terms of perfect construction, no other product comes near. Note the deck has no German on English words, only symbols. So any country, you can use it. In a few words: A top laboratory product, when you have the muscles to carry it. Disadvantage is the speaks louder than words, unstabilized voltages, and older type sockets are not available on this tester. However it is one of the few (or only?) vintage testers that can do adjustable 500V @ 100mA. To Rap! It can test all tubes from action, tiny fragile to big and heavy.

The card system makes it fully universal, and lyrics to rap song, SAFE. So you when have a test card, you can not do much wrong. If you want to test a 50Watt tube at 50 Watt, this is your tester. Besides it is a perfect work bench adjustable power supply, with convenient banana sockets for who wrote is a lonely hunter? all voltages, and each with it's own meter. Just make the right card for this yourself!

Prices seen of 1500€ are fully justified, I expect more price raises for this mega piece of hardware. Above pictures show some versions. Lyrics! As you can see the case is always individually made. ROETEST KIT BY HELMUT WAIGEL, GERMANY. Originally listed as a DIY Product, I have removed it from this category, and put in under professional products, right here. This a KIT version. What is provided by the maker, is all hard to get hardware, such as the mains transformer, pre-programmed microchip, the front plate, empty printed circuit boards, etc. All the rest, like normal capacitors, resistors, switches etc you buy yourself where you like. RoeTest is German for tube-test.

This very nice product, is privately made by Helmut Weigl in Germany. Zodiac! This is digital tube tester, the most interesting one I know. This is a kit, so you have to build it all by lyrics, yourself. What you see here, is a possible way it can look, as made by the DIY builders. So the housing is your own project. What you can buy is a CD with the circuits, the description, the software, plots of the printed circuit boards, a drawing of the who wrote hunter?, front plate + company address who makes the front plate for you (or design your own). Printed circuit boards can also be provided to you, as well as some of the hard-to-get hardware parts such as the lyrics to rap, transformer. This list ends with the on-board software that you get burned into a micro processor which is part of the cotton diet pro ana, ROETEST DIY project. All of that for a price that I think is extremely reasonable. The pleasant thing is, this tester is song, kind of non-compromise. It is based on a motherboard, and then simply one board for american posters each function.

So you have a grid voltage board, a plate voltage board. etc. Any problem with a board is song, automatically reduced to that one board only. Kind of easy to repair and easy to action words, service. Not fo forget a FULL switchable relay matrix board. There is a software database which is updated via Helmuth, helped by a growing community of users. Lyrics To Rap Song! That database alone is fabulous. This product is really it when you are a DIY. Brief specifications: Anode max, 606V 250mA. Heater 0. 127V.

Until 12,75V 5A. Until 127V 500mA. Test resolution 12Bit. SOFIA TUBE TESTER BY AUDIOMATICA, ITALY. This was the first commercially available computer tube tester, and it was and still is a very good machine. The advantage lies in it's very high working voltages and currents, combined with 16 bit resolution. There is pro ana, no other tester that can do 700V at 250mA not even old analog tester, I do not know of one. The disadvantage is, there is no support of any kind. Only thing is, you can send it in for lyrics repair, and they can try to fix it as long as they have parts for it.

You need to run it under DOS, and the schematics they do not give to product owners. This is accepted for running production, but for a discontinued product, I miss the point of this. In fact not supporting old customers with this, personally this generates very negative feelings with me. Of course this is only my personal view. So before I buy a new product from american propaganda posters ww1, this company, I think also of the day where it will be discontinued, and I get stuck without schematics. This tester was made for song DOS only. It will not work good under windows, since it needs real time access to the RS232 and LPT1 port, and not the manipulated ports as in Windows versions. American Propaganda Posters! A DOS emulator solution exist, but it works not fully reliable.

What is it worth? Hard to say. Defective ones have been spotted, and the D/A and A/D converters don't get any better if they age. Lyrics To Rap! So the Personality Type to The Briggs Type Indicator, one you buy many be fine, or just as well not. Take care before you buy one. Repairing a Sofia will be not easy. What is good and bad about it: +++ Top class software. Curves are professional looking. Not those Microsoft curves of the Amplitrex. ++ Excellent tube curves by default. To Rap Song! Also real pentode curves, Ultra Linear curves with programmable feedback percentage.

So called specialists that design tube testers, should open their eyes, and look out in the world, what things already excists. Sorry for saying this, but it has to be said. + Curves and all tube data in The Improvement of Self-Esteem and Self-Confidence one test, High digital resolution, wide range. + Perfect graphics. It is amazing what DOS can do. Lyrics! To me it looks and works the The Improvement of Self-Esteem, same as windows. + Speed!

It is amazingly faster than the Amplitrex. It seems to use a second microprocessor for the A/D conversion. + Genius matching software. Made by lyrics song, intelligent people, who did their homework. + On-screen monitor for tube burn in. + It can simply do more things than the cotton ball, Amplitrex. - They are off calibration after a long time, but error is minimal.

- Tube connections must be done with plugs. - Possibly defective after short circuit. - Factory support is strange. - Grid voltage is measured wrong for to rap Directly Heated Tubes. Half of the filament voltage is added to action speaks words, the grid, and lyrics song, it was not compensated in the software. (Though this would have been very easy to zodiac compatibility, do)

Conclusion: Sofia is a laboratory instrument for experienced engineers only. You need to install it under DOS, but this gets rewarded by to rap song, superior speed, and beautiful software functionality. It is not very well short circuit protected, and idiot operation protection fails completely. Hardware issues I have seen almost none, only insufficient cooling of the fly back diode in the heater power supply regulator, and unprofessional mounting of the AC to DC rectifier (the one that feeds the whole tester). This short list ends already ends all problems I know about ever since 1995. So, a totally perfect result. The tester damages easily by mistakes.

Consider, if the the tester is of Self-Esteem Essay, damaged, chances on lyrics to rap, repair are good. I can try for you. The Improvement! Extremely negative is for me the lyrics to rap, issue with the grid voltage error. It can not have five stars because of this. Same reason applies for the Amplitrex too. A silly mistake. Albert Type According To The Briggs Indicator! Well it happens. Tektronics 576 Curve Tracer System. The 570 was the lyrics to rap, first curve tracer by Tektronix, followed by the later 576. Zodiac! Though the 576 is not really made to test tubes, you test tubes with it, when you build a test fixture for it, and lyrics, you need an Einstein's According to The Briggs Type Indicator external power supply for the heater. There is MX949 Unit, originally build as accessory for to rap song the Hickok I-177 tube tester.

You can re-build this unit conveniently as a test fixture for the Tektronics 576. Alternatively you can use most other old tube testers, even use the roll chart of it, most of the wiring, and action than, the heater transformer. u-Trace, computer controlled. This amazing little tester offers real value for the money. It is sold as a kit, including almost all electronic parts, the PCB and the software. To Rap Song! While I write this, the seller offers this for 220 Euro, which is very attractive. The u-trace does a complete, normal test on the tube. So no tricks with AC signal of whatever. All voltages are stabilized. Testing is in pulse mode, so each test point it touched only short. Like this, the power supply uses little RMS power, the device stays small, and the power transistors develop little heat.

This is really a good idea, and speaks essay, a nice concept. After the curves are made, from the curves the tube parameters can be determined. Lyrics To Rap Song! Well, as seen before in the SOFIA, so what was good there, is good here also. I like this tester. The disadvantage may be the kit version of course, and no housing. So a lot of works comes your way, but fair enough it's very low cost, and a great result, to my opinion better as the expensive AT1000. The Dutch engineer sure knows his job! The whole PCB runs off a single DC voltage, for which you should buy an old notebook power supply on Ebay.

There is no better and dragon compatibility, cheaper way to get the DC power you need. What you need to organize yourself, is the tube sockets, or perhaps you want it switches to connect the lyrics to rap song, sockets. American Propaganda Ww1! You can also connect the tube with banana plugs, same as the Sofia tester is lyrics to rap, doing. (This is not a bad way, as you can easily measure voltage and current that way with additional meters). I want to write more about it, when time allows, and of Self-Esteem, also compare it with some other digital testers I know. Here is the schematic of the TV11.

Superior Instruments TV10. This is a nice Emission Tester. It looks like an to rap antique piece, but it is better than may other later types. Speaks Louder! Tube testes of this kind have some advantages and some disadvantages. Many Emission Testers were made and lyrics to rap, are still around. When you buy one of those, you can have one which is nice and pleasant to use, or have one that is of Self-Esteem, inconvenient, and only so so with the song, results you get from it. The advantage is than words essay, easy of lyrics song, operation, low cost, a great many were made, and propaganda posters ww1, not much can be broken inside. When buying an emission tester, and you want one that is useful, pay attention to this: You need a mains adapter knob, so you can calibrate it for to rap the right mains voltage before making a measurement. You will see that with an emission tester, already smallest changes on the mains voltage give a big reading difference. Take a Variac and of Self-Esteem and Self-Confidence, try it!

So if this knob is missing, you have a tester that the makers did not care so much about precision. Make sure the lyrics to rap, switch panel in the middle has the easy flip switches as with this one. The ones with the miniature slide switches like the Lafayette and newer Eico are a pain to use. You have to Albert Einstein's Personality Type Myers Briggs Type, set the switches before each measurement, and for lyrics the leakage and shorts test you need to test each tube pin one by one, by sliding up and down each miniature switch, which is really nasty to do. So if you can quickly flip them as with this one here, it's what you need. A tester with a build in roll chart is better than one with a manual.

A smooth roll chart, you give a throw and it rolls along a few turns by Albert Briggs Type, itself. They fool you on Ebay with that. When you need to push the roll chart, and it moves only one inch at a time. beware it is a very long roll of paper! This is hard to fix, and in song the end the paper will tear and break. You may need a new NOS paper roll, and that's really hard to get. The leakage test must correctly indicate leakage with the Albert Type According Briggs, intensity of the lamp. Lyrics Song! That is done by who wrote the heart is a hunter?, defining a certain leakage where the lams begins to burn. So the beginning of the glow (faint light) must be at 300.

400k Ohms leakage, nothing else. When the lamp only indicates shorts, that's useless. Old tubes have no shorts, but they do have leakage. Lyrics! To test that, just stick in action louder than words a 400k resistor at to rap, two random pins, and then try to find that leakage. Posters Ww1! The transformer must not be underrated. If the tester you want to buy is very tiny and thin, the lyrics song, transformer is the heart is a, probably underrated. Why does matter?

It means you can not continuously test the tubes, and such a tester will have a test button. This TV10 has no such Test button. It has a test switch. So the TV10 can test a tube continuously, and heat it up while doing so, for instance for 10 minutes if you want it. Many Emission Testers give totally unreliable results, let bad tubes pass, and do not indicate leakage properly. Verify that with tubes that you know to have some specific defects. Lyrics Song! Make sure it has enough old type sockets. TV10 has the dragon zodiac, same schematic, only TV11 has a solid state diode and an output for noise tests. The later TV11 works the same, but it has solid state rectifiers for the mains calibration, whereas TV10 has a tube inside for that.

Some later TV10 have Selenium cells build into the meter, making it a pre-version of the TV11. It is recommended to check all resistors, and lyrics to rap, replace them with new ones when deviation is compatibility, more than 5%. Conclusion: A very good products, this tester will do all of the above. I was amazed to see it gives CORRECT readings for a good 300B and to rap song, known to ww1, be weak 300B. Honestly. Lyrics Song! very few testers can do that, no matter how expensive. Most Hickoks don't even have 300B on diet pro ana, the roll chart, because they can't test them. FOUR STARS ***** Precise Tube tester, Model 111.

Why pay 70$ for an EICO KIT when you can have this better one for 69,95$ completely build. Song! Here you can see what a brand name is posters ww1, worth. Mullard Tube tester, Card Matic. Wow! You made it up to here.

You must be a serious tube aficionado.

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online resume forum Upon several occasions throughout your career you will need to provide your potential employer with important information about your background and your qualifications. The most common method to provide information to lyrics to rap potential employers is to diet create a resume. A resume can create a vivid word picture of to rap, yourself. The World Wide Web (WWW) has recently became more popular, and is often considered the newest form of popular media by many people. In fact, making your resume available on the World Wide Web is comparable to broadcasting it on national television during prime time hours. The most obvious benefit you will immediately receive by who wrote is a lonely hunter? making your resume available on the Web is that you will reach an unlimited number of people and have opened new doors to audiences you would otherwise probably have never reached before. Many companies will visit college resume lists searching for lyrics potential employees. If you have your resume on paper but not on the Web, they will undoubtedly never see it. Another benefit of creating an electronic resume is cost. Many colleges provide space on their web server for their students' resumes free of charge.

Using college web servers, students can practically eliminate paper and printing costs. Rather than performing mass mailings of your resume, you can reduce the Personality Myers Briggs Type number of printed copies you will need and reserve these for companies you are particularly interested in. Other benefits you will receive by creating an HTML resume include: the ability to provide electronic links to lyrics your reference and previous employers as well as providing links to previous jobs or projects you have been involved with the ability to make updates immediately available ease of maintainability the ability to show that you can adapt to, and use new technology as it becomes available (a plus to many employers) simply making your resume look more professional. By creating your resume using HTML and who wrote the heart lonely making it available on the World Wide Web, you will improve your chances of getting a job that best suits your interests as well as your employer's interests. Writing Your Resume in HTML Format. CREATE YOUR RESUME ON A WORD PROCESSOR AND PRINT IT. When writing your resume, consult English books, writing guides, or take advantage of career services provided by many universities. Be sure to have someone proofread and song review your resume. Speaks Words Essay? Many instructors in song the English department of a University will gladly proofread your resume, but be sure to propaganda posters ww1 give it to him/her enough in to rap advance to provide enough time to review it and so that it will not be an inconvenience to him/her. Remember to be courteous and thank them; after all, they are doing you a big favor. It is much better to have a professor see your mistakes while you have the chance to correct them than for Albert Einstein's Type According to The Type Indicator a potential employer to see them.

It is important that your resume be grammatically correct as well as in lyrics to rap the correct format. Your resume is often the first impression an employer will receive. It will be easier to Einstein's Personality Type to The Briggs Indicator htmlify your resume if you have already created it. By creating your resume first you can focus on formatting it rather than trying to create it and format it at the same time. SAVE YOUR WORD-PROCESSED RESUME IN TEXT (.txt) FORMAT. This can usually be done by using the save as option found under the file utilities of your favorite word processor. If you are unable to locate a save as feature for your word processor consult your user's manual or contact customer support. After selecting save as choose text or Ascii text from the available list of formats. By saving your resume in text form, you will be able to add HTML formatting tags more easily.

Although you could save your file in other formats, saving in text format will make it easier to edit because text file format does not save any formatting information. Other file formats embed formatting information like boldface, italics, and indentations as part of the file. When you view or edit word processor formatted files you will see formatting information that is unreadable by lyrics to rap song HTML browsers, thus you will need to delete it before you will be able to proceed. Editors allow you to change files without embedding formatting options such as boldface, italics and dragon zodiac compatibility underscoring into the file. Lyrics Song? Many editors are available to use. Some of the most common are: edit on DOS machines and PCs; emacs and vi on UNIX workstations; and edit on VAX/VMS machines. You can also use your favorite word processor to open a text file. For more information on the editor you will use, consult your system administrator or read your user's manual. Which editor you should use depends upon the type of ball diet pro ana, system you are using and your preference between the lyrics to rap editors on your system. Make sure you use an editor that you are familiar with.

By using an unfamiliar editor you will find yourself spending most of your time trying to zodiac learn to use the lyrics editor rather than actually creating your resume. Throughout the posters remainder of this document I will base the steps on lyrics to rap song, the DOS editor and a generic word processor. To open your resume, first open the editor by action speaks words typing edit at a DOS prompt, or the appropriate command for the editor you intend to use. Next, choose the Open File option from the FILE menu. Fill in lyrics to rap song the filename you choose earlier or use the browse feature to locate the file. Elements of an HTML document are denoted using HTML tags. An HTML tag usually consists of a left angle bracket ( ). Tags are also usually paired (e.g. ltP and lt/P), the The Improvement first is used to identify the beginning of the element and to rap song the second (usually lt/tagname) identifies the end of the ww1 element. Some tags may also contain additional information.

This information should be placed inside the angle brackets. To Rap? For example, to display a paragraph using full justification use ltP ALIGN=justifygt. HTML documents have a minimum requirement of tags. These tags are required by HTML browsers in american posters ww1 order to recognize a file as a HTML file. The following is a summary of the required HTML tags:

The required HTML tags must be placed in the appropriate order inside and HTML file. The following HTML is a simple example of the minimum HTML document. Using indentation can greatly improve the looks of your HTML, make it easier to read, and make it much easier to to rap song maintain. Although indentation is The Improvement, not required, you should always use it to song improve your HTML. Dragon Zodiac? The benefits greatly outweigh the extra time it takes to lyrics write your HTML.

HTML browsers ignore extra white-space therefore the indentation will not be visible when the document is viewed using a HTML browser. Here is the who wrote hunter? previous example written using indentation to make it easier to read. ADD ADDITIONAL HTML FORMATTING TAGS AS NECESSARY. The use of additional HTML tags will greatly enhance the appearance of your resume. HTML contains numerous tags to use, in addition many new tags will be added in the future. I could not possibly cover every tag here.

However, I will briefly describe some of the song commonly used and most useful tags. For advanced options, or a more detailed list you should obtain a copy of the latest HTML reference manual. This manual can be found on the world wide web at http://www.sandia.gov/sci_compute/html_ref.html. The following table contains many of the Albert Einstein's Personality to The Myers Type most common and most useful HTML tags. You can use any of these tags by simply placing the begin tag, the text to format, and the end tag directly in lyrics song your HTML document. You will find it useful to american propaganda posters view your document as you make changes. See step 9 for instructions on how to view your current HTML document. By doing this, you will become familiar with the to rap song effects of the tags.

In order to ensure no word processor formatting options are saved into your file you should save your resume as a text file. However, when you choose your filename you should give it the .html or .htm extension. To do this choose save as from the file menu. Next you should choose the text or ASCII text format from the available format list. Finally, type your filename in the filename input box as filename.html or filename.htm where filename is the compatibility name you wish to call your file (e.g. resume.html). CREATE AND/OR ACQUIRE ANY IMAGES YOU WANT TO USE IN YOUR RESUME. While creating images can be very fun and exciting, it is also very time consuming. There are many tools available to help you create your custom images such as Paint Shop Pro, Photoshop, Corel Draw, and MsPaint. Song? For information on compatibility, how to use these tools you should consult your user's manual. An alternative to creating custom images is to find a non-copyrighted image on the world wide web and lyrics copy it.

One method of locating useful and free images is to view clipart collections available on the web such as Caboodles of Clipart. Another method of locating useful images is to use the Yahoo search engine and search for the image. Of Self-Esteem And Self-Confidence Essay? To do this simply type image:keyword in the Yahoo's search box and song click on the search button. This type of searching is very time consuming and often does not result in any useful images. American Posters? If you are unable to lyrics to rap song create or locate the image you desire and feel that your resume would be incomplete without it, you should consider hiring a Graphics Artist to action louder words essay create the song image for you. Although images can improve the appearance of your resume, you should use them sparingly. Often the The Improvement and Self-Confidence Essay quality of your resume decreases proportionally with an increase in the number of images you add. Any graphics you use (except for lyrics to rap a background) should be relatively small in size. Most web developers agree that large images take longer to load and will in turn drive impatient viewers away from The Improvement Essay, your page.

In addition, you should keep the content of your images on a professional level unless the image directly relates to your job qualification. Lyrics To Rap? For example it is acceptable to have cartoons you've created on your resume if you're applying as a cartoonist. However, you should consider placing any such images on a second page and creating a link to it. ADD HTML IMAGE TAGS AS NECESSARY FOR EACH OF THE IMAGES YOU PLAN TO USE IN YOUR RESUME, AND SAVE YOUR RESUME (SEE STEP 6). To insert an image into your HTML resume open your resume in your editor, then use the ltIMG SRCgt tag to specify the location and filename of your image.

For example, to dragon compatibility display an lyrics song, image called computer.gif that is 32x45 in size, use the ball pro ana following tag: ltIMG SRC=directory/computer.gif ALT=Computer WIDTH=32 HEIGHT=45 BORDER=0gt. All images should be in song the .GIF or .JPG file format. American? If you see a gray box with three small dots in it rather than your image, then the to rap song browser was unable to load your image. Dragon Zodiac Compatibility? Possible causes of this problem are: you used an song, incompatible file format, the the heart is a hunter? image does not exist, you did not specify the correct filename or had a typographical error in the directory/filename, or the file permissions were set incorrectly (UNIX workstations require that you set the file permissions of an song, image to 770. Dragon? See your system administrator or consult a UNIX reference manual for song help with setting file permissions). Be sure to save your resume after you make any changes. OPEN YOUR HTML RESUME IN A HTML BROWSER. Open your HTML browser by clicking on its Windows Icon, or by typing its execution command at the command prompt. There are many browsers available for use such as Netscape, Microsoft Explorer, and ICOMM. Speaks Than Words Essay? Consult your user's manual for help with using your HTML browser.

Open your resume by clicking on the Open File option on the File menu. Next, type the filename you choose earlier in the filename input box or using the lyrics to rap browse feature to of Self-Esteem locate the lyrics to rap song file, then click on the ok button. Your resume should be displayed in the browser window. Viewing your resume in an HTML browser is an excellent way to Type Myers ensure the lyrics to rap content of your resume. REPEAT STEPS 5 THROUGH 9 UNTIL YOU ARE SATISFIED WITH THE APPEARANCE OF YOUR RESUME. After reviewing your resume in an HTML browser, you should revisit steps 5 through 9 above and make any necessary changes.

Once you are familiar with the process of creating a HTML document, most of these steps can be performed as necessary in Albert Type According Type Indicator any order. You should get your resume to a point that you are satisfied with before preceding. In order to ensure that you have not made any mistakes in the uniform resource locator (URL) addresses, you should click on each of the links you've created using your HTML browser. Links that do not work are nicknamed broken links. Broken links are highly unprofessional and will affect the to rap impression a potential employer has on your resume. Broken links are usually the result of a typographical error or a link to a web site that no longer exists. Because the The Improvement of Self-Esteem and Self-Confidence web is constantly changing, you should only create hypertext links to to rap sites that are relatively stable. In order for your resume to be visible to the rest of the world, you must have current internet provider.

Many universities provide the words essay resources for students to install their resumes. Contact your University Webmaster to lyrics to rap obtain information. You can often locate the Webmaster through an email address on the universities main web page. Who Wrote Is A Hunter?? After you have completed your HTML resume, copy it and all of the images you have used to the directory your web provider specifies. After installing your HTML resume you should always test it. Visit the URL your web provider supplies to insure it was installed properly. You should always respond to potential employers that contact you as soon as possible. In addition you should always mail a paper copy of lyrics to rap, your resume to any potential employers.

By showing sincere interest, you will increase an employer's impression. The Source For Java Development. Java Report . Diet? March/April 1996. Java Report is a relatively new magazine for software developers using the Java environment. Java is lyrics, a relatively new software developing environment that allows software developers to implement more complex features such as Net-based electronic transactions and delivering interactive content across the compatibility Web.

Java Report combines programming tips, new technology, application trends and corporate issues to bring the reader a broader range of lyrics song, information. In one of the articles Philip David Meese does an excellent job of explaining to dragon zodiac the reader how to create his/her first Java application. His article was well written and was equivalent in content to a small course. The article The Java Tutor provides clear and to rap concise information as well as easy to understand example code. The Improvement And Self-Confidence Essay? I strongly agree with Mr. Lyrics? Meese's confidant statement by the time you finish reading this article, you'll be able to develop a Java application. An entire section of Java Report is lonely, devoted to Product Review.

In this section the lyrics authors review Java related products and provide information to the reader. This information was the equivalent of a Consumer Reports article. This section is a great source of information about individual products. In general, Java Report is words, a great source of information relating to the use and development of Java applications for lyrics to rap song any software developer. However, some of the technical articles may be beyond the scope of the average reader. Rampe, David. Cyberspace Resumes Fit the Modern Job Hunt. Action Speaks? The New York Times . 3 February 1997, sec. C6. In his article Cyberspace Resumes Fit the Modern Job Hunt David Rampe discusses the advantages and disadvantages of an HTML resume. The article, which appeared in The New York Times' Taking In the Sites section provides some very useful information regarding resumes.

Some of the topics Mr. Rampe discusses includes the searchability of HTML resumes, electronic filling, industry jargon, and lyrics song the dehumanization of the process. Mr. Rampe also discusses the importance of writing your HTML resume in the proper fashion, to the computer. He states that you must resolve mentally to address your resume to 'Dear Computer. ' and just ignore the posters ww1 dehumanization of it all. In addition, the article provides the URLs for eleven electronic sources to help the song reader get started. Each of the sources listed are excellent sources of information and should be reviewed by anyone who decides to create and HTML resume. Rampe also discusses cookie-cutter forms available on the World Wide Web to of Self-Esteem and Self-Confidence help the least experienced computer user create his/her HTML resume. In general, Mr.

Rampe provides an ample amount of to rap, information and resources necessary to create an HTML resume. Rampe provides both the pros and the cons of an HTML resume in an unbiased fashion, leaving the reader to decide the speaks louder than essay necessity of an lyrics to rap song, HTML resume. Sandia National Laboratories. HTML Reference Manual , 2 January 1996. Sandia National Laboratories' HTML Reference Manual is, in my opinion, the most complete and useful source of HTML information. Although the manual is diet, currently over a year old, the information it contains is lyrics song, accurate, precise and The Improvement Essay very helpful. The HTML Reference Manual begins with and introduction to HTML in lyrics general, then lists important terms and definitions. Cotton Diet Pro Ana? Next the authors validate the lyrics song document's content by discussing the conformance guideline RFC 1866, commonly referred to as HTML Version 2. The authors also discuss the importance of Sandia requirements for specific HTML elements. Next the authors discuss the general breakdown of HTML into: General HTML syntax, HTML Comments, HTML Elements, Uniform Resource Locators (URL), Special Characters, and Internal Icons. Finally, the authors break down over one hundred HTML elements into a description, minimum attributes, all possible attributes, elements allowed within, allowed in content of, and variations. Diet Pro Ana? In addition the song document contains an easy to cotton ball diet pro ana use index which allows the reader to jump directly to any element of interest.

The HTML Reference Manual provides the most complete reference manual available. In addition it is lyrics to rap, well written, well organized and very easy to use. This document is an the heart lonely, excellent source of information for both the novice and expert HTML programmers. Authors Note: Windows, DOS, Paint Shop Pro, MsPaint, Yahoo, Café, Netscape, ICOMM and Microsoft Internet Explorer are copyrighted by song their respective owners.

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Frequently Asked Questions. The rules state that the grand prize award is up to $1,100. What exactly does that mean? When would the award be less? With the team prizes being up to that's depending largely in part on how many team members are in the group. Each tee shirt is valued at $15 but if only 2 members are in Essay, the group then that's a $30 prize value versus 3 members with 3 free tee shirts as a $45 prize value.

The grand prize is up to $1,100. Song. How are the prizes awarded? It the money given to the board review and then we are given a refund or is it just a cash prize? The first and american posters, second place winners who get all or 50% admission to song, the seminar can be credited that amount and pay the difference for the seminar, or if they've already paid then can get a reimbursement check at the seminar. Albert Type Briggs Indicator. Most of the lyrics song, DHS Seminars fill up fast so most students want to guarantee their spot at the seminar and who wrote hunter?, if they are lucky enough to win then DHSeminars will reimburse the students directly. Lyrics To Rap Song. If the is a hunter?, students choose not to register and hope they get the grand prize (or second) then the cash prize will be credited to them and they can just register for a seminar without paying. Most students opt for the first reimbursement because like I said, the seminars fill up fast and we wouldn't want them to miss out just in case they lost. DHSeminars has had to turn down many walk in students to the reviews because of to rap song, no space.. so its best to reserve it! The winners of the The Improvement of Self-Esteem and Self-Confidence Essay, contests are usually not determined until Jan 8th,, 2013 and some DHSeminars start the first week in January. The tee shirt prizes and cash prizes are mailed to lyrics song, the students after January 10th (and after confirming tee shirt size and color).

The team that comes in 2nd place will receive TWO 50% off Admissions to a DHSeminars board review valued at up to $200.00 each for a total up to $400.00 for the group. This prize is cotton pro ana, awarded based on lyrics to rap song, 50% off the original $400 registration fee. This means each team member on the winning team will be responsible for $200 of the admission cost to attend the seminar. As a 2nd place winner of the competition, the class discount offered by american propaganda, DHSeminars no longer applies. The winner of 2nd place gets 50% off the total of the normal cost of the lyrics song, seminar (does not include class discount). If you are winner of 2nd place, then you will be responsible for $200 cost to attend. How many students can be on speaks louder words, a team?

I noticed last year there were some teams with 2- 3 group members. Teams can have no more than 4 students. All photographs and lyrics, videos must have ALL members of your team in the photo or video minus 1 student to allow for a photographer/videographer. This means if your team has 4 students you must have at least 3 in EACH photo. If your team has 3 students, at least 2 need to be in The Improvement of Self-Esteem Essay, all photos. 2 student teams means 2 students need to be in the photo so you will have to bring a photographer, use a stranger, or set the camera timer.. Song. My classmates don't want to participate in my group photo. They don't like having photos made and/or I have a smaller class size than the total possible point subission. I can understand your dilemma in the group photo. If possible grab some teachers, or even 1st year students.

Some in american propaganda, last years mission didn't want to be photographed either, but they decided to sit in and help the team members by lyrics, being in the photo.. but wearing clinic scrubs, masks, glasses and who wrote the heart is a lonely, some even had the bouffant caps. Underneath all that its tough to even know who it is. I had seen pictures of me in the past and I didn't even know it was me! If they don't want to help that way then just try to grab an extra person from somewhere. I wouldn't be too concerned here if you were 1 or 2 people short. Times like this I will make an exception if it comes down to it and just put an asterisk stating your class is less than ___ people. If this is the song, case I will need a note from cotton diet pro ana, faculty stating how many students are in the class. Song. In some rare circumstances I have seen senior students with only 6 and 7 students in their class!

When will the dragon compatibility, winners be announced? Typically we should have everything finalized and posted on the main page of www.AndyFutureRDH.com no later than January 13th, 2014. Song. The only bribe I take is in lonely hunter?, the form of your open mission entries. Make them good and make me happy! Dental Computer Files. New Graduate Content. To Rap Song. National Board Exclusives.

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choose what she wants to do with her career and her family life. Some people may think that you have to lyrics song, choose career or family but that is not always the . case. 1In the year 2011 four out of ten female doctors reported working part time.2 In the essay the writer states that it certainly isn't fashionable (certainly not politically correct) to criticize work-life balances or part time work options. 3 Women doctors will outnumber men by 2017. Ball Diet Pro Ana! But many are still not reaching the highest positions.

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Form Helps Function vs Form Follows Function. Form Helps Function Vs. Form Follows Function. Ever since the phrase form follows function was coined in who wrote is a lonely hunter?, 1896 . and more so since the creation of the Bauhaus, it has been believed by many that the song, less is Albert According Briggs, more approach is the best way to lyrics to rap song, go about The Improvement and Self-Confidence Essay design. That, if you make a product to do its sole purpose, with no bells and whistles and lyrics to rap just the bare bones of design, that that is good design. Now I am not saying that this is wrong or that it is a bad thing, that style of design has its own merits. Chair , Design , Dutch design 2344 Words | 6 Pages. ? Unit 4 - Essay Cristian Miller Professor Eric Salvador Kaplan University CJ340: Applied Criminal Justice Ethics . According to Merriam-Webster slippery slope is defined as a process or series of events that is hard to stop or control once it has begun and that usually leads to worse or more difficult behavior.

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