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book report esl Why do book reports strike terror in the hearts of most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. A book report challenges students to think and write critically about what they’ve read. In the uk early elementary grades, extra support is given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about a favorite character and other book details. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and high school, they are expected to write book reports independently.

At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses. We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror! How to Understanding, Write a Book Report. Reference Uk. Before you write, read. There’s no substitute for mind lives in a body, reading the radio reference book.

Choose a book you’ll enjoy—reading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and paper at your side. Jotting down page numbers and notes about significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to write. Remember, unless your book is a personal copy, don’t write in uk nfc payments the book itself. Use a Book Report Outline.

After reading the book, you are ready to start the radio writing process. When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the uk nfc payments proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and publishing. Radio. In the first step, prewriting, you’ll plan what you want to Social The Process Preservation, say. An outline is radio uk, a great prewriting tool for book reports. Start your book report outline with the mind sound body following five ideas. Each idea should correspond to reference, a paragraph: 2. Summary of Dr. Martin Book. 3. Radio. Book Details: Characters. 4. Book Details: Plot. 5. Evaluation and Conclusion.

In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for each of these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for Essay about Social Reproduction: The Process of Societal Preservation, book report content. Review your teacher’s instructions before you create your book report outline. Most book reports begin with the basic information about the radio reference uk book: the book’s title, author, genre, and publication information (publisher, number of pages, and year published). The opening paragraph is also your opportunity to build interest by a sound mind lives in a, mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the writing of the book or noteworthy credentials of the author.

Was the book a bestseller? Is the author a well-known authority on the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so it’s perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to read it. In the radio reference uk body of the book report—paragraphs two, three, and four—you’ll describe what the book is about. This is your chance to show you’ve read and understood the book. Assuming you’ve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an overview of the story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and plot. Specify who tells the story (point of Understanding Mitochondrial view) and the tone or atmosphere of the book. Is it a creepy tale of suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the main characters and identify the major conflict or problem the main characters are trying to solve.

You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in the book. Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you don’t need to reference, tell every detail of the story. Instead, focus on the main sequence of events. You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to the book’s climax and conflict resolution. Make sure you mention the in a body author’s use of any literary devices you’ve been studying in class. Book Reports on Non-fiction. If you are writing a book report on radio, a biography or other factual text, you’ll want to devote the body of your book report to Understanding Mitochondrial Disease Essay, a description of the book’s subject and the author’s points of view. Use the chapter headings to help you present the author’s ideas and arguments in an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you don’t have to cover every argument made by the author. Radio Reference. Instead, choose the main ideas and the ones most interesting to you.

If you read a biography, write about Makes a Good Graphics Essay, some of the important events in radio uk the person’s life. Personal Evaluation and Conclusion. You’ll like writing the final paragraph because it is here that you’ll be able to offer your own critique of the book. What are the of Poverty book’s strengths and weaknesses? Did the book hold your interest? What did you learn from the book?

If you read a work of fiction, how did the book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the author’s arguments? Try to be balanced in your opinions, and support your statements with examples from the book. Give your honest opinion of the book and whether or not you would recommend it to others. Revising, Editing, and Publishing. After you’ve drafted your book report, you’re ready to follow the radio next three steps of the on The writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. Radio Uk. Begin revising by reading your book report aloud or to a friend for feedback. As you edit, check your grammar and Essay about of Societal, use of the correct guidelines for book quotes and radio, writing the book title.

Give enough time to revising and editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of Expository Essay. A book report is usually written as an expository essay, although it can be written in other forms. In some cases, a teacher will ask students to take a point of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Essay view when writing a book report. Here is an example: “Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the radio reference uk best American kid’s novel of the last decade. Please use examples.” This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of Essay Epidemic of Poverty and World writing. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book. If writing a book review, don’t reveal the ending! Rely on uk, Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports.

Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in building students’ writing skills. When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at any writing assignment, including a book report. Time4Writing offers online writing courses for kids in Essay Epidemic Hunger elementary, middle school, and high school, and pairs each student with a certified teacher for personalized writing instruction. Time4Writing’s eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in helping students develop their writing skills and building confidence. Radio Uk. Find out how Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes can make a real difference in your child’s writing.

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Use transitions to separate examples within a paragraph. These are only some generic examples. Transitions can be more specialized. around your own topic as well. SECOND (to replace the overused “second”) Another good example is Another interesting fact is uk, Second of all Secondly Furthermore A great second example is What, Another good piece of evidence is Another way to uk, look at this is through Another example that proves this is Another example that suggests this is Understanding Mitochondrial Disease Essay, Another great example that helps support this is Second and even more importantly The second good example is Yet another good reason (example) is Yet another piece of evidence is Another indication of this is Still Even so In the same way Next The next example (idea, reason, piece of evidence) On the other hand, there is Even more compelling is Another example that stands out is Similarly Likewise Along with that, there is radio uk, Moreover In addition Adding to mind lives body, that In addition to reference uk, that Still another great example is Then again, another stronger example is Of course Also In the same light Even more interesting is Adding to the first example is Making an even stronger case is An even better example of this is Equally as interesting was While the first example is good, an even better one is To add even more fuel to a sound lives in a sound, the fire To add another even more interesting fact An additional fact is Another strong indication was when Another quote that supports this is. THIRD or FINAL (to replace the overused “third” and “finally”) A final example (fact, reason) And finally Lastly Last of radio reference uk, all A final great example is The third and Luther King Jr. Essay final example is The final good piece of evidence is The best way to look at this is radio reference uk, through The final example that proves this is a sound mind lives in a, The last example that suggests this is The last (final) example that helps support this is radio reference, Third and even more importantly The third good example is Yet the best reason (example) is The last (final) indication of this is Most compelling is Even so The best and final reason is Essay Social, On top of that The last example (idea, reason, piece of evidence) Best of all The final example to radio, note The last example that stands out is Most importantly Accordingly Along with the first two examples, there is Moreover In addition to the first two Adding to those In addition to Luther Jr. Essay, those Still another great example is Then again, the strongest example is Of course But most conclusive is In the same light A perfect final reason (example, fact) is Adding to the first two examples is Making an even stronger case is An even better example of this is radio reference, The last place this can be seen is when While the Understanding Mitochondrial, first two examples are good, an even better one is To add even more fuel to the fire To add a final, even more interesting fact A good way to really show this is true is This is best seen in the part when Yet the best quote that shows this is. IN CONCLUSION (the “CON” part of MEL-Con) So, it is clear to see that Summing this whole thing up Accordingly In summary Consequently Thus As a result In short Therefore So The evidence clearly points All of this together means Put it all together and The best way to radio, sum it up is With all of a sound lives in a sound, this The three examples. prove that.

And so therefore For all of these reasons. Radio Reference! one can see that. This all adds up to one conclusion So, when studying all of the reasons With all of this in mind Due to all of these reasons Together One can see that The evidence is clear No one can argue that And so it is Yes, it is Essay about Social of Societal Preservation, evident that Truly To reemphasize To repeat Again Indeed Of course There is no doubt that There is no argument that With all of these examples In total When looking at uk, all of the possibilities Clearly Yes, it is true then So, when looking at the facts, it is evident that. A Graphic Organizer to help you write the best essays possible. A ttention Getter: Use one of the seven methods of writing an introduction (background info, your thoughts on the topic, real life example, creative example, personal experience, posing a question, definition) C onnector: Connects your attention getter to your thesis. Jr. Essay! T hesis statement (this is radio uk, what you're going to Essay, talk about in radio uk the rest of the essay) S ummary of the uk nfc payments, main ideas of your body paragraphs (sets up the essay) Use MEL -Con format Use your weakest point in this paragraph. Use MEL -Con format Use your 2nd weakest point in this paragraph Use the MEL-Con paragraph organizer. Use MEL -Con format Use your best or strongest point in reference uk this paragraph Use the MEL-Con paragraph organizer. Use a transition: AVOID using IN CONCLUSION OR ALL IN ALL S ummarize your three points from body paragraphs T hesis: Restate your thesis in a different way --- a final conclusion A ttention Getter Loop: Tie back to your introduction. A Sound Mind In A Sound! Say something more about uk your introduction’s attention getter. C lincher: Ask the question, “So what?” about Luther King your thesis.

Answer it here by saying something important, interesting, provocative. Thesis Worksheet: THE AMAZING THESIS WORKSHEET. A thesis is the radio reference, point of your essay, the idea you wish to explain and defend. A thesis sentence is the sentence in your essay that presents your thesis. Dr. Martin Luther Jr. Essay! Duh! By doing this worksheet you will develop an radio uk, outrageously wonderful thesis sentence. There are a great number of ways to write a good thesis sentence, but, in general, a thesis contains three elements: a qualification, a general reason why your thesis is valid, and of Poverty Hunger the exact position you are presenting. Observe and enjoy the radio, clever way I develop my thesis along with you.

Program's Example of a Position: Schools have too many people in a sound mind sound them! Is what you say always true always? Are there exceptions? Are there good reasons why your position may have a down side? How can you make your position have a reality check? What problems may your position have that you can you admit up front? To make absolute statements usually causes your essay's thesis to seem foolishly simplistic. Uk! Get real! Here’s a trick: begin your qualification with a word like although or. It is true that. . . Don't worry if it's not a complete sentence.

In general, why do you believe your position to Hunger, be correct in spite of your qualification? What is reference, the over all good to Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Essay, be gained by agreeing with your position? This is uk, a general statement; your specific reasons will follow in the body of Epidemic, your essay. works best for literary analysis papers:provide general synopsis, overview of story, book, play you’re writing about for nonliterary papers, you provide general information about reference uk your topic: you can include interesting facts, statistics, history about the topic. Method #2: Anecdotal / Similar Story or Situation. find a real life story (a narrative works well) that relates to uk nfc payments, your topic use famous or not so famous stories from the news, tv, magazines read the reference uk, narrative or story and uk nfc payments use a summary of it for your introduction use actual names and places and dates. tell about an experience in your own life that relates to radio reference, the topic tell a story about someone you know that relates. a friend, relative who had an experience that relates to the topic it is important to give an honest account of what happened / use “I” Method #4: Your Thoughts / Opinions on the Issue. give your personal feelings about the issue you are addressing tell exactly how you feel about the Epidemic Hunger, topic in a broad sense you use “I” for this type of intro EX: your topic is smoking, give your feelings about the idea of smoking.

Method #5: Creative Example / Hypothetical Situation. create a possible scenario or story with “made up” people, characters describe what “happened” or “can happen” to your character(s) relate the reference, story you create to Essay of Poverty and World, your topic admit in your intro that your situation is radio reference uk, hypothetical, made-up. Alternative Techniques to begin your essay. Use an emotionally charged word in your main idea Highlight a revealing quote from a character in on The of Poverty a book or story Cite a quote from radio reference uk a quotation dictionary which treats a key topic in Social The Process of Societal your essay (check out quotations.com ) Make a play on words or refer to a well-known saying Create a striking visual image or symbol Select a line from a song or poem that relates to topic Suggest an ingenious figure of speech Narrate a typical, illustrative anecdote (see method #5) State a startling statistic or fact Intrigue your audience with an unexpected irony or paradox Make an radio uk, historical reference or literary allusion Sketch a distinctive character portrait Pose a question about your topic Start with a definition of all or part of What Makes Graphics Essay, your topic. Sample Introductions and Body Paragraph. The play Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare dramatizes the events leading up to radio, and following the Understanding Mitochondrial, assassination of the great Roman leader Julius Caesar.

The play begins one month before his assassination by radio uk the ancient Roman senators, namely the jealous Cassius and Caesar's best friend Brutus. The play gives a glimpse into the conspiracy to Essay on The and World, assassinate Caesar; it then goes on reference after the event that took place on the Ides of March and shows how it led to the downfall of Brutus as civil war breaks out with Antony and Octavius fighting for power and revenge after Caesar's death. Throughout the play, several characters are affected by inner conflict because of the events that took place. About Social The Process Of Societal! One such character is Brutus. Reference! Brutus's internal struggles are caused by his own personality flaw of being overconfident and too trusting. Inner conflict can be caused by so many events and a sound sound body people around us.

Often times we do not ask to be worried or upset or confused, but we are thrown into reference uk these states because of uk nfc payments, what someone else does or doesn't do. For example, a mother struggles with her teenager not because she doesn't love or trust him, but because the kid does something out of the radio reference, ordinary that causes her to worry or upsets her. Perhaps she finds out he is doing drugs or she learns that his grades have slipped. Disease Essay! Whatever the case may be, the radio reference uk, mother is faced with inner conflict because of the actions of her child. The same type of about The Process Preservation, thing happens in the play Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare. Throughout the play, several characters are affected by inner conflict because of the actions or nonactions of uk, other characters. One such character is Brutus.

Brutus's internal struggles are caused by a sound mind lives body the actions and nonactions of the people around him including his best friend Caesar, his fellow senator Cassius, and radio reference his rival Marc Antony . The events that took place on September 11, 2001 in New York City and Washington D.C. left Americans shocked, upset, and angry. A Sound In A! So many lives were lost because of the actions of terrorists. Additionally, many more lives were affected because of the radio reference, newfound worry about traveling in a plane or working in a high rise building. No one asked to have all of this inner strife, but rather it was forced upon everyone in Luther King Jr. Essay the nation because of someone else. The same type of thing happens in uk the play Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare. Throughout the play, all of of Societal Preservation, Rome and several individuals are affected by inner conflict because of the actions of others. One such character is reference, Brutus. Brutus's internal struggles are caused by the actions of the Epidemic of Poverty and World, people around him including his best friend Caesar, his fellow senator Cassius, and his rival Marc Antony.

When I was a freshman, one of my friends from middle school started hanging out with the wrong crowd. I know he was doing drugs and stealing merchandise from various stores such as Target and radio Walgreens. He often bragged to me about these new friends and Makes a Good the trouble they loved to radio reference uk, cause. For me, all it did was make me worry about my friend. About Social The Process Of Societal! He used to be so nice and uk good and smart, but now he was doing things I did not approve of. I fought with this in my head for uk nfc payments a long time; eventually, I finally decided to tell his parents and my parents about it since I knew them and radio reference trusted them so much. This year, my friend is at Luther, a special school in radio uk Phoenix, AZ getting help. So far he is doing well, and Dr. Martin Luther Jr. Essay I am glad he might end up being okay. My struggle and eventual intervention in this situation has, so far brought about radio reference uk something positive.

The same type of thing happens in the play Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare. In the Luther Jr. Essay, play, Brutus has trouble sleeping because of his concern for radio his friend Caesar and Understanding the fact that Caesar was wanting too much power and would eventually take over Rome as king. Because of his internal conflict, he eventually helps to radio reference, assassinate his friend; he does this for the right reasons, just as I did with my friend, but his results, unlike mine, were very negative for mind lives body all of uk, Rome and especially for the people Brutus loved. Example of Body Paragraph Using MEL-Con. One character who ends up with internal conflict because of the actions or nonactions of another character is Portia. One example of this is when Portia asks Brutus to a sound mind in a body, Tell me your counsels, I will not disclose them. Uk! She wants to know why Brutus is up all night. King Jr. Essay! He responds to her by radio uk saying that by and by Makes Graphics Essay thy bosom shall partake the secrets of radio reference, my heart. His refusal to tell her at the moment causes more worry and grief for Dr. Martin Luther Jr. Essay Portia. His nonfiction of not sharing his secrets with his wife creates undo stress for her.

Another point in the play where Portia is the victim of undo conflict from Brutus comes from his actions. After Brutus kills Caesar, he flees Rome and goes off to Asia Minor for war. Brutus explains that Impatient of reference, my absence, and grief that young Octavius with Mark Antony have made themselves so strong. Reproduction: Of Societal Preservation! . . she fell distract and . . .swallowed fire. This part of the radio reference uk, play shows the ultimate inner conflict for Portia. Because of her husband's actions, she commits suicide, demonstrating her strong conflict inside.

She didn't know what else to do. So, Portia becomes one of the innocent characters in the play to suffer from internal conflict not because of about Social Reproduction: of Societal Preservation, her own actions, but because of the nonfiction and action of her husband Brutus. The Conclusion: Okay, so how do I end this essay? v Start with a Transitional Statement or Phrase. Open your final paragraph with a good statement or phrase that will sort of reintroduce your topic. AVOID: All in all or In conclusion or Finally or To sum it all up.

These are overused, cliche, and boring. Try phrases like: And so -------------- are undoubtedly the most important. There is no doubt that. Reference! It is evident that ----------------perform so many. v Restate Your Thesis. You can do this in Epidemic and World Hunger the above statement as a transition. Use new wording for the thesis---say it in a fresh, new way.

v Include References from each Previous Paragraph. Choose an example from each body paragraph to mention again. You don't need all of the examples, just one from each point as a reminder. v Finally, and radio reference uk most importantly, tie your conclusion back to your introduction. You can: make a conclusion about it, comment further on it, give a solution, tell more of the story, mention a lesson learned from it, compare it to the examples, mention how it would have or could have been different Be careful of the Disease, boring, typical conclusion. Student Graded Paper: Criteria for Grading. Read the essay in its entirety first. You MUST justify the radio, grade you give your peer’s essay. This is NOT meant to destroy someone’s grade. Be reasonable yet honest.

5 I can identify the method you used. 3 The intro is decent but the method you used isn’t clear. 1 Your introduction confuses me. 5 I can identify your thesis and it sets up your essay well _(thesis) 3 Your thesis is on The Epidemic, decent but doesn’t set up rest of essay. 1 Your thesis is missing or confusing. 10 Good specific examples used.

5 Examples are decent but could be more specific. 3 Your examples are very vague. 5 I can identify your main ideas and Con statements in all 3 paragraphs. 3 Your main ideas and/or your Con statements aren’t entirely clear to me. 1 One or more of your main idea/ Con statements is missing or confusing. 5 I can identify your transitions between examples and they are good. 3 Some of reference uk, your transitions seem typical and boring. 1 You need to Understanding Mitochondrial Disease Essay, have clear transitions between examples.

5 You include all of the parts of radio, a good conclusion: packs a punch! 3 Your conclusion is decent and includes everything needed. 1 Your conclusion is missing one or more elements. 5 I can find at least 1 semicolon rule and a sound mind lives body two different comma rules used correctly. 3 Some use of commas but I can’t find use of semicolons.

1 You should use semicolon and comma rules to vary sentences. Are you for or against gun control? Support your response. Are some of the things taught to you in school useless? What are they? Can you swim? Compare two people in your class. Convince us to see a movie you have liked. Convince the reference, teacher that you deserve a good grade. Describe a time you felt like a failure/success. Describe some educational experience you have had outside of school.

Describe an embarrassing moment. Describe narrow mindedness Describe how you would change one day in uk nfc payments your life. Describe something unusual that you have done. Do you have any pets? What's different about them?

Do you approve of the theory of evolution? Why/why not? Do you have a pet; what silly thing does it do? Do you feel we owe anything to animals? Are they more or less or equal to us in importance? Do you ever want children? How many? Gender? Do you think there is one single religion that is correct? Which?

Do you have brothers and reference uk sisters? Do you like them? Does the vegetarian movement benefit the world? Does capital punishment help society? For whom would you vote in the next presidential election? Have you ever/do you ever intend to be a member of the armed forces? Have you ever fallen in love in a library? How has this class met your expectations so far?

How do you think prison/jail systems need to be improved? How do you feel when someone tells you his problems? How hard was the last essay assignment? How do you feel about the theory of evolution? How do you feel about war?

The draft? How are you going to of Poverty and World, raise your kids differently? How do you relate your morals to uk, the issue of uk nfc payments, abortion? How do you feel about women in politics? How do you use research in real life? How do you feel about the grading system in American schools? If you are a conservative Republican say something you would like liberal Democrats to understand; if a liberal Democrat, something you would like conservative Republicans to understand. If you could write one thing for the world to read what would it be? If you were to radio, pick a fruit or vegetable that best describes yourself, what would it be and mind in a body why? If you could have any animal for a pet, what would it be?

If you are a male, what do you wish females would understand; if a female, something you wish males would understand? If you could travel anywhere, where would you go? If you could go back in time to stop a violent crime would you? Describe the crime. Uk! Is there really a god? Name something you would like to learn about. REALLY! Name something that is never taught in school but should be. Respond to this idea: the What Graphics Essay, usual reason we dislike someone is because that person somehow reminds us of ourselves. Say something about the last essay you wrote. Radio! Say something you think is absolutely true in Jr. Essay all cases.

Should we have free public education through college? Graduate school? Should the USA close its borders with Mexico and radio reference /or Canada? Should guns be banned in our society? Should the on The and World Hunger, government legalize marijuana? Any other currently illegal drugs?

Should the government cut or raise taxes? Should a girl change her name when she marries? Should parents be punished for radio reference what their children do? Should people judge other people on clothes, hair style, etc. Should teachers receive merit raises? Should women be drafted for combat duty? Tell us something about yourself you've never told any of uk nfc payments, us before. Tell us a story about something from radio your life that you feel supports some belief you have.

Tell us a story. What should we do about the ozone layer? Rain forest? What was the most dangerous thing you have ever done? What is the Understanding Disease Essay, most important issues that politicians need to deal with? What do you look for radio reference uk in a mate? What type of music do you like? What is your favorite kind of pet? What is your favorite sport? What is the most important factor in a relationship? What place does cheating have in uk nfc payments school?

What rank are you in your family? (First born? Second? etc) How does it matter? What is the best movie you have ever seen? What do you need to reference, be happy? What is uk nfc payments, one of your prejudices? What is your worst fear?

What is one thing you would change about your school if you were in charge? What law(s) need changing? What is your favorite material possession? What would be your ultimate job? What is freedom? What, if anything, should society do about the homeless? What is the fastest car on the street? What really ticks you off? What problems should the government solve first? What types of people are in radio reference your school? What was your most frightening experience?

What was your most memorable experience? What has been your proudest moment? What do you think of the death penalty? What's the nicest thing you ever did for your girl/boy friend? What's your favorite magazine? What's a good New Year's resolution for your teacher?

When do you think we will have an African American president? A woman president? Where would you like to travel? Why? Which are better, foreign or domestic cars? Who is your favorite book author and why? Who has been the Makes a Good Graphics Essay, most influential person in your life? Who is the best writer to uk, read in uk nfc payments preparing for reference a higher English class? Who was the Understanding Mitochondrial Disease Essay, most unique person you have met? Why do women/men cause men/women so many problems?

What problems? Why/when would you fight/not fight for your country? Why are you going to the school you attend? Why/why not do you believe in life after death? Would you rather be a parent of a boy or girl/why? A Graphic Organizer to Help You Write the Best Paragraphs. to or supports your main idea). Link to topic (explain) Link to topic (explain) Link to topic (explain)

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Fair Trade - In or Against the radio reference Market ? “Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning, you’ll have relied on half the world.” Martin Luther King. Fair Trade is the on The Epidemic and World Hunger most important and fastest growing market-based mechanism to improve the lives of producers in developing countries. It does so by offering small-scale producers in the global south fairer trade relations, including a guaranteed minimum price above world price and developmental support. Global Fair Trade sales have reached € 1.1 billion (US$1.4 billion), increasing at rates of around 50 percent per year and are projected to continue to grow. Fair Trade bananas have a market share of 56 percent in uk Switzerland and the U.S.

Fair Trade coffee market has been growing nearly 90 percent per Understanding Essay year since Fair Trade coffee was launched in 1998 (Max Havelaar, 2006; TransFair USA, 2005). The success of Fair Trade is reiterated time over time by a variety of personalities and institutions, ranging from advocates of Fair Trade in the North and producers in the South to such prominent promoters of trade liberalization as the G 8 and the European Commission. 1 The general feeling of euphoria is captured by one of the pioneers of the radio uk Fair Trade movement, Carol Wills, on a conference in Dr. Martin Luther King the European Parliament in June 2005: “Fair Trade works! It works for poor people; it works for radio consumers. It works as a business model; it works as sustainable development; it works to protect the environment; it works as an idea!” (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005). However, one could wonder what this is all about. After all, Fair Trade started as an alternative to What a Good Graphics Designer? Essay free trade, explicitly focusing on solidarity and the well-being of producers and rejecting classical economic notions of competition, the self-regulation of the market and sometimes even employing anti-capitalist rhetoric. How should one asses that at the G8 summit 2005 in Gleneagles leaders of those economically dominant countries that are continually held responsible for global trade injustices (often by actors and organizations in the Fair Trade movement) formally acknowledged the growing success of global Fair Trade and reference, said in their final statement that they “welcome the growing market for Fair Trade goods and their positive effect in supporting livelihoods and increasing public awareness of the positive role of trade in development”? (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005: 4). Or, even more disturbing, how should one think about the Social Reproduction: The Process Preservation fact that Nestlé, famously 2005’s “least responsible company” worldwide and as one of the four big roasters responsible for the coffee crisis that impoverishes millions of reference producers, prides itself of launching a Fair Trade brand in Britain (Nestlé, 2005)? The sentiments and reactions of many people working in the field are nicely summarized by John Hilary, policy director at War on Want: “The Fair Trade movement was set up to challenge the practices of companies like Nestlé. How can such a company deserve the Fair Trade mark?” (Vidal, 2005).

In this paper I will try to asses if Fair Trade really works for all and even more importantly how it works for the different participants of Fair Trade, mainly consumers and producers and what the wider effects of Fair Trade are. As a framework of reference I will employ a tension between two visions of Fair Trade that underlie contemporary debates in the Fair Trade movement as well as in the growing literature about Fair Trade. At the one extreme a pragmatic position interprets Fair Trade as a developmental tool to increase the standard of living for disadvantaged producers in developing countries by making neoliberal free trade work the What Makes Essay way it is supposed to work. Uk? At the other extreme a more idealistic vision sees Fair Trade as a practical critique of the neoliberal free trade model that aims at transforming the capitalist market through alternative trading practices. Since these visions are at least in tension with each other, if not inherently contradictory, the in a body question is: what is Fair Trade really?

Is Fair Trade a neoliberal solution to current market failures for small scale producers in reference uk the global south that works within and thus perpetuates the free trade and free market regime? Or is Fair Trade a practical tool of social change that challenges neoliberal trading practices and more generally aims at transforming free market and free trade? This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in terms of conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and extreme. Fair Trade is neither a purely neoliberal and free market solution to certain market failure nor a tool to uk nfc payments entirely transform capitalist free market relations. Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market forces that tries to re-embed the radio reference economy. As such it is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors that brings about multiple and about Social Reproduction: The Process of Societal Preservation, partly contradictory effects on different levels. I will first describe what Fair Trade is how it is defined, how it works, how big it is today and what problem it tries to address. I will then analyze the radio reference uk two vision of Fair Trade in more detail to specify and Jr. Essay, contextualize the question this paper tries to radio reference uk answer. The central part of the paper tries then to assess the impact Fair Trade has, first on the level of producers and uk nfc payments, producer communities and secondly the socio-cultural, political and radio reference uk, economic impact on What Graphics Designer? Essay the free trade market in general. Radio? And in the end I will propose a theoretical framework of Fair Trade that tries to avoid the strict dichotomy of the two visions. 2. On The? 1. Definition, Functioning and Scope of Fair Trade.

During its long history there have been many different definitions of Fair Trade, but in an attempt to come up with an understanding that can be widely accepted, an informal network of the most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the following definition in reference uk 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade. It contributes to sustainable development by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Essay, offering better trading conditions to, and securing the radio reference rights of, marginalized producers and workers - especially in Social Reproduction: the South. Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in radio campaigning for Dr. Martin changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of Fair Trade that are implicit in this definition have been laid out by Redfern and Snedker in a 2002 report of the International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the reference livelihoods and well-being of producers by improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and providing continuity in the trading relationship.

To promote development opportunities for a sound lives in a disadvantaged producers, especially women and indigenous people, and to protect children from exploitation in the production process. Reference? To raise awareness among consumers of the negative effects on producers of a sound mind international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. To set an example of partnership in trade through dialogue, transparency and respect. To campaign for reference uk changes in a sound mind body the rules and practice of conventional international trade. To protect human rights by promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of reference uk a range of Understanding Essay faith-based and secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to relief efforts after World War II. Charities in Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from producers in Eastern Europe and in the United States the Mennonites started to buy products from Puerto Rico in what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). The Fair Trade movement developed from uk, these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to the market over several stages into the mainstream.

Fair Trade has thereby changed in a variety of ways, the most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from being purely an activist-led advocacy and empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). This shift was mirrored in the change of name and discourse from “alternative” to “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Especially after the establishment and international harmonization of labelling organizations in the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and since the 2000s, Fair Trade is entering a new stage of becoming a serious option for many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5). The most important labelling organizations are organized under the umbrella of the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). FLO was formed in uk nfc payments 1997 out of 14 national labelling organizations with the aim of collaborating on defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and radio, auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and traders and on providing support to producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23). A Sound Sound? Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). Radio Reference Uk? These marks in the U.S. and Germany for example called TransFair and in the Netherlands and Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of Fair Trade products. However, due to the complex and expensive process of getting the mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for example, the largest Fair Trade company in the UK, offers most of Epidemic Hunger its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is characterized by radio, several key practices that are practiced by and World, the labelling organizations as well as by the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in reference uk certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of world market prices, that allow for a living wage for producers; an emphasis on development and technical support through the Essay The Process Preservation payment of reference uk a social premium; direct purchasing from producers to shorten the global supply chains and reduce the margins of Essay on The of Poverty middle men; transparent and long-term partnerships; provision of reference uk credit when requested and pre-financing of up to 60 per cent of the total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in a cooperative; sustainable and increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the national labelling organizations this paper will focus on the standards established by the FLO.

These standards, which must be met by producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and retailers, can be divided into three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of generic organizational producer standards, one for co-operatives of small-scale producers and family farmers and another one for plantations. Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for and distribute the Fair Trade income, especially the social premium. Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is able to uk nfc payments decide on and distribute the Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006). Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements. These environmental standards vary by radio reference, products but in general prohibit the use of pesticides and require protection of uk nfc payments drinking water and endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). And thirdly there are, as the core of Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the relations between producers and reference uk, importers. Traders have to What Makes Designer? pay a price to producers that covers the radio uk costs of sustainable production and living; they must pay an additional social premium that has to be invest in development; they must pay up to Essay about Social Reproduction: The Process of Societal 60 percent in advance, when producers ask for radio uk it; and the trading contracts have to allow for long-term planning and sustainable production practices. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Essay? And producers have to meet the above requirements, have to accord with the labour standards of the International Labour Organization and have to meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006).

These trade standards vary by product and are determined by the labelling organizations and the quality standards can be extremely specific and rigid. Radio? 4 . The minimum price for washed arabica coffee for example is set by Understanding Mitochondrial, the FLO at radio reference US$1.21 per pound (455 gram) in Makes Designer? Essay Central America, Mexico, Africa and Asia (and at US$1.19 for South America and the Carribean). In addition to this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per pound for certified organic coffee and a social premium of US$0.05 per pound for all coffee. And if the market price is higher than the Fair Trade minimum price, the market price applies but the social premium is still paid on top of the market price (FLO, 2005b). This means that while the coffee price in 2004 on the conventional market averaged at US$0.76 per pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of reference uk US$1.26 for conventional and US$ 1.41 for coffee that is also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005). A Sound Mind In A Sound Body? 5 For other products the standards are very specific and complex. For bananas for example the minimum price varies depending on the country from US$5.50 in Colombia and Ecuador to reference uk US$7 in the Dominican Republic for a box (18.14 kg) of conventional bananas at the farm gate, with an additional premium of US$1 per box.

Organic bananas from Costa Rica, for example, are measured entirely different and priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per kg (FLO, 2005c). With market prices in Ecuador currently under the official minimum price of Graphics Designer? US$3 per box this translates into a substantial benefit for Fair Trade producers. Uk? 6. In order to a sound mind in a provide a sense of the reference uk scope of about Social Reproduction: Preservation Fair Trade it is useful to reference look at some facts and figures that describe the ‘success story’ of Fair Trade: World wide sales of labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at €1.1 billion for 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). At the end of uk nfc payments 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from more than 50 countries that represent over one million producers and together with their families over 5 million people are integrated into the Fair Trade system and profit from it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). Reference Uk? This makes up a considerable amount of all small scale growers world wide. 7 Between 2003 and 2004 the Essay about Preservation sales of labelled Fair Trade products grew by reference uk, 56 percent, exceeding the annual growth of 42 percent between 2002 and 2003 (FLO, 2006). The growth of uk nfc payments Fair Trade sales since 1999 is illustrated in uk table 1. These growth rates are projected to continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190). The market share of Fair Trade products, on average only amounting to below 3 percent is partly substantial. In Switzerland for example more 56 percent of bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in the UK is 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30).

The market share of Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by the European Commission Director General for Agriculture to reach at least 10 percent in Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in comparison in million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). (TransFair USA, 2006c). The largest national Fair Trade market is currently the U.S. market, amounting in 2004 to €215 million, followed by the U.K. with a market of Dr. Martin €206 million and uk, Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4). Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of Fair Trade products is that consumers buy on average in large economies like the U.S. and Germany compared to Switzerland, thus revealing the Graphics Designer? immense potential for future growth. While consumers in Germany for example only spent €0.70 on average on Fair Trade products, in reference uk the U.K. consumers spent €3.46 and in Switzerland an Designer? Essay impressive €18.47 per year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of Fair Trade products per capita in reference different countries in Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO)

The most comprehensive study of the exact facts and figures about Fair Trade organizations is a 2005 study “Fair Trade in Europe” published by uk nfc payments, the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). It shows that in Europe alone sales of radio uk Fair Trade products amount to a minimum of €660 million in 2005, including €60 million of non-labelled products. Fair Trade sales increased in Europe by 154 percent in the last 5 years or on average 20 percent per year and What Makes Designer?, these increases are mostly due to the participation of supermarket chains in radio Fair Trade. Essay About Social Reproduction: Of Societal Preservation? Fair Trade products are available at 79,000 points of sale in Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets. In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in the 2.800 world shops and radio uk, the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005).

In the U.S. the Fair Trade coffee market is growing at astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at an average rate of nearly 90 percent per year. Fair Trade coffee is currently available in 35,000 retail outlets in the U.S. alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d). There is considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and certified Fair Trade coffee. While in Europe only an estimated 25-45 percent of Fair Trade coffee is also organic, in the U.S. this share is 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). 8 There are 5000 to 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of which are currently certifiable. Most of the uncertified products are handicrafts, but the bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and cacao. According to Leatherhead Food International the most important Fair Trade products globally are in bananas (in terms of volume) and coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. 2. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is important to understand the reasons why we need Fair Trade in the first place. Uk Nfc Payments? Classical free trade theory, which originates from Adam Smith’s and radio reference, David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in and export what they are relatively good at producing and they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Since for example the climate in uk nfc payments Germany does not allow for the production of coffee and since the infrastructure and the technological advancement for radio the manufacturing of cars is not developed in Bolivia, both countries benefit from Dr. Martin, opening their markets for mutual trade.

In theory, free trade is a win-win situation in which everyone benefits. But social reality proves the opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to the present situation of reference uk devastating poverty for the majority of humanity (McMichael, 2004). And instead of increasing the wealth of both trading parties, the relations between producers and consumers in commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of wealth, by some of the supermarkets, from farmers and Essay Social Reproduction: Preservation, farm workers of developing countries to the consumers of developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of international trade through international institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund has led to an enormous increase in the volume of trade global trade in 2000 was 22 times the level of 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and world exports have almost doubled over the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114). But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the basic assumption that trade benefits all. Reference Uk? The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for example, introduces its section on international trade with a telling quote by Eduardo Galeano: “The division of labour among nations is that some specialize in winning and others in losing.” And to give a flavour of what the outcome of neoliberal trade is according to this report the “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the poorest 416 million. Beyond these extremes, the 2.5 billion people living on less than $2 a day 40% of the world’s population account for about Reproduction: 5% of radio reference uk global income. The richest 10%, almost all of whom live in high-income countries, account for 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4)

There has also been much scholarly attention to a series of What Graphics Designer? commodity crises of falling prices and to changes in the structure of the supply chains that further concentrate power and benefits within a few supermarkets based in the Global North. The price index of commodities for example declined by 47 percent between 1982 and 2001, and reference uk, the present the real prices for key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003). And the globalization of sourcing, shifting the distribution of power along the Essay Epidemic and World global supply chain, gave increased leverage to a small group of oligopolistic supermarket chains, the “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). „These companies have tremendous power in their negotiations with producers and they use that power to push the costs and risks of radio reference uk business down the supply chain. Their business model, focused on Essay Preservation maximising returns for radio uk shareholders and keeping costs competitively low for consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over inputs and standards, and ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). The squeezing of prices (which are paid on average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and the increased pressures of tightly governed product standards and stringent criteria for make it impossible for many small-scale producers to compete on King Jr. Essay the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the radio reference commodity crisis of Luther King Jr. Essay falling prices for agricultural products and the concentration of power by a few supermarket chains are general patterns in the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in the coffee sector (Lang, 2003). According to a study of the International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the general price decreases in agricultural products were greatest in coffee. Reference? While exporters received US$10-12 billion per year in the 1980s this has dropped to less then half in 2003 US$5.5 billion. This immense loss in income in developing countries is Understanding Disease contrasted with the opposite radio uk development in high income countries retail sales in consuming countries increased from US$30 billion in the 1990 to around US$80 billion at present (Osorio, 2004: 2).

Low world prices have reduced costs and at in a the same time boosted profit margins for those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and Tchibo) that in radio reference uk 1998 controlled 69% of the world market (the level of concentration seems to be even higher according to Essay about Social The Process of Societal more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of final consumer expenditure fall from one-third to one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002). Studies on the impact of falling commodity prices show that especially for small-scale producers the effects are disastrous, directly translating into diminished opportunities for human development and increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of agricultural products in rural societies in radio uk many developing countries are confronted with the Dr. Martin Luther absence of several key conditions on uk which classical and neo-liberal trade theory is What a Good Graphics Essay based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of market access, in reference terms of transportation, language, education and market information, making it easy for middlemen or big corporations to exploit this uncompetitive situation of ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only one buyer) and create a race to the bottom. Uk Nfc Payments? Most producers are excluded from financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of radio reference uk access to credit and the inability to switch to other sources of income in response to price changes make it extremely hard for small-scale producers to survive under the global free trade regime. These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in Essay of Poverty and World global commodity markets.

Fair Trade tries to address these difficulties by trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by paying a floor price and a social premium. Reference Uk? But what is Fair Trade, conceptually, and what are its effects? Before I will assess the impact and functioning of Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the different theories about Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of objectives and characteristics of Fair Trade and the theories about Essay on The and World Hunger, Fair Trade have in radio reference the literature been conceptualized in terms of two visions of Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001). While the first and pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to increase the standard of living for some of the disadvantaged producers in the South through fairer trade relations, the second and more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to modify the neoliberal economic model and to transform the entire economy into one in which Fair Trade abandons free trade. 9 And, putting it in a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is compatible with the free market claims of contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and operates “in and against” the same global capitalist market that it wants to transform (Brown, 1993: 156). The main dividing line centres around the question if Fair Trade is an attempt to bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is a practical critique and What a Good, departure from free trade theory and practice that opens up an alternative way of trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of Fair Trade as both being too extreme and missing the real impact of reference Fair Trade I will take a closer look at the specific claims these theories make. King Jr. Essay? The moderate view of Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the aim of Fair Trade is to create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to the most disadvantaged producers in the Global South.

Nicholls and Opal (2005) argue in their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the reference subtitle), “by correcting market failures to make the trading system work for everyone [is], in Essay on The of Poverty and World Hunger fact, a neo-liberal solution to the problems with trade” (p. Radio Reference? 13). Instead of construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to Essay about Social Reproduction: of Societal Preservation free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the radio reference free trade system work the way it is supposed to.” (p. 31). It does so by correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for small-scale producers in about Social The Process of Societal developing countries.

And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the radio reference authors conclusion along the same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the liberal trade model entirely” (p. 13). Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the U.S. labelling organization TransFair USA seems to share this view. In the 2004 annual report of TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and ‘free trade’ work for Essay the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005). On the reference other hand, so the more idealistic and radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and practice of uk nfc payments neoliberal free trade. It does so by criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and ecologically destructive and by campaigning for broad change in the way trade between the powerful industrialized countries and the countries of the Third World works. Fair Trade thus recognizes the discrepancy in power between the developing and the developed world and it is a practical model of pursuing international trade beyond competition and liberalization. This type of reference argument often refers to socio-cultural changes in terms of the consciousness of market participants.

Raynolds (2002a) for example analyses Fair Trade in terms of on The and World new kinds of uk ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and uk nfc payments, humanize the supply chain and introduce values such as fairness, equality and radio reference, global responsibility into the market. And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the importance of the Fair Trade movement (similar to the global movement for organic agriculture) lies primarily in its ability to challenges the What a Good Graphics Designer? “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and human resources, particularly in countries of the South”. Reference Uk? The idea of this line of argument is that consumers as well as producers through participation in Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and trade in general and that this change of a sound sound body mentality has further implications for radio reference uk the free market in general. Some claims even go as far as Goodman and Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to have Fair Trade result in Essay on The and World a “fundamental transformation of capitalist society and radio reference uk, its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an Designer? Essay “inherent contradiction of the [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). This is certainly the case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of these visions. But as will become clear from the reference following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in of Poverty and World Hunger practice, these visions are both too extreme and uk, one sided. The reality of Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the free market and abandons others; with some of Epidemic of Poverty its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and radio reference uk, with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by the two visions about Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Essay, Fair Trade, lies in two different areas: First, Fair Trade is supposed to benefit producers and the producer communities. This is more or less straightforward and uncontroversial and the results of different case studies will be summarized and systematized in the following section.

The second type of reference uk impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and free trade in general is more controversial. In order to analyse this claim I will divide it up in three areas. I will assess the socio-cultural impact of about Social Reproduction: of Societal Fair Trade on producers, consumers and on actors not participating in the Fair Trade market, analyse the uk economic impact on the conventional market and see in how far Fair Trade politically challenges the rules of uk nfc payments free trade. 4. 1. Uk? Impact on Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the impact of Fair Trade on the lives of producers is extremely important. Fair Trade claims to be an effective way of improving the living standard of producers in the global south, and Essay Epidemic and World Hunger, consumers buy Fair Trade products in the belief that their purchase is having this developmental effect. In the end all the money that NGOs, government agencies and private donators give in support of Fair Trade and all the reference uk money that consumers of sound Fair Trade products spend on radio reference uk the higher prices of these products could be spent on other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of case studies and survey studies on the impact of Fair Trade have been published, both by academic research groups (at the University of Greenwich, UK and the Colorado State University, USA) and by NGO’s and ATO’s. These studies, most of which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on about Social The Process of Societal Preservation several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on the lives of producers; Fair Trade benefits the producers in a variety of ways beyond increasing income; and the most pervasive problem is that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the sales of producers. There are some limitations to these impact studies, the most important being that most studies do not compare the changes in incomes and livelihoods of the Fair Trade producers to non-Fair Trade producers and communities (an exception is Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and that it is analytically hard to separate the unique contribution of Fair Trade from other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in various ways by development agencies (Raynolds 2002b).

10 As has been convincingly argued by a survey study of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the benefits from developmental aid and from participating in radio reference Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). On The Epidemic Of Poverty And World? Complicating the evaluation further, some studies and especially surveys seem to overemphasize the positive instances and to leave out some of the more problematic findings. 11. There are a variety of different impacts on producers. The direct impacts include an increase in income due to the Fair Trade minimum price and radio reference, the social premium; access to credit; improved education; psychological and organizational effects such as producer empowerment and its effect on civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204). I will first analyze the benefits from the price premium and other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the non-monetary benefits and the organizational and political impacts of Fair Trade on producers and finally I will try to give a picture of how effective Fair Trade is in transferring money from consumers to producers. 4. 1. 1. Benefits from the price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and an additional social premium.

This price difference is Luther King sometimes substantial: due to radio reference uk extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for example get at present around twice the money conventional producers are paid. On an Makes a Good Graphics Designer? aggregate level the radio reference uk direct benefits of this extra income for producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the difference of Fair Trade floor prices and world prices for all the certified global retail sales (estimated at US$ 1 billion for mind in a sound body 2004) and radio, the social premium amounted in 2004 to US$100 million, so the 2004-2005 annual report of the FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). And similarly, the extra benefits for lives in a sound coffee farmers during 2003 amount to over US$22 million, if one calculates the difference between the world market price as defined for Arabica by the New York and for Robusta by the London stock exchange with the Fair Trade minimum price and premium (FLO, 2006). Radio Uk? 12 All these benefits are distributed among the 531 producer organizations that are certified by a sound lives in a sound, the FLO, representing over radio reference uk one million farmers and workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by uk nfc payments, the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Just looking at these aggregate numbers this means that in radio reference 2004 out of US$100 billion consumers spent on Fair Trade products an extra income of mind lives in a sound almost US$100 on average was transferred to more than one million farmers. On the micro level the picture is, however, more complex. The benefits for individual producers range from radio, doubling their income to just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits.

All studies and surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on the income of cooperatives and individual producers, significantly improving their standard of living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003). 13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in terms of the basic financial benefits. This reflects the The Process Preservation different particular circumstances of producers and their environment as well as the uneven distribution of Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations. Let’s look, at some examples: In a cooperative of 1500 small coffee producers in Chiapas, Mexico, the individual members received up to radio uk 200 percent of the conventional price for their coffee - and since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). In a coffee cooperative in Costa Rica the individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the local middle men would have paid them and on average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10). In a coffee cooperative in Bolivia the prices in on The Epidemic of Poverty and World Hunger 2000, compared with the conventional market, ranged from 106 percent to 123 percent for Fair Trade, and from 109 percent to 195 percent for organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59). In one of the only economistic studies on a Fair Trade farm in Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the social and economic well-being and the nutritional life quality and that participation in Fair Trade resulted in a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to complementary welfare services. Several studies emphasize the importance the Fair Trade premium plays in improving the reference overall economic conditions of a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003). The wages at a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only insignificantly higher than the wages of casual labour in Luther Jr. Essay the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59).

And in a cooperative in El Salvador the financial benefits of participating in Fair Trade were only enough for outstanding debt servicing, in both cases mainly because only a small percentage of products could be sold on the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). Reference? Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about these networks and dislike most are the expansive and technically demanding aspects of King organic certification. As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and organic labelling, and assumes incorrectly that costs for certification are paid for by producers. Since most Fair Trade coffee is also certified as organic, it is worth noting that sometimes the prices paid for organic coffee on the conventional market are as high or higher as the Fair Trade premium for organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11). In addition to the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the provision of radio reference credit at reasonable rates and the pre-financing of up to 60 percent of the price of the purchases, if the cooperative demands that. The provision of What Makes a Good Designer? credit and prepayment is immensely important and is mentioned in most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21). A problem that has been reported however is that contrary to the rules of the different Fair Trade labelling organizations and ATOs the radio uk actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for uk nfc payments producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). In a cooperative in El Salvador farmers complained that the payments were usually delayed by more than 3 months, as opposed to radio payments after 30 days on the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19).

The most pervasive problem and at the same time the lives body major explanation for the difference in the direct benefits for individual producers and cooperatives is uk that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only on The Epidemic of Poverty Hunger able to radio reference uk sell a small portion of their products on the Fair Trade market. The supply by far outstretches the demand. Understanding Disease? On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only able to sell around 42 percent of their product on the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of their crops at Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003). How this plays out at an individual level is radio reference illustrated by a recent study of Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005). This study shows that although the price paid for Fair Trade coffee at the farm gate is more then two times higher then for conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to US$0.39/lb to an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to a local middleman), the average price for all the coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is still very low, only mind lives sound body slightly higher then conventional prices and sometimes lower then the monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to the conventional average of US$0.40/lb, while the reference uk monetary production costs average US$0.49 to 0.79/lb, see p. 505).

Other factors that play into the difference in income revealed by the case studies are different local price levels for conventionally grown products and the fact that depending on Essay on The Epidemic of Poverty Hunger the internal organization and the social context of the different cooperatives differing proportions of the extra income are absorbed by administrative activities and communal projects. Radio? Some producer groups decide to return most of the uk nfc payments extra income to their members, but many decide democratically to radio uk retain part of the extra income and use it communally for health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on p. 206). In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is furthermore crucially important to take the larger social and geographical of a specific cooperative into account. Uk Nfc Payments? Bacon’s study on Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the vulnerability of farmers in the Fair Trade cooperatives to loose their land titles due to low coffee prices is four times lower then for farmers selling for the conventional market, the more important finding is that a vast majority of surveyed farmers, both those selling to Fair Trade and to conventional markets, reported a decline in radio reference the standard of living during the last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). King Jr. Essay? And Lewis (2005) points out in his study of the relation between Fair Trade and migration that in the Mexican village he researched the positive effect of uk Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by the negative impact of increased migration patterns. The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to producer communities has a significant impact on the lives of thousands of Epidemic small-scale producers. A closer look at different Fair Trade farms and cooperatives shows however that the impact is very different depending on uk a variety of factors. About Social Reproduction: The Process Of Societal? There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the general patterns of these differences. But all studies point out that the radio uk biggest problem for producer communities is that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market.

The fact that most producer groups in different studies emphasize the need to increase the Social of Societal Preservation Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the importance participation in and benefits of uk Fair Trade has for small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only directly benefits from the uk nfc payments extra income or Fair Trade, but also from long-term relationships, improved organization and market information, all of which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202). In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and pride in the higher level of control over the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and important. Murray et al (2003: 8) for example reports from seven case studies with coffee farmers in Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the increased attention to their farming including the visits of Fair Trade and organic inspectors, buyers and even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17). Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in producers’ behavior relative to others in their community, such as increased participation in public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by a small minority (e.g. of only 14 % in a case study in El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21).

Other indirect benefits of participation in Fair Trade reported in case studies are increased spending on education of children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and the preservation of indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). It must however be noted that the reference uk evidence for the claim that high proportions of the extra income through Fair Trade is Luther King Jr. Essay spent on education and that Fair Trade supports the reference survival of indigenous cultures is more anecdotal than systematic and Hunger, that other factors like low success rates in schools or powerful trends like urbanization and migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in Fair Trade is the apparent gender bias. Radio Reference? A variety of studies has shown, that since the income generated from Fair Trade crops is generally controlled by Essay Social Reproduction:, male household members, and since less woman are employed in Fair Trade cooperatives, there is no or little female empowerment or improvement of the livelihoods of woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the income (Mayoux, 2001). Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by the certifiers but the implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work.

There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in India in the increased participation of females in the production process had broader impacts like “increase in self-confidence, economic independence, better access to health, and participation in decision-making in the family, community, and local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the importance of organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). A report by radio, the FAO that is based on about Reproduction: of Societal seven case studies concludes for reference uk example: “In all the a Good Graphics cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is clear that the fair-trade price premium is only part, and often only a small part, of the benefits derived from the reference fair-trade system. The success in self-organization seems to be far more important, resulting in better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and economies of scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64). Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to be organized in cooperatives and workers to establish democratically elected bodies to decide on the use of the social premium. It is important to note the mutually supportive effects of King Jr. Essay Fair Trade and cooperatives. Cooperatives enhance producer power in local markets, increase income for both members and non-members by creating competition to private intermediaries and democratically empower its members to uk express their voices collectively. Milford (2004) has shown in What Makes a Good a study on cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in selling for the Fair Trade market.

If cooperatives are engaged in reference uk Fair Trade, they cannot only compete better in the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in generating cooperative and Essay, organizational benefits then other financial and developmental support by NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Other studies raise doubts about the accountability and efficiency of cooperatives. Radio? A study from a coffee cooperative in Nicaragua argues that the cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and substantial representation costs for its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42). Several studies revealed a lack of “effective democracy” in large cooperatives and even the emergence of a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and there have even been reports of corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in uk nfc payments several studies are access to market information and the increased credibility of producer organizations that participate in Fair Trade. All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). The organizational strength of Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to take innovational routes of opening up new market possibilities. La Selva, a coffee cooperative in Chiapas, Mexico, for example started to sell their coffee in a Mexican chain of cafeterias, the first of which opened in San Cristóbal de Las Casas in 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). In an interesting article titled Bringing the moral charge home Jaffe et al. (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the reference uk South. Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is about Reproduction: only able to benefit a small fraction of cooperatives, civil society organizations and producer groups in Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184). In 2001 the first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the problems of small producers that sell to the domestic market and changing a situation in which the radio reference best coffee products had to be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006).

14 A similar initiative is the network ANEC (National Association of Mitochondrial Disease Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to sell domestically labelled Tortillas to counter recent trends of deteriorating quality of corn which were caused by radio, cheap U.S. imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). Jr. Essay? These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in uk the North they could broaden our understanding of Fair Trade in positive ways. Another interesting aspect of Fair Trade one that is uk nfc payments extremely hard to measure and that only few studies take into account are the possible spill-over effects to non-Fair Trade producers and the entire community stemming from the organizational power of uk Fair Trade cooperatives. Body? There are obvious benefits to the families of producers through the extra income and on the producer communities through the radio impact of the developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). In a coffee cooperative in Mexico the members became politicized through their participation in the assemblies. One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to stop selling coffee, the What a Good Designer? Essay organization would go on.

We know this because in the assemblies we discuss the sale of uk coffee and management of the mind sound body farms, but also the people are concerned about more wide reaching problems about our relationship with the rest of the world. For example: how the government projects are run, the problems in the Registro Civil (office for births, marriages, and reference uk, deaths), land tenancy questions, and religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in setting up a trash collection program and supported community events and the local school with supplies and furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30). Preservation? In general Fair Trade seems to radio increase what Putnam (2000) called the social capital of Dr. Martin communities by thickening organizational structures and strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of other benefits, all of which are important to the improvement of the lives of producers. Especially the organizational and cooperative benefits of Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in increasing the market power of radio reference uk producers, in providing new sources of income and in strengthening the political struggle of farmers. The gender bias observed in about Social Reproduction: The Process several studies is an issue that must be addressed in radio reference the future. There is still a lack of consistent research on the impact and the effectiveness of Fair Trade (Paul, 2005). Especially the attempts to come up with quantifiable methods of lives in a sound calculating if the money spent on Fair Trade products or donated to Fair Trade organizations is well spent, is radio only in its preliminary stages. Since all the impact studies conclude that the most important benefits of Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only Mitochondrial capture one part of the entire impact that Fair Trade has on producers (Paul, 2005).

The non-monetary impact on the life of producers is reference hard to quantify, but the qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Jr. Essay? Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to use a quantitative and highly sophisticated account to measure the social return on investment for a South African wine cooperative and radio reference uk, found with this somewhat contingent and problematic method that “for every £1 spent on Fair Trade wine (at the Social Reproduction: The Process of Societal import level), a value of £6.89 was returned to the community.” Since the higher price of Fair Trade products is divided up by radio, several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the money directly to the producers. There has not been a systematic account yet. While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the extra price for Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to imply that sometimes Fair Trade is a pretty inefficient way to about Social Reproduction: Preservation transfer money to reference uk producers in the South. In a critical article in the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the Essay The Process Preservation producers from Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the price of radio uk Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per pound. The producers receive only 16 cents per pound, 55 cent go to all the middlemen and importers and Essay on The of Poverty and World, the rest to the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of organic Fair Trade bananas.

15 At a Cafe Borders in uk New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for Essay on The of Poverty Hunger bags of radio reference Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only US$1.41. A Sound Mind Lives Body? A comparative study of the coffee supply chain of radio uk Nestlé and the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out of the Essay about 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for the consumer price only 4 percent ended up with the producers, mainly due to higher costs of advertisement and marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Reference Uk? Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and conventional coffee and found that 43 percent of the higher price of US$1.50 is passed on to producers while 39 percent went into uk nfc payments the increased margin of reference uk Starbucks itself. And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51). This is however not the general rule. Other retailers, by selling Fair Trade products at King the same price as conventional products, have shown the way to radio reference increase the market share of uk nfc payments Fair Trade and to decrease exclusion on radio reference the side of consumers. At the Makes a Good Graphics Designer? supermarket chain Migros in Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to increase the market share of Fair Trade banana to 56 percent) and reference, Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in the U.S. sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). To change this situation, in which consumers pay very high prices with the intention of helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the margin of the retailer, it would be interesting to investigate the possibility of establishing a further criterion for Fair Trade certification, ruling that the margins of retailers cannot be higher for Fair Trade products than for conventional products. A related criterion could be to Essay on The Epidemic and World make all retailers of radio uk Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to do (Stecklow White, 2004). 16 Another problem is the inefficiency of many Fair Trade supply chains.

In order to increase the market share of Fair Trade products and to benefit more producers this problem has to be addressed as well. (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the return on investment in about Reproduction: of Societal Preservation the labelling organizations. If one just takes into uk account all the money the FLO and its member organizations spent in 2002 and calculates the return on investment of this money by dividing it with the total benefits for farmers, the ration is 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by the labelling organizations increases farmer income by US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for Essay on The Epidemic and World Hunger farmers and farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only include one part of the extra money consumers spent on uk the higher prices for Fair Trade products. These examples show that due to very high margins in the North or to inefficient management of the trade partly only a small portion of the extra money consumers pay goes directly to the producers. A Sound Sound? This is particularly appalling because the high prices of Fair Trade products prevent the demand from reference uk, increasing. And, as we have seen, one of the main problems of Fair Trade producers was the insufficient demand and producers could immediately double their supply. 4. 2. Impact on the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only benefit the producers it sources its products from, but as an attempt to create alternative or at Essay Reproduction: The Process of Societal Preservation least different trading practices it has a wider impact on radio uk the free market in general. This means, Fair Trade influences not only the Essay about of Societal producers, but as well consumers, other actors on the market like competing companies and political decision makers. Most authors who write about the uk broader impact of Makes Essay Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and reference, neglect the political and economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on Understanding Mitochondrial Essay the market.

But all are important and I will address them separately. 4. 2. 1. Socio-Cultural Impact of Fair Trade. There has been no systematic research on radio reference uk how participation in uk nfc payments Fair Trade brings about radio reference, socio-cultural changes. I will in this section lay out the King Jr. Essay general idea of what the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade might be. In the radio next section I will then raise some general doubts and problems that might limit or neutralize the socio-cultural impact of Dr. Martin Fair Trade. What is this socio-cultural impact, the “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is radio reference uk supposed to bring about in the values and practices of its participants and even among those who don’t participate?

Fair Trade links consumers and producers together in ways that are fundamentally different from the conventional market, so a claim held by many activists and Dr. Martin King Jr. Essay, researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the trade process (so ETFA, the European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by shortening the uk consumer-producers chain and by introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and equality into the market. While in Dr. Martin Jr. Essay conventional markets the radio reference uk interests of producers and consumers are inherently contradictory and gains for the one are losses for the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by introduces real deliberative decisions and values into the otherwise automatic and anonymous price mechanism. The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is uk nfc payments social activity. Fair Trade, just by functioning the uk way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Essay About The Process Of Societal? Whereas the quality of reference conventional products just consists of the physical features and the image attached to it by the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the conditions of production from the value or the quality, Fair Trade includes these into the quality of the product. Producer and uk nfc payments, consumer links that make the conditions and radio reference uk, lives of producers visible to the consumers are created, maintained and “performed” through the discursive and narrative tactics of images and label texts about corporate policies, personalities and on The of Poverty Hunger, lives in the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). This competition for the “hearts and minds” of the consumers through disclosing facts about the production process, which are absent from other, changes the geography of production: The power of who defines what is “quality” in a product is to some degree shared by producers and consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by uk, the most powerful actors that create the market and shape its rules in their own interests, thus contributing to counter the neoliberal view of the economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139).

Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to uk nfc payments think about the social and environmental costs that might not be included into the cheap price of the radio product. Essay Social The Process Preservation? Fair Trade has thereby contributed to uk the impressive rise of ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into What a Good Graphics Essay account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Different studies estimate the percentage of radio reference uk ethical consumers differently, but there is increasing evidence that 50 to 80 percent of all consumers fall under this category and that the Mitochondrial Essay market for ethical goods and services is growing at rates of 20 percent per year and already amounts to radio U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). 19 From these surveys it is obvious that the What Makes market for ethical products is huge and radio reference uk, growing and that many consumers care about the social and Essay Epidemic of Poverty and World Hunger, ecological externalities of the production process. This is a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is not the only driver of economic action certain values associated with the dislike of radio reference uk global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of individual choices. 20 It is important to notice however the “ethical gap” between the a sound lives body preferences consumers state in surveys and their actual behaviour on radio uk the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the population is particularly motivated to buy ethical products these products make up only fewer than 3 percent of their individual markets. This phenomenon has been termed the “30:3 syndrome” and mind sound, it is one of the most important challenges Fair Trade faces for the future to radio uk close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5). Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for change (Roozen Boersma, 2002).

Fair Trade establishes, in contrast to Essay on The Epidemic Hunger the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to trade that aims at incorporating ethics into trade by focusing on values such as equality of exchange, cooperation and fairness and by trying to increase the terms of trade in favour of the producer (Tallontire, 2000). 21 Fair Trade is however not only radio reference uk a practical model of alternative trading practices but a variety of companies in the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for alternative business practices. Instead of being characterized by mind lives in a sound, external shareholders and profits like conventional companies, many of the alternative trading organizations involved in Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by the workers and uk, some do not work for profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96). About Social Reproduction: Of Societal? One example is reference The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into global markets by making the a sound in a farmers shareholders in the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005). The social impact of reference uk Fair Trade is multilayered and complex. Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the legitimacy of conventional production and it epitomizes functioning alternatives. Fair Trade can be understood as a model for politicians as well as for private corporations. A model of alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into the price and Understanding Mitochondrial Disease, is fairer in its outcomes; and an example of an alternative company model that does not only aim at increasing profits, but at serving both producers and consumers. The section on the political impact of Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Fair Trade actors to lobby for political change of the rules of international trade by invoking the Fair Trade system as a model of cooperation in uk trade that works.

And the section on Dr. Martin King Jr. Essay economic impacts of Fair Trade will see in how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to improve their practices, both through market pressures by reference uk, conscious consumers and by representing a functioning alternative. Although and most researchers agree on Dr. Martin Luther King this point participation in Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on consumers along the lines laid out uk, above, some concerns can be raised about these claims. Especially in how far producers really are part of the “consumer/producer links” in Fair Trade networks is questionable. Many studies reveal the limited sense of understanding and identification producers have towards Fair Trade for most it is just another market that demands higher quality and pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). Essay The Process Of Societal? One researcher at a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of interviewed members stared at me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the good price that they pay us for our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24). 22 The understanding many producers have of Fair Trade is mostly based on quality and price. Taylor (2002) reports in reference his summary of seven case studies that it was easier for producers to about Reproduction: The Process of Societal understand the impacts of organic production since it was more related to reference their farming activity and they got a higher price for improved quality. And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in the conventional market the produce is contaminated and at a sound mind sound the same time sold at lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). Other cooperatives have an understanding that is closer to the theories about consumer/producer links.

Isaías Martínez, a farmer in Mexico, for example says: “The most important contribution of the Fairtrade Labelling system is in my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is reference uk recovered. We are no longer a plaything of the anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). This gap in understanding Fair Trade is, according to Luther Jr. Essay several studies, a new development that is commonly attributed to reference the increased activity of big national labelling organizations and large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the alternative trading organizations. 23. On the consumer side there is another set of uk nfc payments worries. Especially the mainstreaming of Fair Trade has led to a diffusion of radio reference its message that changed from participation in an international project of in a body trade reform to radio uk one in which consumers are “shopping for a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). It is important to a sound lives in a sound be conscious of who is getting what out of radio reference a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on the one hand receives, in addition to the product, the “good feel factor”.

A reason to perceive herself as an “ethical” and “responsible” consumer is given by the message on the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and the environment”. 24 The producer on the other hand gets a couple of cents more than on the conventional market, but will never be able to consume in a similar way. In light of the asymmetry in wealth between consumers and producers one could ask if the standards in Essay of Societal Preservation Fair Trade are an “adequate representation of ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in relation to the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). Radio Reference? Although this is Essay a legitimate question it is not important in a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at all are both detrimental to the producer. It is however important to not let the experience of consuming a cup of fairly traded coffee become an “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and a justification to radio source all the other products through conventional markets. There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the power relations in Fair Trade, in particular about the commodification of the lives of producers in advertising for Fair Trade and exclusive standards and prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to make Fair Trade effective and successful on the market. 25. 4. 2. 2. Economic Impact of Fair Trade.

Besides the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade described above and its attempts to influence the politically established rules of the market explained in the following section the most recognized impact Fair Trade has on a sound mind the market is economic. Radio Reference? The argument has two parts. The first part is concerned with the amount to on The of Poverty and World Hunger which international trade gets transformed just by the fact that more and more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. And since that is limited somewhat, the other part analyses the indirect impact Fair Trade has on competing companies in radio uk forcing them to change their trading policies by raising awareness about the on The Epidemic of Poverty social and environmental externalities of the production process. Fair Trade only amounts to a small portion of all international trade, currently to reference uk far less than one percent. But Fair Trade has potential to grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from being an alternative to increasingly penetrating the mainstream, and in some markets Fair Trade already accounts for Essay on The Epidemic of Poverty and World large portions of all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005). There is an extremely controversial discussion about the recent development of Fair Trade into the mainstream which gives practical importance to the debate between the two visions of Fair Trade described above. The positive sides of selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in the USA or Tesco in radio reference uk the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in the volume of Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an on The Hunger increase in the availability and range of products and opening up the message of Fair Trade to a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). The downside of mainstreaming Fair Trade, on the other hand, is more controversial. There are several concerns about mainstreaming Fair Trade.

A general critique comes from conservative free market advocates. Philip Booth (2005) from the London based Institute of Economic Affairs argues that by paying a minimum price Fair Trade is disturbing the automatic market mechanisms of Adam Smith’s invisible hand. While it might help the producers that sell on the Fair Trade market it is detrimental to all other producers in that market. Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the uk argument continues, also creates oversupply. 26 While this critique overestimates the power of Fair Trade to disturb the Essay of Poverty market and to create oversupply and although it suppresses the far more important market disturbances described above (market power of TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to radio reference credit and information etc.), it raises the important issue of how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers. The argument against Fair Trade is however flawed. In order to avoid negative impacts on other producers and to decrease the dependency of Fair Trade producers the about Social Reproduction: labelling organizations encourage producers to diversify their production and help them to access new markets. Furthermore, as I will discuss in the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to a broader trend of social standards and certifications that might bring about positive change for all producers.

Most of the criticism of the mainstreaming of Fair Trade comes however from radio reference uk, supporters of the general idea of alternative trade. Essay? One worry is that big mainstream corporations that take part in Fair Trade undermine the message of Fair Trade. Whereas the radio reference Fair Trade movement started as a movement of alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and challenged conventional competitive and exploitative trading practices the a sound lives in a sound body mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and practices into Fair Trade. Whereas ATOs are interested in increasing the benefits for the producers in reference uk the South, the motives of mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by no means the mind lives in a principles of radio reference uk Fair Trade but to increase their profits (Ransom, 2005). Mainstream supermarket chains this is confirmed by in a sound, most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in radio uk the market [and as] one of the tools in the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for doing business” (Young, 2003: 10). This difference in uk nfc payments interest becomes manifest for example in the overpricing of Fair Trade products by many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. 27. Another concern is that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to justify and perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). By selling a small percentage of their products under the Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the strategy of “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices.

Some of the smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of third party certification altogether as a response to reference these practices. Just Coffee, one of them, explains the strategy of fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to access the Fair Trade label. The problem is that they want to do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the mind lives in a body bulk of their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Fair Trade label on the miniscule amount of ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. They want to radio reference uk capitalize on the symbol without committing to what it stands for.” (quoted in Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138). Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in 2000, purchased in 2005 only 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee under the Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). Uk Nfc Payments? And, as mentioned in the introduction, Nestlé is using the Fair Trade label to make up for uk being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by selling some of their products with the Fair Trade label the actual amount is not laid open but are estimated to a sound mind lives body be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). As Booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of Fair Trade in Britain, the Coop, is at the same time the biggest recipient of subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in the country. “There is no doubt whatsoever that the subsidies do more damage to the developing world than the sale of Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8).

Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from sourcing most of its bananas from small farms in radio reference the Caribbean by pointing to its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the fact that it is still possible to buy Caribbean bananas. It did however suppress the fact that the Fair Trade bananas only made up an extremely small percentage of all the bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the Essay about Social Preservation asymmetry in radio power that is uk nfc payments created by the fact that mainstream corporations only sell a small portion of radio reference their products under the label (Renard, 2005). Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of all the Fair Trade sales, the labelling organizations become dependent on these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. In the U.S. for example, where Fair Trade coffee is growing at impressive rates of almost 90 percent per year, huge parts of these increases are due to the participation of mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Essay Social Reproduction: The Process Preservation, Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b). If Starbucks would decide to radio trade its 3.7 percent of Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by more than 10 percent and decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in the U.S. by 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at this point, of stripping Starbucks of its seal if in fact Starbucks practices were shown not to comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of Essay on The Epidemic Starbucks Fair Trade sales in the US?” Another threat is the strategy of “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by TNCs to alter the standards set by an NGO like the FLO, using their immense power and share of sales (Renard, 2005).

The growth of Fair Trade into the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the undermining of the message of radio reference Fair Trade, the fairwashing of socially and environmentally destructive corporations and increasing dependency of the labelling organizations on large retailers. The question is thus one of finding the lives right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and economies of scale cross the fuzzy line between more income and benefits for producers to dependency on mainstream markets and potential loss of the cutting edge in challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market is its indirect power to influence competing corporations to change their trading practices outside of Fair Trade. This power of Fair Trade is mainly its ability to indirectly influence and change the preferences of consumers by pointing attention on the producers and the conditions of production and by providing a viable alternative. The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out above. Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and radio uk, environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to Epidemic and World Hunger pay more.

Fair Trade plays an important role in this increase of the segment of conscious consumers, especially by showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b). Transnational corporations have often responded to consumer demands and pressure for radio uk better social and environmental production by arguing that it is impossible to a sound lives in a body control the entire supply chain. The new division of labour, involving the establishment of export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and radio reference uk, lean production are used by a Good, TNCs to justify exploitation and environmental destruction as inevitable and impossible to control (McMichael, 2004). Fair Trade shows in practice that social and ecological exploitation are not natural and that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the standard apologetic reactions of corporations wrong. It is a well established fact that more and more corporations react to these market pressures and shifting consumer preferences by establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by creating guidelines and standards for internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). This has been described as a “paradox of globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the one hand there are strong trends to radio reference deregulation and market liberalization in Dr. Martin Luther the context of the rise of neoliberalism and on the other hand there are more and more attempts to uk privately re-regulate the market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to further lower the price of production and externalize social and environmental costs these same corporations take part in the rise of different and mostly private measures that claim to uk nfc payments improve social and environmental sustainability of production. I will not go into the developments of this general process of the increase of uk labels and mind lives in a sound body, just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of reference its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of total sales.

This label is supposed to “ensure the sustainable production of high-quality coffee by addressing social, environmental and economic responsibility throughout the coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20). Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in table 3, to double the Jr. Essay amount of coffee traded under the C.A.F.E. Radio Reference Uk? practices to around 70 million kg in Graphics Designer? 2006 and further increase it to 102 million kg in reference uk 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of Essay Social Reproduction: The Process Preservation all the coffee Starbucks buys is monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006). Table 3: Projected increase of Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to take into account the extremely high price Starbucks pays to its producers. Radio Reference? Starbucks has paid an average price of $2.84 per kg for all the 142 million kg of unroasted coffee it bought, both for labelled and unlabelled coffee. This average price is 23 percent higher than the average commodity market price, and even more than the Mitochondrial Essay minimum price of Fair Trade ($2.80 per kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006).

This is an extremely promising and extremely effective development. Radio? The entire sales of Starbucks, sold at an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to a sound sound body 2 percent of global coffee sales and are more than four times the amount of Fair Trade coffee certified globally in 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). It is however also important to take a close look at the supply chain, to dig into the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in Fair Trade and to see in how far these high prices are outweighed by the high costs of standard compliance to uk the high quality requirements. The high price Starbucks pays for its coffee can partly be explained by the fact that Starbucks only buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities. Disease? And the radio reference C.A.F.E label is Dr. Martin Jr. Essay only a “code of conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and foremost on the intrinsic quality and the taste of the coffee and adding ecological and social standards as secondary. Radio? Further important differences to the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the Understanding Essay payment of higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of a guaranteeing a minimum price; the infrastructure of certification remains internal to Starbucks, making it impossible for producers to reference uk influence the standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in Luther Jr. Essay Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and there is less organizational and developmental support. Since the high price is only one of the benefits of participation in Fair Trade, and as shown in the case studies above not even the radio reference most important benefit, all the non-monetary benefits of Fair Trade do only partially apply to those producers selling to Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. scheme. Besides these trends to undermine the Fair Trade label there are reports of problems at the producer level that forced several cooperatives to break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29.

There are some important dangers in this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to fully assess the mind in a sound body economic impact Fair Trade has on the market. Reference? These are mainly the way power relations in the production process change and a curious convergence between the Mitochondrial Essay rhetoric of Fair Trade and contemporary discourse in dominant institutions. While voluntary standards are often praised as the positive influence of radio reference consumer power on corporations and the increasing social and environmental accountability and awareness of those corporations, studies like the Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of private standards is acting as a barrier to market entry for smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). It has been argued that this “just in space production” of What certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the costs of standard compliance to reference uk the producers, increasing rents for retailers and giving the retailers more power and governance over the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). 30 This line of argument, seeing certifications as a place of conflict and power rather than cooperation, criticizes the broad trend towards the establishment of semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification.

Fair Trade, so the argument, by promoting the privatisation of standards, facilitates the Dr. Martin King already existing tendency of the demise of the state in market regulations. Fair Trade, without intending to do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and supports the further decline of radio reference uk state power to regulate markets and to restrict exploitation and environmental destruction. A similar argument can be made on sound body the level of uk contemporary development that converges with the discourse of Fair Trade in an interesting way. Lives In A Sound? 31 Faced with the controversial debate about the East Asian miracle in the early 1990s, the destructive Asian economic crisis in 1997 and the emergence of powerful NGOs and social movements, the uk dominant paradigm in Luther King the major development institutions like the World Bank and the IMF shifted in the late 1990s from neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Radio? Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the preference of the market over the state, has enabled processes of immense social and uk nfc payments, environmental destruction and is in similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of uk domination and control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). And the rhetoric of the Fair Trade movement conforms to an astounding degree with this discourse of revisionist neoliberalism. Central parts of both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and ‘partnership’. King Jr. Essay? What should one think about the fact that these concepts are employed both by institutions from the centre right like the World Economic Forum and by the Fair Trade movement?

This convergence of revisionist neoliberal discourse and Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of alternative trading organizations could move into the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of neoliberalism or social capitalism; and why such prominent supporters of free trade as the uk European Commission and What Makes Designer?, the G 8 summit are celebrating the reference success of Fair Trade. In both cases by using private certifications and by employing a certain discourse of market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. While this certainly carries the dangers of supporting (as an unintended consequence) the privatisation of Essay Social Reproduction: of Societal market regulations and the justification and naturalization of reference neoliberal discourse, there is also the potential for Essay Social Reproduction: Preservation change. Radio Reference Uk? Private standards are not inherently opposed to King Jr. Essay state regulations and through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to lobby for change in the political market rules. And discourses are contradictory, unstable and contested and political and social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of domination and reference uk, oppression into a discourse of entitlements and Essay about Reproduction: The Process, rights, taking serious the ‘inclusive’ and ‘empowering’ part and turning it against the inhumane consequences of neoliberal hegemony. The discussion and uk, analysis of the possibilities for Fair Trade to economically influence the about Social Reproduction: The Process of Societal conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. There is first impressive potential for Fair Trade to grow into reference the mainstream and to directly change trading practices. But these possibilities depend on What Makes a Good Graphics the participation of big mainstream corporations that only use Fair Trade to their advantage without sharing its message and taking the responsibilities. Reference Uk? This brings along the dangers of undermining the message of Dr. Martin Fair Trade and of becoming dependent on these mainstream companies. Secondly by showing that ecologically and socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is part of a more general push by consumers that brought about the rise of private standards and certifications. This development in reference a similar way opens up new possibilities to introduce social and environmental standards on a broad basis into the mainstream economy but at the same time bears the danger of getting down-washed into intransparent and a sound mind in a sound body, unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by big mainstream corporations to control and radio reference, exploit the Dr. Martin King supply chain in new ways.

Fair Trade certification and the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. Both are social institutions that are sites of radio uk conflict and power where contesting interests get negotiated and fought out between different actors. Future developments depend among many other social forces on the evolution of about Reproduction: The Process of Societal Fair Trade. 4. 2. Uk? 3. The Political Impact of Fair Trade. Contrary to dominant discourses and public opinions on What Makes a Good Graphics Essay trade issues, the current trade injustices are not “natural” or the outcome of different levels of knowledge, technology and education. These factors surely play their part, but the unjust system of international trade is politically established and maintained by countries with very different levels of power. The rules that enable the radio reference free market and free trade to function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and Epidemic of Poverty and World Hunger, not others. Without going into detail this can be illustrated by looking at uk the unjust tax system and the immense amounts of subsidies in the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for developing countries. According the United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to high-income countries, face are three to four times higher than the barriers applied in trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for many developing countries to do the high value-added processing and retailing parts of the production process in their country, ensuring that most profits in the value chain are added in the Global North. In the European Union, for example, tariffs rise from Essay on The Epidemic Hunger, 0 to 9 percent on cocoa paste and to 30 percent on the final product, which explains why 90 percent of cacao beans are produced in developing countries while only 44 percent of cocoa liquor and radio, 29 percent of cocoa powder exports originate in Understanding Mitochondrial Disease Essay those countries, making Germany the worlds largest exporter of cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127).

The unbelievably high levels of agricultural subsidies, especially in radio reference Europe and the U.S. Mitochondrial Essay? furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of developing countries and the UNDP calculates that the real costs for developing countries of rich country agricultural subsidies is as high as all official aid flows in radio 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). The global legal framework for trade justifies exploitation and the externalization of social and environmental costs of production. This can be illustrated by the fact that the WTO under the Essay Epidemic Hunger PPM clause (Production and Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against products that are produced through social and ecological exploitation. 33 There is considerable discussion in the Fair Trade movement if the PPM clause, created for governments, does also apply to radio reference labelling organizations like the FLO, but it is generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the Essay of Poverty WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the real social or environmental costs. 34. Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the uk markets function mainly the World Trade Organization and about Social Reproduction: The Process of Societal, its sisters World Bank and International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by NGOs and social movements to protest and radio reference uk, lobby for market and trading rules that are fairer to the most disadvantaged producers. This Trade Justice Movement is “campaigning for trade justice - not free trade - with the rules weighted to benefit poor people and the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006).

Fair Trade is part of this push for fair market rules. And it is the Mitochondrial Disease Essay deliberate goal of Fair Trade, stated by the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of three strategic intents, to “play a wider role in the global arena to achieve greater equity in international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Radio? Also the above mentioned widely recognized definition of Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in What Makes a Good campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the WTO meeting in Hong Kong in 2005 FINE, the informal network of Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America which were displaying and uk, selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and many others. At a symposium producers shared their stories the impact Fair Trade had on mind sound their communities and experts discussed the development of Fair Trade and the implications of the WTO rules for uk its functioning. 35 Besides this eventful critique of free trade FINE also lobbied the WTO with a position paper stating what the Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the What Makes a Good Designer? Essay WTO” (FINE 2005a). The style of radio uk this document is captured in its beginning statement: “We, members of the international Fair Trade movement, know from mind lives sound body, experience that trade can reduce poverty and radio reference uk, contribute to sustainable development. However, if not carried out in a fair and responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and inequality.” FINE, acting as the advocate of small scale producers around the world, demands the end of subsidies and tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against deregulation and liberalization and promotes the expansion of Fair Trade principles of regulating and managing the global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). Mind Sound Body? After the meeting, another publication described the outcome of the WTO summit as serving “the interests of companies operating globally” instead of promoting an agenda that is in any way favourable to the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). The political impact of Fair Trade operates as well on the micro level. Besides contributing to a necessary change in consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and strengthens the Global Justice Movement through the thousands of world and solidarity shops that are important centres of this movement.

Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of Fair Trade, arguing that the structural change promoted by reference, the Global Justice and mind lives, Third World Movements is necessary for real improvement in the producers lives, the political side of Fair Trade should not be used as an excuse for the economic and radio reference, social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the practical example of Fair Trade to lobby for a change in King Jr. Essay the international trading rules away from free trade and towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of a more desirable trade. 5. Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement. So what is radio reference Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to current market failures that works within the free market regime or a practical tool of social change that aims at transforming the free market? The discussion of the impact of Fair Trade on the level of Understanding Essay producers as well as on the level of the free market in general has shown that there is no easy and reference uk, clear-cut answer to this question. The social reality of Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and non-markets restrictions and Fair Trade seems to both undermine free trade and to be used and interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to understand Fair Trade that is heavily influenced by Luther King Jr. Essay, Polanyi’s work. In order to better understand the effects of Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the reference uk double movement. Understanding Mitochondrial? And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of reference embeddedness to argue that Fair Trade is neither a free market solution nor a transformation of Essay on The of Poverty free trade.

In order to situate the emergence of radio reference uk Fair Trade in a broader context the work of Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of capitalism as progressing in form of a ‘double movement’ concerning the relations between the market and society has been increasingly used and seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Polanyi argued that the unleashing of markets for the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and Makes Graphics Essay, money causes intense social and environmental destruction and reference, generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and social protection from these destructive market forces. A Sound Mind Lives Sound? This protective countermovement is, however, not an uk external intervention into a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Polanyi’s historical analysis of the Disease Essay double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the 1980s on the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and land/nature by promoting free market economies as the only model, liberating financial transactions and privatising and radio reference uk, destroying natural resources. The growing importance of civil society in the 1990s and the rise of transnational social movements that push for “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on uk nfc payments the other hand represent efforts to radio re-embed the destructive market forces into societal norms and uk nfc payments, regulations. These actors promote political regulations for radio reference financial markets, fight against the commercialization and privatization of Essay on The Epidemic of Poverty and World natural resources and counter the dismantling of labour regulations that restrict exploitation. 37 It is important to note that these attempts to re-embed the reference market have also been incorporated into Mitochondrial Essay conservative discourses and practices where they represent efforts to contain dissent and to enable the neoliberal project to continue. They are employed by personalities in neoliberal institutions like the world bank and the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and uk, have shaped the paradigm shift from orthodox neoliberalism to Essay Social of Societal ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004).

And exactly here is where Fair Trade comes into the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is part of the protective countermovement. I will come back to this point, but first I want to employ Polanyi to argue that Fair Trade is uk neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an attempt to Social Reproduction: The Process of Societal transform free trade. Fair Trade is concerned with the unleashing of markets for the fictitious commodities labour, and, to a lesser degree, land/nature. While markets might be useful and efficient mechanisms to radio reference uk produce and distribute products, if labour and a sound mind in a sound, nature are included into the market as free and unrestricted commodities the results are destructive. Free trade theory rests on radio uk the notion that free competition results in the lowest possible price, and Essay Reproduction: The Process of Societal, that because the producers with the lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and improved technologies. Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and marketing. 38 In reality, and especially in trading relations between large retailers and small-scale producers in the global south, business companies use the externalization of costs onto other parties as one of the main strategies of reference competition. A Sound Lives In A Sound? If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by externalizing the social and environmental cost of production.

This means that the radio uk social cost of a sound body production is passed on to the producer and the environmental cost of production is passed on to future generations. This is possible if labour and nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. And Fair Trade is exactly this, an attempt to re-embed the market within society by internalizing both the real social and environmental cost of radio uk production into the price. The real price of a product and the price Fair Trade tries to Reproduction: The Process of Societal pay thus consists of the real social cost of the work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the real environmental cost of reference uk production. Roozen and VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of Essay on The Epidemic of Poverty and World Hunger a socially responsible production are included in the price of the uk product in and World the Fair Trade market. Competitiveness does not depend on the level of exploitation that goes into the production of the product.” Fair Trade is thus not abandoning the market, but it also does not provide a free market solution.

Fair Trade rather re-embeds the market by internalizing the social and environmental cost of production into radio uk the price. Luther Jr. Essay? By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the real social and environmental costs of production it restricts market competition from exploiting labour and nature, but at the same time uses competition in the production process to radio uk function in the market. The essence of Fair Trade is according to Brown (1993: 158) “that the consumer should be told the truth, not only about what is in a sound mind in a sound body the product but also the reference uk truth about the producer, her or his conditions of life and work, what they get for their work and what it does to Dr. Martin Luther the environment.” Far from pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the power of producers and consumers to create links between them that both limit and engage competition and that consist of information: 39 “Connections between consumers and Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in flows of information. Uk? Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at Disease Essay the point of consumption replete with information regarding the social and environmental conditions under which they were produced and traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Fair Trade challenges the idea that the radio reference setting of prices on a sound lives in a the market as an automatic and depersonalized process is the only instrument for valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. 409). Instead of competition as the main driver of the market, Fair Trade introduces an interesting type of “contract economy” into the market, in which the price is negotiated between consumers, producers and salesmen and their contradictory interests are resolved in cooperation.

As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is primarily about reasserting human control over a mechanism that claims to be in the best interests of everyone but no longer even bothers to radio reference prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the existence of the market as such does not mean that it is Dr. Martin Luther Jr. Essay not a radical vision, since, as the domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is about transforming the very purpose of markets; by reorganizing markets in a way that can benefit the uk more disadvantaged members of society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in Jaffe et al, 2004: 192). Fair Trade, as an What Makes Graphics Designer? attempt to reference re-embed the market in uk nfc payments the sense described here, is part of the reference uk protective countermovement. But back to the question do the broader effects of Essay Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of Fair Trade in the two visions that underlie the question this paper tried to answer both turn out to be present and future tendencies and trajectories of the Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of radio Fair Trade. As such the two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of different simultaneous and contradictory effects of Fair Trade. A definite answer to this ‘either, or’ question is Social of Societal impossible since the impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in and against the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and partly challenging it. Instead of the question what Fair Trade is in terms of its broader effects the impact study forces one to radio uk ask more specific questions about how Fair Trade works and what exactly its effects and outcomes are in the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of Epidemic of Poverty social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market. But this process, since it is part of capitalist development, is uk a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors with different and partly opposing interests. Because the protective countermovement as a whole is fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on the exploitation of land, money and labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in containing, controlling and King, weakening the movement.

These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in many examples in this study, bring about multiple and reference uk, partly contradictory effects on different levels. Anticapitalist activists support and propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to privately regulate a small part of the market without fundamentally changing the political market rules. Both support Fair Trade for different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and these contradictory understandings in Dr. Martin King turn shape and change what they try to explain, the Fair Trade movement. Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in Ecuador think about uk, Fair Trade and Dr. Martin King, what they want Fair Trade to do differs dramatically from the radio uk understandings and interests of large retailers like Nestlé. How these different, partly contradictory and partly mutually supportive interests play out depends on the power relations between the different stakeholders. Particularly since Fair Trade entered the mainstream market in the late 1990s and Dr. Martin King Jr. Essay, actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at a crossroads: On the one hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to increase the impact of Fair Trade in transforming neoliberal trade relations, in benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in further re-embedding the market. Radio? But on on The Epidemic of Poverty and World the other hand the radio uk mainstreaming of Fair Trade bears a variety of dangers, mainly due to Disease the power of the mainstream companies to uk undermine the meaning and practice of Fair Trade and, instead of Essay Reproduction: using Fair Trade to the advantage of producers, to misuse it for the interests of their shareholders.

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2003. Global Civil Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Krier, Jean-Marie. 2005. Fair Trade in Europe: Facts and Figures on Fair Trade in 25 European Countries. Brussel: FLO, IFAT, NEWS!, EFTA. Klein, Naomi. 2002.

No Logo. New York: Picador. Kocken. 2003. Fifty Years of Fair Trade. Radio? A brief history of the Social The Process of Societal Preservation FAIR TRADE movement. Lang, Tim. 2003. “Food Industrialization and Food Power: Implications for radio uk Food Governance.” Development Policy Review 21(5-6): 555568. Levi, Margaret and April Linton. 2003. “Fair Trade: A Cup at Dr. Martin Jr. Essay a Time?” Politics Society 31 (3): 407-432.

Lewis, Jessa M. 2005. Strategies for Survival: Migration and Fair Trade-Organic Coffee Production in Oaxaca, Mexico. San Diego: The Center for Comparative Immigration Studies. Low, William and Eileen Davenport. 2005a. Postcards from the Edge: Maintaining the reference uk ‘Alternative’ Character of Fair Trade Sustainable Development 13: 143153. -. 2005b. Of Poverty And World? “Has the medium (roast) become the message?: The ethics of marketing fair trade in the mainstream” International Marketing Review 22 (5): 494 511.

Lyon, Sarah. 2002. “Evaluation of the Actual and Potential Benefits for the Alleviation of radio reference uk Poverty Through the Participation in uk nfc payments Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Guatemalan Case Study.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Mandelson, Peter. 2005. Radio Reference Uk? “The Fair Trade Agenda”, speech at the PES Conference on Fair Trade, European Parliament, Brussels, 22 June 2005, http://europa.eu.int/comm/commission_barroso/mandelson/speeches_articles (April 2006). Maseland, Robbert and Albert de Vaal. 2002. Dr. Martin Luther King? “How Fair is Fair Trade?” De Economist 150 (3): 251272. Mayoux, Linda. 2001. “Impact Assessment of Fair Trade and Ethical Enterprise Development.” Available at http://www.enterprise-impact.org.uk/pdf/IAofFairTrade.pdf (April 2006). McMichael, Philip. 2004. Development and uk, Social Change: a global perspective.

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2003. Radio Reference Uk? “Fair trade and the coffee crisis in the Nicaraguan Segovias” Small Enterprise Development 14 (2): 36-46. Milford,, Anna. 2004. Coffee, Co-operatives and Competition: The Impact of Fair Trade. Bergen, Norway: Chr. Milford Institute, http://www.cmi.no/publications/2004%5Crep%5Cr2004-6.pdf (April 2006). Moore, Geoff. 2005. The Fair Trade Movement: Parameters, Issues and Future Research, in uk nfc payments Journal of Business Ethics 53: 7386. Muradian, Roldan and Wim Pelupessy.

2005. “Governing the radio reference Coffee Chain: The Role of Voluntary Regulatory Systems” World Development 33 (12): 20292044. Murray, Douglas and on The Epidemic Hunger, Laura T. Raynolds. 2000. “Alternative trade in bananas: Obstacles and opportunities for progressive social change in the global economy.” Agriculture and Human Values 17(1): 6574. Mutersbaugh, Tad. 2005a. “Fighting standards with standards: harmonization, rents, and social accountability in certified agrofood networks” Environment and Planning 37: 2033-2051. -. 2005b. “Just-in-space: Certified rural products, labor of quality, and radio reference uk, regulatory spaces” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 389402. -. 2005c. “Certifying rural spaces: Quality-Certifed Products and Rural Governance” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 381388. Nestlé. 2005. Dr. Martin Jr. Essay? “Nestlé UK to launch fair-trade coffee” Press Release, October 7. Nicholls, Alex and Charlotte Opal. 2005.

Fair Trade: Market-driven ethical consumption. London: Sage Publications. Osorio, Néstor. 2004. Reference? “Lessons from the world coffee crisis: a serious problem for sustainable development.” London: International Coffee Organization. Paul, Elisabeth. On The Of Poverty Hunger? 2005. “Evaluating Fair Trade as a development project: methodological considerations” Development in Practice 15 (2): 134-150. Perezgrovas, Victor and Edith Cervantes. 2002. Radio Reference Uk? “Poverty Alleviation through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: The Case of Union Majomut, Chiapas, Mexico.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Polanyi, Karl.

1944. The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time. Boston: Beacon Press. Ponte, Stefano. 2002. “The ‘Latte Revolution’? Regulation, Markets and Consumption in the Global Coffee Chain” World Development 30 (7):10991122. Porter, Doug and David Craig. Lives In A Sound? 2004. “The third way and the third world: poverty reduction and social inclusion in radio uk the rise of ‘inclusive’ liberalism” Review of International Political Economy 11 (2): 387-423. Putnam, Robert.

2000. Bowling Alone. New York: Simon and Schuster. Ransom, David. 2005. Essay On The Epidemic? “Fair trade for sale: David Ransom thinks not” New Internationalist, April 2005. Raynolds, Laura T.. 2000. “Re-embedding global agriculture: The international organic and fair trade movements” Agriculture and Human Values 17: 297309. -. 2002a. Consumer/Producer Links in Fair Trade Coffee Networks in Sociologia Ruralis 42 (2). -. 2002b. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Existing Research and Critical Issues”, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup/doc/rayback.pdf (April 2006). Raynolds, Laura T., Douglas Murray and Peter L. Taylor.

2004. “Fair Trade Coffee: Building Producer Capacity via Global Networks” Journal of International Development 16: 1109-1121. Reardon, Thomas, C. Peter Timmer, Christopher B. Barrett and Julio A. Reference? Berdegué. 2003. “The rise of Luther King supermarkets in Africa, Asia, and Latin America,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 85 (5): 1140-1146. Redfern, Andy and radio, Paul Snedker. 2002. Creating Market Opportunities for Small Enterprises: Experiences of the Fair Trade Movement Geneva: International Labour Office. Renard, Marie-Christine.

2003. “Fair trade: quality, market and conventions” Journal of Rural Studies 19: 8796. -. Uk Nfc Payments? 2005. “Quality certification, regulation and power in fair trade” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 419431. Riedel, Carl Philipp, Federico Manzano-Lopez, Amy Widdows, Alim Manji and radio uk, Markus Schneider. 2005. Impacts of on The Epidemic and World Hunger Fair Trade. London School of radio reference uk Economics.

Ronchi, Loraine. 2002. The Impact of Fair Trade on Producers and their organizations: A case study with Coocafe in Costa Rica. Prus Working Paper. Brighton: University of Sussex, http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Units/PRU/wps/wp11.pdf (April 2006). Roozen, Niko and Frans VanderHoff Boersma.

2002. Fair Trade: An Adventure in the Fair Trade Market. excerpt, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Sachs, Jeffrey. Dr. Martin King Jr. Essay? 1998. Radio? “The IMF and the Asian Flu” The American Prospect 37. Shreck, Aimee. 2005. “Resistance, redistribution, and sound body, power in radio reference uk the Fair Trade banana initiative” Agriculture and Human Values 22: 1729. Silver, Beverly and Mitochondrial Disease, Giovanni Arrighi. 2003. “Polanyi’s ‘Double Movement’: The Belle Époques of British and U.S.

Hegemony Compared” Politics and Society 31 (2): 325-355. Smith, Sally and Stephanie Barrientos. 2005. Radio Reference? “Fair Trade and Ethical Trade: Are There Moves Towards Convergence?” Sustainable Development 13: 190198. Starbucks. Reproduction: The Process Preservation? 2006a. Radio Uk? Beyond the cup.

Corporate Social Responsibility Fiscal 2005 Annual Report, http://www.starbucks.com/aboutus/csrannualreport.asp (Mai 2006). Stecklow, Steve and Erin White. 2004. “What Price Virtue? At Some Retailers, 'Fair Trade' Carries A Very High Cost: Stores Charge Big Markups On Goods Intended to Help Farmers in Poor Countries” Wall Street Journal, June 8, 2004. Stiglitz, Joseph. 2000. “What I Learned at the World Economic Crisis”, New Republic, 17, April 2000. Tallontire, Anne.

2000. “Partnerships in fair trade: reflections from a case study of Cafe´ direct” Development in Practice 10 (2). Tallontire, Anne and Bill Vorley. 2005. Achieving fairness in trading between supermarkets and their agrifood supply chains. London, UK: Food Group. Taylor, Peter Leigh. 2002. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Luther King Jr. Essay Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Synthesis of radio reference uk Case Study Research Question Findings.” Report Prepared for Project Funded by the Community and Resource Development Program.

New York: The Ford Foundation. -. 2005. “In the Market But Not of It: Fair Trade Coffee and Mitochondrial Essay, Forest Stewardship Council Certification as Market-Based Social Change” World Development 33 (1):129147. Tiffen, Pauline. 2000. “Good busy-ness: when advertising gets to be like an escalating arms race you can be sure there's a war right around the corner ” New Internationalist, April 2000. Vidal, John. 2005. “Nestlé launch of Fairtrade coffee divides company's critics” The Guardian, October 7, 2005.

Vorley, Bill. 2003. Food, Inc. Corporate concentration from radio, farm to consumer. London: UK Food Group. Wade, Robert. 1997. “Greening the Bank: The Struggle over the Environment, 1997-1995”, in Luther Jr. Essay D. Kapur (ed.) The World Bank: It’s first Half Century.

Washington: Brookings Institution Press. Williamson, John. 1990. “What Washington Means by radio reference uk, Policy Reform”, in John Williamson (ed.) Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics. -. 1993. “Democracy and the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. 2000. Makes Essay? “What Should the World Bank Think about the Washington Consensus?” in The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham. Reference Uk? 2003. On The Of Poverty And World? “Fair trade's influential past and the challenges of its future”, paper presented at Fair Trade, An Asset for Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, www.kbs-frb.be/files/db/en/PUB%5F1337%5FFair%5FTrade.pdf (April 2006).

Zehner, David. 2002. “An Economic Assessment of ‘Fair Trade’ in Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for trade, said in 2005, after having emphasized the success of the Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in difficult conditions in commodity-dependent and poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for themselves and their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the reference uk Network of European Shops (NEWS!), the International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT), and the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA). Essay On The Hunger? The aim of FINE is to radio reference enable these networks and their members to cooperate on strategic levels on crucial issues affecting the future of the Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and campaigning, standards and monitoring. See http://www.worldshops.org/fairtrade/netw.html (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on those products that are certified by the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only available for mind in a sound body certified products and since certified products make up the huge bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide. 4 All standards are publicly available under http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/standards/sp.html (Mai 2006).

Quality requirements for Fair Trade bananas for example include among others: “Size of radio uk bananas. Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Tolerance: 10% of the King Jr. Essay bananas. Reference? Packing. slippage and “high pack” are not permitted. There must be reasonable uniformity among the bananas in a carton. Tolerance: 5% of packing cartons. () Residue and foreign matter. No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in the cartons. A Good Graphics Designer?? Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10). 5 The coffee market price is fluctuating highly. The current prices are summarized by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per pound in March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to the level of radio 60.80 US cents per pound the corresponding month last year.

In April 2005, the average daily price fell to 98.2 US cents per pound, following some profit taking by investment funds”. See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 6 According to the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in Ecuador decreased below the official minimum price of US$3 per box, and in about Social Reproduction: The Process Preservation some cases, fell to less than US$1 per box.” See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 7 In 2001 the FLO had registered over 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. This amounts, according to one estimate, to reference 30 percent of the world’s small-scale coffee growers most of which however could only Understanding sell a small portion of their harvest on the Fair Trade market. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the organic world market is radio reference uk considerably larger than the Fair Trade market.

In 2003 organic sales amounted to US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only reached one billion in about Social Reproduction: Preservation 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for modifying the dominant economic model, and the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the insertion of products from the South under fair conditions in radio uk the markets of the North.” Renard, 2003: 91. 10 For a further discussion of a sound mind body these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the Fair Trade coffee market in Latin America that is reference based on seven case studies concludes, for example, by exclusively citing the most positive study (Perezgrovas and on The Hunger, Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the general finding) that the direct financial “revenues for Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the street price for conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for cooperative management and other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Other studies by the same research team (which are only cited at other instances), however, sound less promising. In a cooperative in El Salvador for example, the financial benefits were only enough for outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to radio uk put this into perspective it is interesting to note that more or less the same amount (€ 18.3 million) is spent annually only in Europe by Fair Trade organizations for education and What a Good Graphics Designer?, awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31). 13 And even the most studies point at several advantages of Fair Trade.

Robbert Maseland and Albert de Vaal (2002) at the University of Nijmegen in Holland for radio example compared Fair Trade with free trade and protectionism and concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the only way to guarantee the Disease Essay fulfilment of radio uk minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. They however argued also that concerning the reduction of inequality it is and World Hunger not clear that Fair Trade is always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to small producers on the national market mean that the best Mexican products are exported. Fair Trade makes it possible for radio reference small producers to also receive dignified prices in Essay Social Reproduction: the national market and to not depend exclusively on export.” Comercio Justo México on its webpage in 2001, quoted in Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the fruit in bagged bunches of six, not by radio reference, weight. A Good Graphics Designer? Essay? A bag of fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in London. That's more than four times the price of a pound of unbagged regular bananas, also from the Dominican Republic.

According to FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about 16 cents a pound from middlemen. Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about 71 cents a pound for radio fair-trade bananas from the Dominican Republic. If that's the case, Sainsbury's is earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against what Paul Rice, chief executive of Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against the idea of] using the uk nfc payments market as a vehicle for creating a win-win scenario for farmers and for industry.” The growth of fair-trade sales in the U.S. suggests “millions of U.S. consumers are willing to pay a bit more to feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to certify 74.2 million pounds of radio Fair Trade coffee. Essay On The Of Poverty Hunger? This has provided coffee farmers in some of the poorest communities in Latin America, Africa, and Asia with over $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to local intermediaries. This means that each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006). 18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in the UK, in Jones (2004).

19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of reference research and surveys. A survey of 30.000 consumers in Britain by the Cooperative Group and MORI in 2005 for example showed that 84 percent of consumers are willing to pay a little extra to help producers in developing countries and 6 out of Essay Social Reproduction: of Societal Preservation 10 are willing to boycott for uk their ethics. Producers especially emphasized the importance of complete product information on food labels, which was important to 96 percent of the sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into ethical consumerism to date reveals that just over half the population have bought a product and recommended a supplier, because of about Preservation its responsible reputation, at some time in the last year. A third of reference consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at least once. Roughly one in Essay and World six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the reference uk amount of consumers looking at uk nfc payments social responsibility in their choices jumped from 36 percent in 1999 to 62 percent in 2001 in Europe. 21 “The approach to Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and uk, ethical elements and that aims to be sustainable in the long term.

For Fair Trade, the key stakeholders are the Essay of Societal Preservation producers, the producer group, the ATO, and the consumer; and the partnership between these stakeholders is based on a combination of market and ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the radio reference problem or issue and its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and mutual trust. Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the success of the relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of responsibilities, autonomy of the partners, accountability and transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of understanding that is Essay about of Societal Preservation prevalent in most case studies applies even to leading positions. An example given by Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the Junta Directiva in this cooperative told a researcher that the FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the FLO had certified the cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is just here to see how everything is going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in uk calling for a renewed commitment to developing and Disease, maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and Southern producers. These visits help producers better understand the nature of the Fair Trade market, and create positive impacts on producer self-esteem and coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by including the livelihood, culture, indigeneity and difference of the producer communities into their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the reference uk processes of commodification by objectifying and commoditising the very things they are trying to save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114). Another concern points at lives in a sound the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of radio uk inclusion and cooperation and its exclusive elements. Since it is a label that relies on uk nfc payments quality standards and higher prices, Fair Trade is uk exclusive both on the producer side with its “dictates of quality” (Goodman and Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on the consumer side with its higher and The Process of Societal Preservation, sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is adjustment to world supply or demand and prices in one part of the market are fixed?

Prices in other parts of the market must fall by more other growers suffer more. What happens to radio reference those employees of large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7). 27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in Britain were accused of charging too much for Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per kilogram bananas, more then double the premium for producers. The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in Tiffen (2000) 29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in this case, turns out to be the largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in decidedly non-equitable commercial practices.

A few cooperatives have broken off from uk nfc payments, Starbucks, denouncing the AMSA practice of misusing the registry of radio certified-organic producers for AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an important critique for international trade with organic products and might apply to first party certifications of some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to uk nfc payments Fair Trade. Contrary to uk Mutersbaugh (2005a) the cost for compliance with the standards are in the Fair Trade system paid for by the consumers, not by the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and practice regarding development in the dominant institutions and in academia has been characterized by several observers as constituting an important departure from orthodox neoliberalism and about Social Reproduction: The Process of Societal Preservation, the Washington Consensus of the late 1980s and uk, the early 1990s. While the Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by getting the state out of the market, the post-Washington Consensus is a more inclusive approach that focuses on good governance, new institutional economics and the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000) 32 This translates into the following: “Developing countries account for Understanding Disease less than one-third of developed country imports but for two-thirds of tariff revenues collected. Radio Reference? They also account for two-thirds of developed country imports subjected to tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127) 33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against Makes Graphics Designer? foreign or domestic “like products” on the basis of “related characteristics”, wher like product is defined as “products with the same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of WTO rules and voluntary labelling initiatives is given in a FAO report by radio reference uk, Dankers (2003: 73-88). See notes of a panel on the PPM clause at the Fair Trade symposium during the Essay Social Reproduction: of Societal Preservation WTO meeting 2005 in reference Hong Kong under http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/symposium.cfm?refID=78673. This clause is Mitochondrial Essay defined on uk the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and lives in a, processing method.

Used in instances where trade policy action by reference, a country is motivated by a desire to ensure that imports have been produced in a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Often these norms will be environmental in nature.“ http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/glossary.htm#P (April 2006). 35 The webpage http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/index.cfm gives a good overview of the events and about Social Reproduction: The Process of Societal, features a variety of resources, including transcripts from the symposium. A similar event was staged at the 2003 WTO summit in Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the first movement, the economic liberalization and integration of the late 19 th century, as one that involves the replacement of radio uk local and traditional socio-cultural relations by mere market relations.

In particular the incorporation of the three fictitious commodities money, labour and land/nature into the market and mind lives in a body, thus the total disembedding of the market from society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in turn lead to a variety of counter movements. This second and radio, embedding moment is the Dr. Martin Luther King attempt by social movements and ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to counter the radio reference social disruption of the market-led liberalization with social and environmental protection and intervention. The main question Polanyi is trying to Luther King answer with this framework is the rise of fascism in Europe. He interprets fascism as part of the protective countermovement, suggesting that the radio reference protective countermovement is not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of different responses to the destructive market forces, some of which are very dangerous. 37 Examples would be firstly the promotion of the Tobin tax by the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the financial transactions and invest the money in poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the environmental and uk nfc payments, the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the Narmada dam in India; and reference uk, lastly efforts to counter the neoliberal agenda to create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an Essay about Social Reproduction: Preservation incredibly destructive downward spiral of uk wages and, especially in a sound lives sound body the Global South, leading to conditions of immense exploitation. McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of case studies that vividly illustrate this situation. 38 This argument is explained in length in Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of economic decision-making and ensuring that authorities are made accountable to the people for their actions is where we need to start. But such democratic models have generally been based either on workers' control at the work place or on radio uk consumer power in the market. Essay Epidemic And World Hunger? The fact is radio reference that the two have to be combined.

Markets which split us into two halves - into producers and consumers - have to be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. ) The conclusion of this book is that it will be by new forms of cooperation and not by relying solely on competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done. We cannot now foresee what the Understanding Disease new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).