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book report sybil Tried to use holiday downtime to plow through some books I#39;ve had stacking up, and was successful, though perhaps not as successful as I#39;d have liked to planets me. Online? But one book struck me as of being of definition of jovian planets particular interest to the Pandagon crowd: Sybil Exposed: The Extraordinary Story Behind the Famous Multiple Personality Case by Debbie Nathan. For those who don#39;t think that there#39;s a meaningful intersection between feminism and skepticism, I challenge them to read this amazing recounting of how three women, each in the grips of self-delusions caused by needs that Nathan definitely demonstrates were created by the constraints sexist culture puts on women, managed to best practice hoodwink themselves, Hollywood, the publishing industry, the psychiatric establishment, and definition, the entire country into believing that a small town Midwestern girl with a stubborn and baffling set of symptoms (mostly physical at first!) had actually suffered constant rape and other forms of abuse at the hands of her mother, and developed multiple personalities to cope. Hrm? This story, in turn, created an epidemic of multiple personality disorder cases and other claims of of jovian planets repressed memories of child sex abuse that frequently couldn#39;t have happened. You Define? Lives were ruined.

You have the people (mostly women) who ended up in the hands of the wrong therapists and, instead of getting proper treatment for conditions like biopolar disorder, depression or schizophrenia, got worse as they kept inventing new personalities to definition inhabit and going further down the muley graves rabbit hole of mental illness. You had people thrown in jail, often with multiple life sentences, for crimes they simply couldn#39;t have committed on the testimony generated by people who had been provoked in various ways to definition of jovian planets fantasize and then believe their fantasies had actually happened. Muley Graves? And it all started with this one book and three women who, if they#39;d grown up in a better, more feminist world, probably wouldn#39;t have been so damn messed up. Nathan turns out to be the best possible candidate to definition of jovian write the expose of how the case of Sybil was generated through a series of self-delusions and outright fraud. Practice Hrm? Nathan brings a thorough understanding of feminism and planets, its complicated history to this book, which means that she manages to achieve the delicate balancing act by both holding feminists who perpetuated the hysteria over repressed memories and multiple personality disorder responsible for what they did, but also applying a sympathetic, feminist analysis to how is the structure of a leaf the various pressures on women in the 20th century that led to definition of jovian planets this hysteria. (I#39;m using hysteria in the group sense, as a society-wide panic over how is of a leaf adapted, nonsense, instead of as the sexist label attached to individual women as a way to shame them out of being righteously angry about something.) After all, child abuse and definition planets, rape are both real and depressingly common, and the understanding of that that developed in the 70s and 80s basically traumatized the country to the extent that plausible accounts were hard to distinguish from implausible ones. Additionally, unlike with other crimes, the realness of sexual and practice, domestic violence is often judged by how damaged the victim feels, which created an unfortunate incentive to of jovian planets highlight cases where severe trauma was claimed in online, order to planets get people to of a leaf for photosynthesis understand that rape is, you know, wrong. Definition? Now I think feminism has come around to muley graves realizing that victims must display extreme trauma is of jovian, a trap used to let rapists off the hook, and royal human resources, have moved on definition planets to arguing that we need to treat rape, battering, and child abuse like we do any crime, where the victim#39;s ability to recover doesn#39;t mitigate guilt. But in the 70s and 80s, that wasn#39;t as clear. This doesn#39;t excuse people who generated false stories or made existing mental illnesses worse, but it does explain why there was a sudden interest in stories of greater and greater trauma from sexual violence. Carol Tavris and Laura Miller have excellent reviews of Sybil Exposed that run down the facts of the case, but a quick summary: Shirley Mason was a depressed and neurotic woman with likely undiagnosed pernicious anemia who got caught up with Dr.

Connie Wilbur, a charismatic but deeply unethical (though often well-meaning) therapist who always resented that the world didn#39;t see her as the brilliant pure scientist she felt herself to best practice be. Mason become emotionally dependent on Wilbur, and when she realized that what it would take to keep Wilbur#39;s attention and interest (and continued services without immediate payment), she started producing multiple personalities, having read about of jovian planets, them previously in some literature Wilbur gave her. Excited that she was finally going to make her career, Wilbur encouraged this development, keeping Mason strung out on Francis Bacon's Contributions barbituates for years while exerting massive pressure on Mason to both generate new personallties and come up with memories of severe child abuse. Meanwhile, Flora Schreiber, a journalist who, like Wilbur, felt marginalized and definition, underappreciated, got involved by agreeing to write a book about Contributions, it. Repeatedly throughout the invention of Sybil, each woman involved has moments of doubt and definition planets, worries that they#39;re perpetuating a fraud, but their desires (Mason#39;s to get attention and muley graves, pay her debts, Wilbur and Schreiber#39;s to finally do work that the definition world has to mnp notice) cause them to definition of jovian tamp down their doubts. At some point, the need to keep the whole thing going gets to the point where Wilbur and Mason deliberately create fraudulent diaries to give to Schreiber, rather than let the fact that Mason#39;s claims about child abuse couldn#39;t be true derail the whole project.

It#39;s an amazing story of how ordinary human desires for adapted for photosynthesis, love, ego gratification, and money can, under the right circumstances, create situations that simply spiral out of control. Definition Of Jovian? Nathan#39;s feminism makes her see the how is the structure adapted for photosynthesis nuances in this situation that another journalist might miss. She grasps immediately why it was women who half-consciously perpetuated this fraud. As Nathan puts it, the continued marginalization of of jovian women in American society, added to the newfound ambitions and dreams of a feminist era, created some outright bizarre behavior in women who, in a more feminist time, would have had more productive avenues for their energies. The Structure For Photosynthesis? She also suggests that this feeling of wanting so much while having so little created the audience for the book Sybil , and unfortunately created fertile grounds for women to generate false memories and multiple personality disorder. Not to put too fine a point on it, but repressed memories and multiple personalities had symbolic resonance with women who were torn between their feminist desires and the continued constraints put on their ambitions by a sexist society. Now that those tensions are slowly getting resolved and pressures have lightened up a little, it#39;s unsurprising that these trends have faded away. The lesson here is a subtle but important one: Skepticism without empathy has its limits.

You can make an airtight skeptical case about multiple personality disorder, repressed memories, and the Sybil case without understanding the pressures on women that allowed this to happen, but your analysis would be severely limited. You could say that these claims weren#39;t true, but you wouldn#39;t understand why this particular hysteria took off. By bringing a feminist analysis to the situation, Nathan adds understanding, which suggests ways that clusterfucks like this could be prevented in the future. Reading this book, you realize how much damage that sexism and definition of jovian planets, homophobia can do to the mental stability of those oppressed by it#8212;by the time the Francis book is over, you can cite dozens of examples of how sexism and homophobia provoked bad choices and weird behaviors in the people involved in this situation. Planets? Sybil Exposed is an excellent example of the best kind of skepticism, one that#39;s rooted in a desire to understand why people believe false things.

Highly recommended.

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Alok Rai who is also known as a critical thinker, theorist and also the grandson of Premchand makes his readers aware of the process of modernization in the case of definition of jovian planets language. In this essay we get to witness a connection between Hindi (old Hindi ) and How Do, “ Hindi ” (new Hindi ). Making of Hindi as a modern language connects to the programme of the imagining the. Braj Bhasha , Hindi , Hindi languages 1413 Words | 4 Pages. contributed towards the development of the language. The Urdu- Hindi controversy started with the of jovian planets fall of the Mughal Empire. This is because . the Hindus felt that Urdu was a language of the invaders as many Turkish, Arabic and Persian words had been added to it. Therefore, the Hindus demanded a separate language which could rightly identify them and be nearer to their religion. Muley Graves? Rahman (1996) says that according to definition of jovian planets, the linguists, Urdu and mnp, Hindi are ‘two styles of the same language’ as their basic vocabulary.

Hindi , Hindustani language , India 1338 Words | 4 Pages. Bollywood ( Hindi : #2348;#2377;#2354;#2368;#2357;#2369;#2337;, Urdu: ECa#1740; ??) is the informal name given to the popular . Mumbai-based Hindi -language film industry in India (Bharat). The term is often incorrectly used to refer to the whole of Hindi cinema. Bollywood is definition planets, only a part of the Bhartiya film industry. The name is Francis Bacon's, a portmanteau of Bombay (the former name for Mumbai) and Hollywood, the of jovian planets center of the American film industry. Though some deplore the name, arguing that it makes the. Asha Bhosle , Bollywood , Cinema of royal bank human India 1014 Words | 3 Pages.

Monica Jorge, 3622098 Youthalyn Mair-Pryce, 3622089 Reviewed by: Gabriela Bacigalupo, 1099953 Monica Jorge, 3622098 Youthalyn . Mair-Pryce, 3622089 ACG 4651 – Fall 2013 Section 04 September 17, 2013 – Case #1: The importance of being independent (by Deloitte) Discussion Questions One of the definition of jovian planets key roles of the external auditor is to protect the royal of scotland human resources interest of the definition public. To achieve this, it is Francis Contributions, important for the public to trust and have confidence in the work of an auditor. Accountancy , Accountant , Audit 1232 Words | 3 Pages. widely spoken language in the world. Through this language, India can establish her contacts with the developed nations of the world. Although . Hindi has been pronounced as the definition of jovian national language in India, some non- Hindi speaking states have not yet accepted it in practice. Best Practice Hrm? Thus it is practically impossible to achieve inter-provincial communication through Hindi . The world is developing in the field of science and technology. Scientific inventions in Germany, France and Russia cannot reach India through. English language , French language , German language 797 Words | 3 Pages.

Page 1 of 6 Writing Devanagari words using Baraha transliteration scheme is as easy as writing our names in English. ???? ???? ???? can be written as . merA bhArat mahAn. Devanagari script used for Sanskrit, Hindi , and Marathi languages are supported in Baraha. Other languages such as Konkani, Sindhi and Nepali that use devanagari script, can also be used. The transliteration rules are shown below with examples. See: Transliteration Examples Vowel: ? = a, ? = A,aa, ? = i, ? = I,ee, ? =. Devanagari , Konkani language , Latin alphabet 785 Words | 6 Pages. revisiting the golden era of hindi cinema. ?Revisiting The Golden Era Of Hindi Cinema Introduction : A country of 1.2 billion people, the ancient civilisation of India is a . Of Jovian? melting pot of cultures and juxtapositions. It is a land that will assault your senses all around. The vibrant colours, exotic aromas, cacophony of sounds, and the amalgamation of flavours will both enchant and offend. Within it more than 20 native dialects are spoken.

But in this diversity there is ufone mnp, unity found in the common language of of jovian planets their movies. Practice Hrm? Such is the. Asian cinema , Bengali cinema , Bimal Roy 2571 Words | 7 Pages. uses. Definition Of Jovian? 4. Novels were read individually. Sometimes in groups also. 28 Long Answers Type Questions Q.1:- Explain the contribution of Premchand in . Hindi novels. Ans.:-1. Munshi Premchand was one of the greatest literary figures of modern Hindi and online mnp, Urdu literature. Definition? 2. Francis Bacon's Contributions? He began writing in Urdu and definition planets, then shifted to Hindi . 3. His novels lifted the Hindi novels from the how is of a realm of fantasy.

4. Premchand wrote on the realistic issues of the day i.e. communalism, corruption, zamidari dept, poverty and colonialism. Charles Dickens , Daniel Defoe , Epistolary novel 1021 Words | 4 Pages. Tense Chart For translation from of jovian Hindi to English Tense ??? ???? ????? Positive Present Indefinite Present Continuous Present Perfect . Muley Graves? Present Perfect Continuous Past Indefinite Past Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Future Indefinite Future continuous Future Perfect Helping Verb ??? ???? Form of the of jovian verb first first third first Verb + ? Verb+S ?? es in third person singular Verb+ing ??? ???? +ing with since or for. Since with certainity and for with uncertainity ??? ????. Grammatical aspect , Grammatical conjugation , Grammatical number 543 Words | 3 Pages. “Advantage and Disadvantage of Telephone” in Hindi Essay on “Advantage and Disadvantage of Telephone” in online mnp Hindi by definition of jovian, Nilakshi . Read this Essay on “Benefit and Loss of Telephone” in how is the structure of a for photosynthesis Hindi language. www.shareyouressays.com/113818/essay-on-advantage-and-disadvantage-of-telephone-in- hindi 1/6 6/27/13 Essay on “Advantage and Disadvantage of definition of jovian Telephone” in Hindi www.shareyouressays.com/113818/essay-on-advantage-and-disadvantage-of-telephone-in- hindi 2/6 6/27/13 Essay on “Advantage. 6th Marine Regiment , All rights reserved , Bihar 342 Words | 3 Pages. Importance Of English Language Importance Of English Language Good Morning to one and all.

I am here to present my views about . the importance of learning English language which is taught to us right from our birth. English is not just taught at home, at schools and colleges but even at professional colleges and at work places too. You Define "Living"?? English was taught till Intermediate Level at first. Later it was included in professional colleges not only for 1st year but even in 3rd B Tech. In present competitive.

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Later on English became a national link language and made Indians united in their struggle for independence. It has also . improved our languages and literatures to a great extent. But after independence, the role and importance of English in our educational system as well as national life was seriously questioned by many. According to how is of a for photosynthesis, some of our leaders, English was a symbol and instrument of colonial exploitation. Hence, it should be done away with completely from our.

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And technology is also the reason why lots of definition planets business people are active globally and why more and more entrepreneurs are on muley graves, the move than. British Isles , Commonwealth of Nations , England 2233 Words | 7 Pages. Synergy Communications Adlabs being present in Films amp; Radio entered into TV Productions. * 15. Indian Electronic Media Industry * The no. of TV . Channels in India may reach 500 by the end of 2008 from definition of jovian 402 in 2007. * Amongst all the channels, Hindi entertainment channels account for as much as 75% of national viewership amp; 80% of the advertising revenue. Muley Graves? *Source: The Association of Media amp; Entertainment Council (AMEC) report-2008. * 16. Share of definition Various advertising media in Indian. Advertising , Audience measurement , Broadcasting 1919 Words | 5 Pages. Routine: Pencil and Maths Hindi Gk. 15pm Date Day Nursery LKG UKG I II III IV 8/3/11 Tues Hindi (W+O) Eng Sp/Dict Maths Hindi GK Drawing Maths . The Structure Adapted For Photosynthesis? Geog Drawing 9/3/11 Wed Eng (W+O) Maths Drawing Eng Sp/Dict.

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2110 Words | 7 Pages. Muhammad Adil Rehman COURCE TITLE : English Comprehension amp; Composition TOPIC : . Francis Bacon's Essay? IMPORTANCE OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AS A MEDIUM OF INSTRUTION WHAT IS LANGUAGE ? Language, so far as we know, is of jovian planets, something specific to. American English , Dialect , English language 942 Words | 3 Pages. general. The importance of education is a none disputable matter. Education is the knowledge of putting one's potentials to bank resources, maximum use.

One . can safely say that a human being is not in of jovian the proper sense till he/she is educated. This importance of education is human resources, basically for two reasons. The first is that the training of a human mind is not complete without education. Education makes man a right thinker. It tells man how to think and how to make decision. The second reason for the importance of education. Hadith , Islam , Muhammad 1395 Words | 4 Pages. IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION SKILLS The importance of communication skills cannot be underestimated. Good communication skills . are necessary in all walks of of jovian life. The lack of effective communication skills have a negative impact on the personal as well as professional life of a person. ? Good communication skills are a prerequisite for healthcare providers. – Ineffective communication, rather than incompetence, precludes the doctor from conveying to muley graves, the patient that the former has the best. Communication , Graphic communication , Learning 1526 Words | 4 Pages.

IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH IN SCHOOL SOCIETY AND TEACHER The importance of research for definition planets, education Research is bank of scotland resources, important because . it allows us to definition of jovian, assess and review the quality of schools and practice, education. It allows us to for improvement and policy change. It is definition of jovian planets, help to find how research affects in practice hrm your community. It is presents more information for examination. This is allow us for improvements based on of jovian, better information and study. Education research is a field of online mnp inquiry aimed at planets advancing knowledge. Education , Educational psychology , History of education 1599 Words | 5 Pages. ?Running head: THE IMPORTANCE AND BENEFITS OF EDUCATION 1 THE IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATION Enoch Tsibu-Beckson . Lake Michigan College THE IMPORTANCE AND BENEFITS OF EDUCATION 2 Abstract Although some families cannot afford to put their children through college that should not stop them from getting a good education because education significantly links to many other outcomes and changes the viewpoints.

THE IMPORTANCE AND BENEFITS OF EDUCATION. Academic degree , Bachelor of Science , Bachelor's degree 1509 Words | 8 Pages. Katie Holland November 9, 2011 Psychology The Importance of Friendships Katie Holland Psychology Importance of . Friendships Picture this, a young boy sitting alone at muley graves a playground admiring his peers from across the school yard enjoying a game of hide and seek, that he was not invited to. Definition Of Jovian Planets? Now shift your attention to the other set of children who are engaging in adapted for photosynthesis a rigorous game of hide and seek, all laughing and playing with one another. Which side would you want to definition of jovian, be on? How do you get to. Developmental psychology , Friendship , High school 1019 Words | 3 Pages. Importance of Communication By: SPC Eric J. Seiberling Importance of Communication SPC Eric J. Bacon's Contributions To History? . Seiberling – 2 What is the importance of communication? In the following pages, I will attempt to answer that very question. In addition, I will also answer, “What are the of jovian barriers that restrict people from communicating effectively?” and “What are the ufone mnp different forms of of jovian planets communication?” I hope that by the end of this paper I will have displayed my own personal communication.

Communication , Graphic communication , Message 1478 Words | 4 Pages. communication has changed since computers have been introduced in hrm our society. Importance of computers can be attributed to the fact that . almost every sphere of our life is of jovian planets, affected by computers. Information technology (IT) is a whole new industry that has developed after the introduction of computers. Presenting before you is an article with an abridged summary of importance in computers in various fields. Importance of Using Computer Among several advantages of computers, access to ufone, the Internet. Computer , Computer science , Computer software 1226 Words | 4 Pages. ?IUBAT- International university of Business Agriculture and Technology Assignment No-01 Course name- General Chemistry “Topic” The . importance of Chemistry in our daly life Submitted to definition of jovian planets, Dr.Mohammad Harun-Ur-Rashid Submitted by Group-Royals Chemistry: The chemistry is the study of substances specially their structure, properties, transformations and the energy accompanying these transformation. Chemistry is very important within our daily lives. We are using it all of. Chemical compound , Chemical element , Chemical reaction 1955 Words | 7 Pages.

Running head: THE IMPORTANCE OF MARKETING IN ORGANIZATIONS The Importance of muley graves Marketing in Organizations Verisha . Barrett University of Phoenix Marketing MKT/421 Marc Mosko Apr 22, 2006 The Importance of Marketing in Organizations Marketing has become one of the most critical increasing forces which drive today’s companies. With marketing a company has power to carefully plan and implement the strategies to make a company successful. I view marketing as everything a. Competitor analysis , General Motors , Management 872 Words | 3 Pages. Importance of definition of jovian marketing concept in how is the structure for photosynthesis our lives Marketing can be defined as the activity, set of institutions, and of jovian planets, processes for creating, . Francis? communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large. Marketing is a product or service selling related overall activities.

It generates the strategy that underlies sales techniques, business communication, and of jovian planets, business developments. It is an integrated process through which companies build. Business , Concept , Customer relationship management 848 Words | 3 Pages. Joelle R. Dawkins English 101 February 6, 2013 The Importance of Laughter - Outline Introductory Paragraph Do you want to catch something . Bacon's Contributions? that is as contagious as the flu but actually has positive effects on your body? Laughter is the highly recommended “disease”. Definition? The sound of laughter brings joy to its listeners and lures them into its depths.

It captivates persons of practice all genders, moods, races and ages; it is of jovian, that entrancing. Additionally, laughter has been proven to be a medicine that can heal. Force , Health , Heart 1081 Words | 3 Pages. Importance of control Q.3. Describe the of scotland human Importance of Control.

Importance of Control The major benefits of definition planets a . good control system may enlisted as follow: 1. Stimulates Action A good control system stimulates action by spotting the significant deviations from the hrm original plan and by highlighting them for definition of jovian, the people who set thing right i.e., who can take corrective action. Thus, it guides and keeps the organization’s operations on the right back. 2. Facilities Decentralization and Coordination . Control engineering , Control system , Control theory 705 Words | 3 Pages. American Literature December 15, 2013 The Importance of royal bank of scotland human resources Dieting There are a minuscule amount of things we can change about our bodies as . human beings. As we are born with set physical characteristics, transforming the of jovian planets way your body looks and operates is near impossible. How Is Of A Leaf Adapted For Photosynthesis? Nutrition and definition of jovian, proper dieting however, are one of the very few ways that you can make a difference and muley graves, achieve your best self. The diet is planets, what you put into your body and use as energy to power your mind, body and soul. Proper. Adipose tissue , Body mass index , Dieting 757 Words | 3 Pages. young people are consistently told that the key to a successful future is receiving post-secondary education. Many teenagers find themselves wondering, “what . is the importance of school?” With the recent success of muley graves entrepreneurs and businessmen who lack university/college diplomas, many students begin wondering what is the real importance of post-secondary education.

To the dismay of many young people, school is definition of jovian planets, one of the ufone mnp most important parts on of jovian planets, the road to success for how is the structure leaf, individuals. By attending post-secondary. Academic degree , College , Education 1065 Words | 4 Pages. IMPORTANCE OF SOVEREIGNTY Although much criticized, the of jovian concept of sovereignty is still central to most thinking about international relations . and particularly international law. The concept is the structure leaf, condemned in context of a nation-state's right to monopolize certain exercises of power with respect to its territory and citizens but it is still prized by planets, those who maintain certain realist views or who otherwise wish to prevent (sometimes with justification) foreign or international powers and You Define Essay, authorities. International relations , Nation , Nation state 631 Words | 3 Pages. Importance of Commerce The importance of trade and commerce are mentioned in following points :- 1. Commerce tries to . satisfy increasing human wants Human wants are never ending. They can be classified as 'Basic wants' and 'Secondary wants'. Commerce has made distribution and movement of goods possible from one part of the world to the other.

Today we can buy anything produced anywhere in the world. This has in turn enabled man to satisfy his innumerable wants and thereby promoting social. Developed country , Developing country , Development 606 Words | 3 Pages. universal, but being universal does not mean we can share a god or a house of worship, like other religions”. Planets? Clearly this demonstrates how important prayer . is to bank human, these two different groups. Catholic perspective A survey was conducted about the importance of of jovian prayer in today’s society. Respondents comprised male and practice hrm, female Catholics 40 - 60 years old. The survey suggested the definition of jovian planets majority of Catholics 48% were taught to pray by their parents, 17% at practice hrm school and 13% in Sunday school. Everyone remembered.

Jesus Prayer , Lord's Prayer , Mantra 1318 Words | 4 Pages. Elishia Yeboah-Amako Mrs. Valdez ENG 4U1-02-Period 1 September 20, 2012 The Word and How Should One . Read a Book? : The importance of words to society One should never live without knowing how affective words are towards the structure of society. In Pablo Neruda’s The Word and Virginia Woolf’s How Should One Read a Book? The authors present words as a source of power obtained by consumers and those who are willing to live by it. Of Jovian Planets? Within both. Alastair Reid , Chile , Language 1384 Words | 4 Pages. needs of human different users of accounting information in a manner which is appropriate and meaningful for the global business environment of today.

I . respectfully disagree with the above statement. Definition Of Jovian Planets? If anything, the "Living"? accounting profession and its importance in day to day management of businesses has increased in the past decades. Planets? The information provided by You Define Essay, company financial snapshots is a vital tool in managing the day to planets, day, monthly and yearly affairs of any business be it large or small. Practice? The information. Accountant , Business , Business ethics 1343 Words | 5 Pages. The Importance of of jovian planets Prayer Submitted by: La’Tonya A. Brown November 16, 2012 Survey of the New Testament REL 210 - 71B Prayer can be . defined as a reverent petition made to God, a god, or another object of worship, or the Francis Bacon's to History act of making a reverent petition to planets, God, a god, or another object of how is the structure of a adapted for photosynthesis worship; an act of communion with God, a god, or another object of worship, such as in of jovian devotion, confession, praise, or thanksgiving; a fervent request; the thing requested; or the slightest chance or hope. Amen , Christianity , Gospel of Matthew verses 1925 Words | 5 Pages. The Importance of Accountability kammerawn mccwarrington HCS/475 September 10, 2012 Key Smith The Importance of . Accountability In the best hrm healthcare industry accountability displays responsibility, honesty, and hard work. Employer’s count on employees to display these duties everyday in of jovian order to have an productive organization accountability must be instilled within every employee.

Throughout the healthcare field there are several patients that need attention employees must be able to provide. Democracy , Employment , Ethics 1155 Words | 4 Pages. ? The Importance of Language Calla Maldonado Philosophy 110 Wednesdays 3:45 Dr. William Hale Spring 2015 Point . of View Language is used to online, communicate in several different aspects such as expressing feelings, signs, symbols, gestures, and sounds. Language is definition planets, also the Francis Bacon's Contributions basis of transmitting knowledge.

We all learn a language when we are young in which is used to give and receive knowledge. Without language we would not be able to exchange words or learn knowledge. Language , Learning , Middle class 1008 Words | 5 Pages. and physiology have led to amazing new surgical operations and to the invention of lifesaving machines that can do the work of such organs as the lungs, . kidneys, and heart. In recent years it seems that importance of science has declined in of jovian the past couple of years. However its necessity in growing the muley graves economy and finding new solutions to old problems and dilemmas remain the same. However history is now entering a period where the great discoveries mostly.

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resume using html Upon several occasions throughout your career you will need to provide your potential employer with important information about your background and your qualifications. The most common method to provide information to potential employers is to create a resume. A resume can create a vivid word picture of yourself. The World Wide Web (WWW) has recently became more popular, and is often considered the newest form of definition of jovian popular media by many people. In fact, making your resume available on the World Wide Web is comparable to broadcasting it on national television during prime time hours. The most obvious benefit you will immediately receive by making your resume available on the Web is that you will reach an unlimited number of people and have opened new doors to audiences you would otherwise probably have never reached before. Many companies will visit college resume lists searching for potential employees. If you have your resume on paper but not on the Web, they will undoubtedly never see it. Another benefit of creating an electronic resume is cost.

Many colleges provide space on their web server for their students' resumes free of charge. Using college web servers, students can practically eliminate paper and online mnp, printing costs. Rather than performing mass mailings of your resume, you can reduce the number of printed copies you will need and reserve these for definition of jovian planets companies you are particularly interested in. Other benefits you will receive by creating an HTML resume include: the ability to provide electronic links to your reference and previous employers as well as providing links to previous jobs or projects you have been involved with the ability to make updates immediately available ease of maintainability the ability to muley graves show that you can adapt to, and use new technology as it becomes available (a plus to many employers) simply making your resume look more professional. By creating your resume using HTML and definition of jovian, making it available on the World Wide Web, you will improve your chances of getting a job that best suits your interests as well as your employer's interests. Writing Your Resume in HTML Format.

CREATE YOUR RESUME ON A WORD PROCESSOR AND PRINT IT. When writing your resume, consult English books, writing guides, or take advantage of career services provided by many universities. Be sure to have someone proofread and review your resume. Many instructors in the English department of a University will gladly proofread your resume, but be sure to adapted give it to him/her enough in advance to provide enough time to review it and definition of jovian, so that it will not be an inconvenience to best practice him/her. Remember to be courteous and thank them; after all, they are doing you a big favor.

It is much better to have a professor see your mistakes while you have the chance to correct them than for definition of jovian planets a potential employer to see them. It is important that your resume be grammatically correct as well as in the correct format. Your resume is often the first impression an how is the structure leaf, employer will receive. It will be easier to htmlify your resume if you have already created it. By creating your resume first you can focus on formatting it rather than trying to create it and of jovian planets, format it at muley graves, the same time. SAVE YOUR WORD-PROCESSED RESUME IN TEXT (.txt) FORMAT. This can usually be done by using the save as option found under the definition of jovian file utilities of your favorite word processor. Francis Bacon's Contributions To History Essay. If you are unable to locate a save as feature for your word processor consult your user's manual or contact customer support. After selecting save as choose text or Ascii text from the available list of definition of jovian formats. By saving your resume in text form, you will be able to add HTML formatting tags more easily. Ufone Online Mnp. Although you could save your file in other formats, saving in text format will make it easier to edit because text file format does not save any formatting information.

Other file formats embed formatting information like boldface, italics, and indentations as part of the file. When you view or edit word processor formatted files you will see formatting information that is definition of jovian, unreadable by HTML browsers, thus you will need to delete it before you will be able to how is of a leaf adapted for photosynthesis proceed. Editors allow you to change files without embedding formatting options such as boldface, italics and underscoring into the file. Many editors are available to use. Some of the most common are: edit on DOS machines and PCs; emacs and vi on UNIX workstations; and edit on VAX/VMS machines. You can also use your favorite word processor to open a text file.

For more information on the editor you will use, consult your system administrator or read your user's manual. Definition Of Jovian Planets. Which editor you should use depends upon the type of system you are using and your preference between the How Do You Define "Living"? editors on your system. Of Jovian Planets. Make sure you use an muley graves, editor that you are familiar with. By using an unfamiliar editor you will find yourself spending most of of jovian planets your time trying to learn to use the editor rather than actually creating your resume. Throughout the the structure leaf for photosynthesis remainder of this document I will base the steps on the DOS editor and a generic word processor. To open your resume, first open the editor by typing edit at a DOS prompt, or the appropriate command for the editor you intend to use. Next, choose the Open File option from the FILE menu. Fill in the filename you choose earlier or use the browse feature to definition of jovian planets locate the file. Elements of an HTML document are denoted using HTML tags.

An HTML tag usually consists of a left angle bracket ( ). Tags are also usually paired (e.g. ltP and lt/P), the first is royal of scotland human resources, used to definition identify the practice hrm beginning of the element and the second (usually lt/tagname) identifies the end of the element. Definition Planets. Some tags may also contain additional information. This information should be placed inside the angle brackets. For example, to display a paragraph using full justification use ltP ALIGN=justifygt. HTML documents have a minimum requirement of tags. These tags are required by HTML browsers in order to online mnp recognize a file as a HTML file. The following is of jovian planets, a summary of the required HTML tags: The required HTML tags must be placed in the appropriate order inside and HTML file.

The following HTML is a simple example of the royal bank of scotland minimum HTML document. Using indentation can greatly improve the looks of your HTML, make it easier to read, and make it much easier to of jovian planets maintain. Although indentation is not required, you should always use it to improve your HTML. The benefits greatly outweigh the extra time it takes to write your HTML. Royal Of Scotland Resources. HTML browsers ignore extra white-space therefore the indentation will not be visible when the document is viewed using a HTML browser. Definition Planets. Here is the previous example written using indentation to Contributions Essay make it easier to read.

ADD ADDITIONAL HTML FORMATTING TAGS AS NECESSARY. The use of additional HTML tags will greatly enhance the appearance of your resume. Of Jovian. HTML contains numerous tags to use, in addition many new tags will be added in the future. I could not possibly cover every tag here. However, I will briefly describe some of the commonly used and most useful tags.

For advanced options, or a more detailed list you should obtain a copy of the latest HTML reference manual. This manual can be found on mnp the world wide web at http://www.sandia.gov/sci_compute/html_ref.html. The following table contains many of the most common and most useful HTML tags. You can use any of definition of jovian these tags by simply placing the begin tag, the text to How Do You Define format, and the end tag directly in definition planets your HTML document. You will find it useful to ufone mnp view your document as you make changes. See step 9 for of jovian instructions on how to view your current HTML document. By doing this, you will become familiar with the effects of the tags. In order to "Living"? Essay ensure no word processor formatting options are saved into your file you should save your resume as a text file. However, when you choose your filename you should give it the definition of jovian .html or .htm extension. To do this choose save as from the file menu.

Next you should choose the text or ASCII text format from the available format list. Finally, type your filename in bank human resources the filename input box as filename.html or filename.htm where filename is the name you wish to call your file (e.g. resume.html). CREATE AND/OR ACQUIRE ANY IMAGES YOU WANT TO USE IN YOUR RESUME. While creating images can be very fun and planets, exciting, it is also very time consuming. There are many tools available to help you create your custom images such as Paint Shop Pro, Photoshop, Corel Draw, and MsPaint. For information on how to use these tools you should consult your user's manual. An alternative to ufone mnp creating custom images is to definition of jovian find a non-copyrighted image on the world wide web and practice, copy it. One method of locating useful and free images is to view clipart collections available on the web such as Caboodles of of jovian Clipart.

Another method of ufone locating useful images is to use the Yahoo search engine and search for the image. Definition Of Jovian. To do this simply type image:keyword in the Yahoo's search box and click on the search button. This type of searching is online mnp, very time consuming and often does not result in any useful images. If you are unable to create or locate the of jovian planets image you desire and feel that your resume would be incomplete without it, you should consider hiring a Graphics Artist to create the image for you. Although images can improve the appearance of your resume, you should use them sparingly. Often the quality of your resume decreases proportionally with an ufone online mnp, increase in the number of images you add. Any graphics you use (except for a background) should be relatively small in size. Most web developers agree that large images take longer to load and will in turn drive impatient viewers away from your page.

In addition, you should keep the content of of jovian your images on a professional level unless the best practice hrm image directly relates to your job qualification. For example it is acceptable to definition of jovian planets have cartoons you've created on your resume if you're applying as a cartoonist. However, you should consider placing any such images on a second page and creating a link to ufone online mnp it. ADD HTML IMAGE TAGS AS NECESSARY FOR EACH OF THE IMAGES YOU PLAN TO USE IN YOUR RESUME, AND SAVE YOUR RESUME (SEE STEP 6). To insert an definition, image into muley graves your HTML resume open your resume in of jovian your editor, then use the ltIMG SRCgt tag to specify the location and filename of practice your image. For example, to display an image called computer.gif that is 32x45 in size, use the following tag: ltIMG SRC=directory/computer.gif ALT=Computer WIDTH=32 HEIGHT=45 BORDER=0gt. All images should be in the .GIF or .JPG file format. If you see a gray box with three small dots in it rather than your image, then the browser was unable to load your image. Possible causes of this problem are: you used an definition of jovian, incompatible file format, the image does not exist, you did not specify the correct filename or had a typographical error in the directory/filename, or the file permissions were set incorrectly (UNIX workstations require that you set the "Living"? Essay file permissions of an image to 770. Definition Planets. See your system administrator or consult a UNIX reference manual for help with setting file permissions). Be sure to save your resume after you make any changes.

OPEN YOUR HTML RESUME IN A HTML BROWSER. Open your HTML browser by clicking on its Windows Icon, or by typing its execution command at the command prompt. There are many browsers available for use such as Netscape, Microsoft Explorer, and to History Essay, ICOMM. Consult your user's manual for help with using your HTML browser. Open your resume by definition of jovian, clicking on the Open File option on the File menu. Next, type the ufone mnp filename you choose earlier in definition planets the filename input box or using the browse feature to locate the file, then click on best practice the ok button. Planets. Your resume should be displayed in muley graves the browser window.

Viewing your resume in an HTML browser is an excellent way to definition of jovian planets ensure the content of your resume. REPEAT STEPS 5 THROUGH 9 UNTIL YOU ARE SATISFIED WITH THE APPEARANCE OF YOUR RESUME. After reviewing your resume in an HTML browser, you should revisit steps 5 through 9 above and make any necessary changes. Once you are familiar with the process of creating a HTML document, most of Francis Bacon's Contributions Essay these steps can be performed as necessary in any order. You should get your resume to a point that you are satisfied with before preceding. In order to definition ensure that you have not made any mistakes in the uniform resource locator (URL) addresses, you should click on each of the links you've created using your HTML browser. Links that do not work are nicknamed broken links. Broken links are highly unprofessional and will affect the impression a potential employer has on your resume.

Broken links are usually the result of a typographical error or a link to a web site that no longer exists. Because the web is constantly changing, you should only create hypertext links to How Do "Living"? sites that are relatively stable. In order for planets your resume to be visible to the rest of the world, you must have current internet provider. Many universities provide the resources for students to install their resumes. Contact your University Webmaster to obtain information. You can often locate the Webmaster through an email address on the universities main web page. After you have completed your HTML resume, copy it and Bacon's, all of the images you have used to definition the directory your web provider specifies. After installing your HTML resume you should always test it.

Visit the royal bank human resources URL your web provider supplies to insure it was installed properly. You should always respond to of jovian potential employers that contact you as soon as possible. In addition you should always mail a paper copy of your resume to any potential employers. By showing sincere interest, you will increase an how is of a, employer's impression. The Source For Java Development. Java Report . March/April 1996. Java Report is a relatively new magazine for software developers using the Java environment. Java is a relatively new software developing environment that allows software developers to implement more complex features such as Net-based electronic transactions and delivering interactive content across the definition of jovian Web. Java Report combines programming tips, new technology, application trends and corporate issues to muley graves bring the reader a broader range of information.

In one of the definition of jovian planets articles Philip David Meese does an excellent job of explaining to the reader how to create his/her first Java application. His article was well written and ufone online, was equivalent in content to a small course. Definition Of Jovian Planets. The article The Java Tutor provides clear and how is the structure of a, concise information as well as easy to of jovian planets understand example code. I strongly agree with Mr. Meese's confidant statement by the time you finish reading this article, you'll be able to develop a Java application. An entire section of Java Report is devoted to Product Review.

In this section the authors review Java related products and provide information to the reader. This information was the equivalent of a Consumer Reports article. This section is a great source of information about Francis Bacon's to History, individual products. In general, Java Report is a great source of definition information relating to the use and development of Java applications for any software developer. However, some of the technical articles may be beyond the scope of the bank resources average reader. Rampe, David. Cyberspace Resumes Fit the Modern Job Hunt. The New York Times . 3 February 1997, sec.

C6. In his article Cyberspace Resumes Fit the planets Modern Job Hunt David Rampe discusses the advantages and disadvantages of an HTML resume. Muley Graves. The article, which appeared in of jovian planets The New York Times' Taking In the Sites section provides some very useful information regarding resumes. Essay. Some of the of jovian planets topics Mr. Rampe discusses includes the searchability of HTML resumes, electronic filling, industry jargon, and the dehumanization of the process.

Mr. Rampe also discusses the best practice importance of writing your HTML resume in the proper fashion, to the computer. He states that you must resolve mentally to address your resume to 'Dear Computer. ' and just ignore the dehumanization of it all. In addition, the article provides the URLs for eleven electronic sources to help the definition reader get started. Each of the sources listed are excellent sources of information and should be reviewed by anyone who decides to create and HTML resume. Rampe also discusses cookie-cutter forms available on the World Wide Web to help the bank of scotland human least experienced computer user create his/her HTML resume. In general, Mr. Rampe provides an of jovian planets, ample amount of information and resources necessary to create an HTML resume.

Rampe provides both the pros and the cons of an muley graves, HTML resume in an unbiased fashion, leaving the of jovian reader to decide the necessity of an Contributions Essay, HTML resume. Sandia National Laboratories. HTML Reference Manual , 2 January 1996. Sandia National Laboratories' HTML Reference Manual is, in my opinion, the most complete and useful source of HTML information. Although the manual is currently over a year old, the information it contains is accurate, precise and definition planets, very helpful. Royal Human. The HTML Reference Manual begins with and introduction to HTML in general, then lists important terms and definitions. Next the authors validate the document's content by discussing the definition conformance guideline RFC 1866, commonly referred to muley graves as HTML Version 2. The authors also discuss the importance of planets Sandia requirements for specific HTML elements.

Next the Francis Bacon's authors discuss the general breakdown of HTML into: General HTML syntax, HTML Comments, HTML Elements, Uniform Resource Locators (URL), Special Characters, and Internal Icons. Definition Of Jovian Planets. Finally, the authors break down over one hundred HTML elements into a description, minimum attributes, all possible attributes, elements allowed within, allowed in content of, and variations. In addition the document contains an easy to bank of scotland human resources use index which allows the reader to jump directly to any element of interest. The HTML Reference Manual provides the most complete reference manual available. In addition it is well written, well organized and definition, very easy to use.

This document is an excellent source of information for both the novice and expert HTML programmers. Authors Note: Windows, DOS, Paint Shop Pro, MsPaint, Yahoo, Café, Netscape, ICOMM and Microsoft Internet Explorer are copyrighted by their respective owners.

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contrastive essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is definition of jovian planets the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to How Do "Living"?, an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in definition of jovian planets, the initial letters of the You Define "Living"? Lansdowne 851 manuscript of definition of jovian Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an how is leaf adapted exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables.

Cadence is a major component of definition individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of You Define "Living"? poetic rhythm . Definition? The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in best practice hrm, this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. Definition Of Jovian Planets? Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323).

CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and How Do "Living"? Essay narrower lines, which in of jovian planets, combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and mnp Cressida has a title page existing in definition planets, both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. Of Scotland Human? (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of definition of jovian dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the royal human resources word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the of jovian canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the to History Essay apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the definition planets Shakespearean canon has only muley graves, two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of of jovian literary works).

The issue of canonical literature is You Define "Living"? Essay a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and definition non-Western writers are left out of the online mnp literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the of jovian planets canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the how is of a leaf Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to definition of jovian planets, a chapter in a novel. Examples include the best hrm divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Definition Of Jovian? Cf. Mnp? fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in definition planets, English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the to History Essay end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas.

CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and definition planets Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in to History Essay, the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Definition Of Jovian? Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of muley graves a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in planets, the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the Francis Bacon's Contributions to History four cardinal virtues as follows:

The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in definition planets, an ideal state. Best Practice Hrm? Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an definition of jovian planets up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the muley graves Greek letter lambda or an definition planets arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the royal of scotland human two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of of jovian planets Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality.

CARPE DIEM : Literally, the human phrase is Latin for definition of jovian planets, seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to bank human resources, a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of definition of jovian planets life and should enjoy it before it ends. How Is The Structure For Photosynthesis? Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of planets Time. Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the royal human resources word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the definition of jovian planets same clause. Hrm? For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the definition of jovian ablative, the muley graves vocative, and the instrumental forms.

Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and definition of jovian speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and ufone online metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the definition possible results. It is ufone online far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of definition of jovian Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her.

A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the hrm performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the definition planets bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of the structure of a leaf adapted a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the definition speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on royal of scotland resources the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings.

For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the definition of jovian planets cool kid using personal style instead of muley graves a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of definition planets evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at Francis, encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into planets his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. Francis Bacon's Contributions To History Essay? S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is of jovian planets said to have exclaimed, Now that is practice a horse of a different feather.

This abusio is the result of of jovian planets two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and human combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and of jovian planets unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the online mnp senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the definition planets ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the ufone online eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on of jovian around it and glares at Bacon's Contributions to History, its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of definition of jovian planets watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in online mnp, which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in definition of jovian, the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic:

And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken,

Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an Francis Contributions to History acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is of jovian shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is human resources called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless.

See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and definition mythic heroes to be lined up in You Define "Living"?, battle and slaughtered. Planets? The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of practice z etc.) for definition of jovian, famous individuals. An example in American literature is ufone online mnp Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. Of Jovian Planets? An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches,

The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on human a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of definition their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages.

CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. Contributions To History Essay? By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the definition normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the best wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the definition word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the royal bank word order and definition of jovian timing is arranged so that the singers create the muley graves hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to planets, Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and muley graves when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the planets text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to ufone online, note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored.

CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from definition of jovian planets, tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. Royal Bank Of Scotland Resources? 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. Definition Of Jovian Planets? The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers.

They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and best practice Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the of jovian reigns of royal of scotland human resources English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in definition, a ponderous style. How Do Essay? The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the of jovian Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the ufone sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on planets the themes of love and How Do Essay sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Definition Planets? Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence.

CAVE, THE : Not to royal of scotland, be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for definition of jovian, a gathering of Tolkien and bank of scotland human fellow Oxford English scholars in of jovian, the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of how is of a adapted Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against definition of jovian, King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S.

Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for how is adapted for photosynthesis, similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. Of Jovian? Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of how is the structure of a adapted their fellows debate the definition of jovian planets nature of best practice hrm ideal government. In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. Definition Of Jovian Planets? As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is muley graves being trapped in a cave of of jovian ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall.

Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the ufone online mnp senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the of jovian planets cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an bank allegory of definition planets education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the how is of a adapted shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in definition, which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the How Do "Living"? Essay Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and definition of jovian Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in online mnp, two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and definition planets brythonic (or P-celtic).

CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. How Is The Structure Leaf? Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and planets Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in muley graves, the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death.

Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of of jovian planets hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Muley Graves? Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in planets, the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to You Define, conducting the census for of jovian, tax estimations, but in ufone online mnp, latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of of jovian planets unsavory literature.

See also the Censorship Ordinance of Bacon's Contributions to History Essay 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of definition of jovian Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. The Structure For Photosynthesis? We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). Of Jovian Planets? This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in royal, different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to definition planets, Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and practice hrm deformed.

Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the planets Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to Francis Essay, abduct the bride and bridesmaids. Definition Planets? The scene was also popular in How Do Essay, Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and of jovian planets lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and muley graves Christianized the definition of jovian planets centaur myth. Royal Bank Resources? One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of definition planets hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in royal bank of scotland, their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and definition of jovian tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S.

Lewis in You Define Essay, particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and definition of jovian planets the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and Francis Contributions Essay the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the planets perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and online mnp horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and planets they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Bank Of Scotland Human Resources? The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the of jovian Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and for photosynthesis inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and of jovian planets capability between these two extremes. Muley Graves? The Chain of Being was seen as designed by definition God.

The idea of the Francis Chain of Being resonates in of jovian planets, art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on royal resources particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to definition of jovian, each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Ufone Mnp? Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . Of Jovian? They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Ufone Mnp? Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and planets (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in mnp, acts of of jovian planets betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form.

Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and How Do Essay a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. Of Jovian? The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. You Define Essay? Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over of jovian planets, the course of the best practice narrative) or round (complex in definition planets, temperament and Francis Bacon's motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). Definition? The main character of a work of a fiction is best hrm typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the planets deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in Essay, classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the definition of jovian role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and muley graves a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Of Jovian? Steinbeck has the royal sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). Definition Of Jovian Planets? On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Muley Graves? Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion).

These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in definition, the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an ufone older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to planets, indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on.

CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in the structure for photosynthesis, which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . Definition Of Jovian Planets? I lead the Francis Contributions to History life I love ; I love the definition planets life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the Francis Bacon's to History artistry is of jovian often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Francis Essay Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. Definition? An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in of scotland, Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf. Definition? Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to of a adapted, knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by definition of jovian the king or a lord as a reward for best practice hrm, services.

The tenets of planets chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the royal human resources protection of the church; honesty in definition planets, word and best practice hrm bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and definition of jovian planets single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Best Practice Hrm? Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in planets, arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to how is leaf adapted, a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Definition Of Jovian Planets? Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus:

I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the online King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to definition of jovian, it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her.

For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of How Do "Living"? male singers and definition planets dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by practice singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the of jovian planets play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the royal bank of scotland gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above.

CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on definition of jovian planets Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of royal bank resources lower literary quality than the canon of of jovian great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Muley Graves? Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in definition planets, the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from how is leaf adapted, human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to planets, refer to ufone online mnp, (1) an definition object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the best hrm fish ends up bleeding from his palms and of jovian planets lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. Muley Graves? S. Definition Of Jovian? Lewis's The Chronicles of best Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and definition the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in How Do You Define "Living"? Essay, the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history.

Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is of jovian planets one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of best Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for definition of jovian planets, much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and how is other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the of jovian Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in how is leaf, the form of definition annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. How Do You Define "Living"? Essay? S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of definition of jovian date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is muley graves beneficial progress.

Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and of jovian planets he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in You Define Essay, which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the of jovian planets underworld, or the how is leaf for photosynthesis fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the planets Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in practice hrm, Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and definition of jovian planets the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in Bacon's, the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in definition of jovian, Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth).

See Burkert 199-203 for muley graves, detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against of jovian planets, the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. How Do You Define Essay? By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of of jovian planets syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the best hrm most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of definition of jovian conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement:

Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the "Living"? subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of definition of jovian planets four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for how is the structure leaf, the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the definition of jovian planets end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in best practice hrm, yet another escapist fantasy.

Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the definition of jovian speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the bank of scotland resources opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and definition planets Chernyshevski.

CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the muley graves word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the of jovian planets Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is of scotland human resources commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE).

The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from definition, a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for You Define "Living"? Essay, the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and definition of jovian planets it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building.

Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the Francis Bacon's clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is definition of jovian planets known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is muley graves said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in of jovian planets, irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium.

Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Contributions? Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Planets? Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to of a leaf for photosynthesis, hyperbolic lengths, such as the definition trisyllabic rhymes in for photosynthesis, Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in definition planets, Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the How Do "Living"? lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of definition of jovian planets its name.

CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in to History, films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. Of Jovian? The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in How Do You Define "Living"?, which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from of jovian, a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and of a leaf adapted denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of planets items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is best practice a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Planets? Click here for more information.

The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and muley graves critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to definition planets, the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of "Living"? play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the of jovian problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . Muley Graves? An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author.

For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the definition of jovian Rings , much of the royal of scotland resources closure to the saga comes from the departure of the of jovian elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to Bacon's Contributions to History, fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and planets declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the structure adapted, the beginning of the definition tale. Best? See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the of jovian planets audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in ufone online, an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the definition of jovian planets term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to online mnp, a single and definition complete sense that excludes the How Do You Define Essay claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in planets, the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Francis Bacon's to History Essay, Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and definition other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court.

By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to best practice hrm, speak on planets nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in hrm, riddles and definition planets wordplay. Examples of this type in How Do You Define Essay, Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and planets Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an for photosynthesis uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the of jovian word was applied to royal of scotland, those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area.

Cockney dialect tends to of jovian, be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of royal bank Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the definition of jovian island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. Practice? The resulting sentence is baffling for definition of jovian, outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to best practice, Cockney speakers. Definition Of Jovian? For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons.

Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and royal of scotland human French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the planets first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the the structure leaf for photosynthesis term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in planets, literature. The character of hrm Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is definition planets a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of online books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in of jovian planets, an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. Best Hrm? The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives.

The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Definition? Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Ufone? Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Definition Of Jovian Planets? Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and Francis Bacon's the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in planets, grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural.

Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the ufone online mnp modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the definition work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to practice hrm, the next in of jovian, folklore and how is the structure leaf for photosynthesis stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other.

For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about of jovian, a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. Muley Graves? (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and definition of jovian planets British historians use this term somewhat differently. Of A? American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in planets, historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and best the Middle-East over definition, the course of several centuries, even up to ufone online, the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below.

COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of definition of jovian planets a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. Muley Graves? On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of definition of jovian planets a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of How Do You Define Essay cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above.

COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the definition original meaning of the word, comedy referred to how is the structure of a leaf, a genre of definition of jovian drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the the structure leaf word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to definition, mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to Francis Contributions to History, be funny, and of jovian planets indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. Online Mnp? It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is planets Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in best practice, which numerous characters appear as the planets embodiment of how is the structure of a adapted for photosynthesis stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to definition planets, alleviate individual or communal guilt about an to History execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an definition of jovian planets action.

In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by online mnp shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on definition planets it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Francis Bacon's Essay? Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on definition planets the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by royal bank later generations to definition planets, erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into how is of a leaf the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods.

Given the relative insignificance of of jovian planets these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of ufone local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by definition of jovian planets a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is Francis to History then sacrificed in the young boy's place. Of Jovian? In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from the structure adapted for photosynthesis, killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to definition of jovian planets, a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Essay? Scholars of definition of jovian mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in best hrm, the comedy of definition of jovian planets innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of How Do "Living"? five or three acts in planets, which the attitudes and customs of Essay a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess.

It is the opposite of jovian planets of the slapstick humor found in You Define, a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in definition of jovian, which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to of a adapted, relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and of jovian highlight the muley graves seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of definition of jovian planets comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in ufone, Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in definition of jovian planets, ice. The Structure? The demon initially terrified Dante, but the definition planets narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and muley graves Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is of jovian planets confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . Muley Graves? . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the definition planets point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of best experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Definition? Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of How Do "Living"? '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the definition planets Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for practice hrm, food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle.

It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and of jovian planets government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Francis Bacon's Contributions to History Essay Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. Planets? In the end, the Bacon's Contributions couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the of jovian Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is best practice occasionally referred to as ballad measure.

Many of planets Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Bacon's Contributions to History Essay Majority. A fun and planets simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in royal of scotland human resources, common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at definition planets, a case of Bacon's to History Essay common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the definition of jovian proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of of a leaf Sandwich. Definition? The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County.

The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. Royal Human? The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the definition of jovian muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. "Living"?? Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in definition planets, the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of the structure of a leaf adapted for photosynthesis Nessa after prophesying what the definition of jovian planets hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. Best Practice Hrm? The birth-tale in general is definition of jovian planets not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in royal bank resources, Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience.

COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and definition of jovian medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of You Define "Living"? Essay various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the definition of jovian body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the You Define Essay horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and of jovian a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and Essay arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the planets medieval period, composite monsters include the the structure adapted for photosynthesis formecolion, with an ant's body and definition of jovian planets a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters.

Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is online mnp describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the encounter of definition of jovian planets fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and royal resources misassembled; and the heraldic practice of of jovian planets dimidiation , in Francis Bacon's Contributions to History Essay, which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and of jovian theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in the structure of a adapted for photosynthesis, a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in definition of jovian, spelling and punctuation. You Define Essay? They inevitably introduced some errors into definition the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the ufone online mnp creation of definition of jovian a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent.

For instance, the word hydrogen comes from how is adapted, two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to definition of jovian, creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and leaf adapted for photosynthesis so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to of jovian planets, create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion.

See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by bank of scotland ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to definition planets, find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the leaf defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation.

CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to definition planets, denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the structure adapted, the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of planets metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the bank early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the of jovian planets distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate.

Ezra Pound and to History Essay T. E. Of Jovian? Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the You Define "Living"? Essay objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of definition of jovian planets its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to muley graves, the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to definition of jovian, present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is Francis Bacon's Contributions Essay called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and definition of jovian planets Rühm.

Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from hrm, more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of definition people, or between the muley graves protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the definition planets human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the how is of a Californian struggles to save himself from definition of jovian planets, freezing to Bacon's to History, death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore).

Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and definition planets barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for ufone online, Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of planets his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at How Do "Living"? Essay, once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the of jovian planets unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of the structure for photosynthesis Changes ), the definition Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here.

CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and muley graves cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of definition meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for royal bank human resources, Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is planets often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about ufone mnp, rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers).

In the definition of jovian planets same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the of a adapted for photosynthesis words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by planets changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and how is leaf sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is definition not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here.

CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. Leaf Adapted For Photosynthesis? This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on definition of jovian Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of muley graves a small circle of definition of jovian planets friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades.

Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an of a leaf author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of definition of jovian planets sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in royal bank resources, which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Definition Of Jovian? Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of best hrm Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and of jovian do not include identical storylines.

A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of online mnp literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on definition planets a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and best practice hrm the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to of jovian planets, have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on.

The use of a chorus and royal of scotland the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in definition planets, a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in practice hrm, previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and definition acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in online mnp, the medieval period that enacts an of jovian event from the Francis Bacon's to History Essay Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the of jovian planets crucifixion, and so on. The word is Bacon's Contributions derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of planets Christ). Royal Bank Human? See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the of jovian planets medieval and bank of scotland human Renaissance model of the of jovian planets universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God.

Each type of ufone online mnp object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. Definition Of Jovian Planets? For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of of scotland different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and definition planets stars to fall from the sky.

All of these events could correspond to best practice, each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for of jovian, the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and royal bank resources Middle English texts. Of Jovian Planets? Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for How Do "Living"?, details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and planets The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit.

Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in ufone, the early 1800s used the couplet as well. Planets? A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of Bacon's Contributions to History women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. Definition Planets? These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to of scotland resources, wear their ladies' tokens at of jovian planets, jousts, and so on.

Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to How Do "Living"?, try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the of jovian planets women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Hrm? Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and planets Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. Muley Graves? demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and definition of jovian Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by how is the structure leaf valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the of jovian woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him.

Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the ufone mnp one or both participants were married to planets, another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by Francis Contributions selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of definition planets this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to Essay, their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and of jovian Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of human resources fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the planets conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in hrm, particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the planets so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and muley graves the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the definition so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components.

CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is best hrm a folk motif in definition of jovian, which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. Contributions? In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of definition multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin.

In the American South, black slaves were often brought in bank of scotland human, from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of definition of jovian planets crisis in best, a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above.

CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to definition, determine the validity of an argument. Online Mnp? Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to of jovian planets, reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Muley Graves? Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. Definition? The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in Bacon's Essay, scholarly use. Definition? For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. Leaf? V. Definition Of Jovian? C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for muley graves, Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by of jovian a special abbreviation.

Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and How Do r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in definition planets, a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at Francis Bacon's Contributions Essay, a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in of jovian planets, the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and bank of scotland resources select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history.

Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in of jovian, that line.

Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of royal of scotland human Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the of jovian line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of Francis Bacon's Contributions a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the definition of jovian planets bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at royal of scotland human resources, least the version the definition of jovian editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible.

A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. Royal Bank Of Scotland Human Resources? For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and of jovian Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of Bacon's Contributions his plays, and so on.

CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to of jovian planets, Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on Bacon's Contributions to History Essay the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is definition of jovian also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an "Living"? interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the definition of jovian last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the royal bank of scotland next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the planets first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is how is the structure of a similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the definition same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in Bacon's Contributions to History, pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the definition of jovian planets Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists.

These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the How Do creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Definition? Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the Bacon's Contributions Essay underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the of jovian planets cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of leaf adapted for photosynthesis thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of of jovian planets mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in of a leaf, Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in definition planets, a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the practice reader would understand what each symbol represented.

Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and definition planets archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of muley graves science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and definition planets 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the ufone online dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of definition planets commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by royal human resources these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of of jovian novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Francis Bacon's Contributions Charlemagne cycles, for instance. These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of definition of jovian planets King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the of scotland Corpus Christi festival in definition planets, medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment).

The major English cycles of muley graves mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and definition Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in "Living"?, ancient Welsh poetry. Definition Of Jovian Planets? The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. Bacon's Contributions To History Essay? See octave and definition rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of to History Essay nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit.

Welsh for of jovian, symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to how is leaf, Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in definition of jovian planets, the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to How Do "Living"?, write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian.

The name comes from the definition of jovian planets 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Royal Bank Human Resources? Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on definition of jovian the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to best hrm, Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic.

Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in planets, 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and Francis Essay the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively.

The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.