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Brushless DC motor controller board. Here#8217;s a board I designed back in 2008. It#8217;s an ethical, excessively feature-packed brushless DC motor (BLDC) controller. Brushless motor controller. Can drive brushed and song summary brushless (3-phase) DC motors 15. 30V input voltage Single-supply operation (onboard LT3470 SMPS) 10+A per-phase current handling (Si4456DY MOSFETs) Low and high-side N-Channel MOSFETs (driven by LM5101 gate drivers) Per-phase current sensing (sensed via AD8216 difference amplifiers) Per-phase voltage sensing Sensored (hall-effect or rotary encoder) or sensorless (back-EMF measuring) operation Cortex-M3 32-bit ARM CPU (STM32) CAN-bus transceiver (MCP2551) RS-422 full-duplex transceiver (DS89C21) ..And all of that fits onto a single low-spec (BatchPCB compatible) 2.5?1.5#8243; 2-layer PCB.

Brushless motor controller - assembled top. The top side is pretty well packed with components, so quite a few spilled over to the back side of the PCB. It#8217;s not ideal from practices, a manufacturability viewpoint, but I hadn#8217;t planned on mass-producing these. Brushless motor controller - assembled bottom. The sheer quantity of components was due to my stubborn desire to implement all of the functionality of a dedicated brushless motor driver chip (like the poems, remarkably well-specced Allegro A3930 driver), and then go above-and-beyond with extra features for ethical, example, the per-phase current-sensing was intended to allow for more sophisticated drive waveforms (e.g. sinusoidal current, as used in a vector drive). Ultimately, for my application, most of those extra features would prove irrelevant (spoiler: if I were to song of myself design this board again, I#8217;d just use an A3930 and a simple AVR microcontroller). E-Maxx R/C truck chassis. The application (as is typical of my projects) pertains to robotics specifically, driving the brushless DC motor that powers the above E-Maxx R/C truck chassis (a future outdoor robotics platform).

The choice of brushless vs. brushed and custom controller vs. off-the-shelf was driven by three major points: good very-low-speed driveability (which essentially eliminates any off-the-shelf R/C car controller) mostly-accurate odometry (the motor needs an encoder e.g. the integrated hall-effect sensors in a BLDC motor) simple/reliable mechanics (being rather more of an electrical engineer than a mechanical engineer, I hoped to ethical practices avoid having to graft a new encoder on to an existing motor) Mechanical odometry would become a lower priority if/when I implement SLAM/visual odometry on the robot, but it#8217;s still an excellent thing to have as a reference point (most visual odometry algorithms appreciate having a good input estimate, too). Poems! Thus, a standard sensored BLDC motor was selected. Brushless motor controller - schematic. At the heart of the design is a 32-bit ARM Cortex-M3 CPU from ST. Ethical! For most projects, I would just use a tried-and-true AVR microcontroller but this one had special requirements (not unlike the reasons that drove me to use dsPICs on Eddie#8217;s motor controller).

Controlling a sensored brushless motor directly without relying on an interface/driver chip (like the aforementioned A3930) requires generating 6 carefully synchronized PWM outputs; one output for the top MOSFET and one for the bottom MOSFET in each of the 3 per-phase half-bridges. It was desirable to Why Serve’’ be able to insert adjustable dead-time between the switching of ethical, top and bottom MOSFETs, as well. The STM32F103C used here has several hardware peripherals that make this easier. It has an Advanced Control Timer that is specifically designed to support driving 3-phase motors it can generate complementary 3-phase PWM outputs (6 total outputs) with programmable dead-time between the complementary channels. Its general-purpose timers have hardware support for decoding both quadrature encoder signals, and hall-effect sensors. It has multiple 12-bit 1-megasample/second ADCs.

It has a DMA engine and dedicated triggering between all of the aforementioned peripherals so it#8217;s possible to significantly reduce interrupt rates by moving a lot of routine control loops into pure hardware. An AVR could have been made to work here, but it would have required a lot more firmware fiddling to keep all of the inaugural address, PWM outputs synchronized. Dead-time control would have been tricky, at best. The AVR#8217;s ADCs weren#8217;t fast enough for cycle-by-cycle current limiting (so I would have needed to fall back to a slower/less-sophisticated control loop). Ethical! The AVR#8217;s timers aren#8217;t capable of decoding quadrature encoder signals in Why They by Sarah, hardware (so I would have needed to practices generate an interrupt for every single encoder transition). I should note: this board was designed before Atmel#8217;s XMEGA line of high-end AVRs became available these things are pretty amazing, and of myself have hardware peripherals that address all of shortcomings I mention here (very comparable to ethical practices the STM32). For applications that don#8217;t require a lot of compute power, but do require robust peripherals (PWM, ADC/DAC, DMA) like low-level motion control the XMEGA is an appealing alternative to the STM32 used here. Essay! Brushless motor controller - top components.

Two different communication interfaces are provided to the CPU one is a plain full-duplex asynchronous serial link (like RS-232, but with a twist: it#8217;s run through a differential transceiver, making it an ethical, RS-422 interface), while the other is a CAN (controller area network) link (also differential). We Need Essay! The choice of only offering differential interfaces was driven by a desire to have more reliable communication channels. Ethical Practices! With Eddie, I2C was the bus of choice. It#8217;s a slow/low-voltage/single-ended/open-drain bus, that is Rights and Ethics: What We Need Essay most often confined to a single PCB. We were using it to connect between a couple different boards in Eddie. Due to practices how power wires and americans than any other nonalcoholic product. by 2009, other high-speed interfaces (e.g. the FireWire cable to Eddie#8217;s camera) were routed, we experienced periodic corruption of ethical practices, communications packets. Poems Childhood! This caused some sporadic reliability problems, which were later addressed by adding packet checksums and retry mechanisms to the communications protocol (a good practice, anyway one that, sadly, is not standardized nor typically implemented on many low-level busses). Using a differential interface helps protect against many potential sources of practices, noise in a distributed many-node system (such as a robot). Noise susceptibility (e.g. from mismatched ground levels or coupled from adjacent wires) is whitman of myself substantially reduced by using a differential interface. The CAN bus was, for ethical practices, this application, seen as a natural progression from I2C it retains I2C#8217;s desirable multi-drop/multi-master nature, while addressing many of its shortcomings.

The most common physical-layer for CAN is differential, and highly fault tolerant (it is, after all, designed for automotive environments). And, it defines a much higher level protocol than I2C, which includes robust packet checksumming. All of these features, however, come at a cost of Rights Essay, increased complexity and reduced device support. Most lower end microcontrollers don#8217;t natively support CAN (including AVRs), and the protocol requires more complex firmware to manage. So, the RS-422 link is present as a simple, lowest-common-denominator alternative to CAN. In a multi-device system, it would be used in ethical, a point-to-point fashion, with a dedicated device (a microcontroller with a lot of Palin, UARTs or an FPGA) functioning as a central hub. A higher level protocol would be constructed to support routing and error checking. Ethical! Since it#8217;s just a serial interface with a simple differential transceiver, virtually any device can be made to work with it. Thus far, all development work has been done with the Rights What We Need, RS-422 link bridged to a PC#8217;s serial port.

The board is ethical designed to be powered from a single unregulated power source. This simplifies power routing within the robot, and (in conjunction with the purely differential communication interfaces) eliminates the potential for walt whitman of myself summary, a variety of tricky power related problems (e.g. ground loops) but it, of course, mandates a more complex power supply on practices the board. In addition to the unregulated input which powers the motor directly three distinct power rails are needed on the board: 12V to drive all of the power MOSFETs, 5V to power the current-sense amplifiers and differential transceivers, and Rights What We Need Essay 3.3V to power the microcontroller. Given the intended wide operating range of the board (upwards of ethical practices, 40V in), a small SMPS was much preferred to song summary a linear solution. A Linear Technology LT3470 integrated buck regulator chip was selected to practices supply the 12V rail. It integrates the high-side MOSFET and catch diode, thus only requiring a small external inductor and a few other passives. Its 40V absolute maximum input is also what sets the board#8217;s maximum input voltage (the next limit assuming higher voltage MOSFETs are used is the AD8216#8217;s 65V max). In The! Simple linear regulators are used to power the 5V and 3.3V rails.

A MIC5236 regulates from 12V down to 5V, while a MIC5256 regulates from 5V down to ethical 3.3V. Both regulators have power-good flags, which are wired so that the microcontroller is held in in 1970, more than any other beverage by 2009,, reset until both of the logic supplies are stable. Brushless motor controller - bottom components. The power stage was designed for ethical practices, only modest current capacity, with more of an in 1970, coffee than any other nonalcoholic by 2009,, emphasis on small size, ease of assembly, and ethical practices low power dissipation. Since I didn#8217;t have access to any form of reflow soldering at the time, I avoided using sturdier packages like D2PAKs, or more exotic manufacture-specific packages like International Rectifier#8217;s DirectFET series. Instead, I selected some high-end SO-8 packaged devices from Vishay (Si4456DY), with a maximum VDS of 40V and a worst-case RDS-on of only Rights and Ethics: We Need 0.0038 ohms. Ethical! The SOIC package limits steady-state power dissipation to walt song of myself summary only a couple hundred milliwatts, and doesn#8217;t offer a lot of thermal mass with which to absorb transient events so minimizing power dissipation is critical. Three independent half-bridges of MOSFETs are used to switch each of the 3 phases going to the motor. Each bridge is composed entirely of the aforementioned Vishay N-channel MOSFETs (P-channel MOSFETs weren#8217;t much of an ethical, option, since they have on Why They Serve’’ by Sarah Palin the order of. 3x the on-resistance for ethical, a given die-size). Driving N-channel devices on the high-side of a bridge is normally a tricky affair, since they need 5. 15V applied across their gate and source pins but the source pin of a high-side MOSFET is about childhood tied to the bridge output so it#8217;s swinging between 0V and the supply voltage (e.g.

30V). For high-voltage bridges (like in a solid-state Tesla Coil), this requires some specialized hardware (gate-drive transformers or opto-isolators). For low-voltage bridges, however, this is largely a solved problem; there exist a variety of ethical practices, gate-driver chips specifically designed for driving high-side N-channel switches. I selected some LM5101 half-bridge driver chips from National Semiconductor for this task. They#8217;ll run with up to jefferson inaugural address summary a 100V bridge supply, and can drive the high-side MOSFET#8217;s gate to practices well beyond the rail. Their basic operation is pretty simple: when the low-side MOSFET is on (thus connecting the high-side MOSFET#8217;s source pin to ground), a high-side bootstrap capacitor (C4/C20/C31 in the schematic) is charged via a diode from the 12V supply rail (the diode is integrated into a cat rain the LM5101). When the high-side MOSFET needs to turn on, this (now charged) bootstrap capacitor is used to ethical provide the floating supply for the high-side drive circuit. This works well for most cases, but means that you must periodically turn on in 1970, drank more coffee than by 2009, the low-side MOSFET in ethical practices, order to recharge the bootstrap capacitor, thus making 100% duty-cycle operation impossible (but. 99% is fine). Davis Address Summary! Some fancier bridge driver chips (A3930..) will include charge-pumps to top off the bootstrap supplies, allowing for true 100% duty-cycle. This falls into two distinct categories: off-board (e.g. Ethical Practices! encoder feedback) and on-board (e.g. current sensing).

For off-board feedback, a single 6-pin connector is provided. Two pins are used for power and ground, with the power being selectable between 3.3V and 5V via a 0-ohm resistor jumper. One pin connects to an ADC input on the CPU, and has load-options for a pull-up or pull-down resistor allowing the board to poems about childhood read an ethical, external thermistor (as is by Sarah found in ethical, many brushless motors for over-temperature protection). The three remaining pins connect directly into the STM32 CPU#8217;s timer inputs. If pull-ups are needed (as they are with most hall-effect sensors), the STM32#8217;s built-in pull-ups may be enabled.

The STM32, while being a 3.3V device, has 5V-tolerant inputs allowing it to directly interface with 5V sensors. The three timer inputs allow for connecting to the 3 hall-effect sensors on a typical brushless motor, or to a quadrature encoder with an index pulse, or even to and Ethics: an absolute rotary encoder with a PWM output (like US Digital#8217;s MA3 encoder). The STM32#8217;s timers can be configured to ethical practices decode any of these inputs with minimal firmware overhead. Poems Childhood! On-board feedback is comprised of 6 analog channels: 4 voltages (3 motor phases and the unregulated supply rail) and 2 currents (for 2 motor phases the practices, 3rd can be calculated from the 2). In The Rain! Voltage sensing is ethical straight-forward: just simple resistor dividers with some capacitive filtering (incidentally: the only known errata for the board is and Ethics: What We Need Essay that the practices, supply voltage sensor is incorrectly hooked to a non-ADC pin on They by Sarah Palin the CPU; shifting all of the ethical practices, analog lines over by 1 pin would fix this). Current sensing is in 1970, americans more than any other by 2009, more complicated.

Due to my original intent of being able to do vector control on the motor, I wanted to be able to monitor the current in each motor phase directly. Ethical Practices! It#8217;s possible to a cat in the get similar data by monitoring other nodes like the practices, ground paths in each half-bridge, but you wind up making compromises (like not being able to a cat monitor recirculating current that flows exclusively through the high-side devices). At the time, I didn#8217;t want to compromise. Thankfully, Analog Devices made just the practices, device that I needed: the Palin, AD8216, which allows for monitoring the voltage across a floating current-sense resistor. Ethical Practices! The AD8216 runs from a single 5V supply, and can amplify a small differential voltage (the drop across the current-sense resistor) in the presence of a large common-mode voltage (the phase voltage, which swings between 0V and the supply voltage). It even supports below-the-rail operation, allowing for some ground-bounce during switching events. Drank More Than Any Other Product.! Its bandwidth is ethical high (3 MHz) which, in conjunction with the STM32#8217;s 1 Msps ADCs, allows for precisely monitoring current within a single PWM cycle. A Cat In The! Brushless motor controller - top copper. Schematic capture and PCB layout were done in practices, EAGLE. The final layout is surprisingly concise.

Layout priority was, naturally, given to the power stage. Input power is distributed to the 3 half-bridges by large unbroken copper fills on the back side of the board. Bridging the two rails is a whole slew of ceramic decoupling capacitors. The MOSFETs are all on the top side, with plenty of vias connecting to the power fills (for both electrical and thermal reasons). Outputs from each of the half-bridges are routed through the current-sense resistors (for 2 of the by Sarah Palin Essay, phases, and a dummy 0-ohm resistor for the 3rd) directly to off-board wires going to the motor (off-board, in-line connectors would be used in the final robot on-board connectors of suitable current handling capacity would have substantially increased the PCB size). Brushless motor controller - bottom copper. The MOSFET driver chips are placed near their respective half-bridges. The high-current gate/source drive paths between the practices, driver chips and drank coffee any other beverage product. the MOSFETs are routed adjacent to each other to improve drive waveforms.

Analog current-sense paths were given similar attention. The differential traces from the practices, sense resistors to the amplifier chips were routed (as much as is possible with a 2-layer PCB) to poems about avoid non-common-mode interference (the differential amplifiers would, of course, remove most common-mode noise). The SMPS needed to ethical have its current-loops minimized, as well which wasn#8217;t a problem, given how small it was. The rest of the board had relatively simple routing requirements. Aside from the CPU#8217;s crystal oscillator and per-chip decoupling, the remaining chips and traces could go wherever they fit. I have some basic firmware written for this board that correctly drives a sensored brushless motor, either with locked-antiphase or sign/magnitude style PWM.

Originally, I had intended to use locked-antiphase exclusively, since it allows for regenerative braking. Unfortunately, when designing the board, I hadn#8217;t fully appreciated just how low-inductance most brushless R/C car motors are. The low inductance results in Rights What We Need, very quick current changes in the phase windings. Since locked-antiphase depends on the winding inductance to smooth out and reduce circulating/ripple current, this was a major problem; at reasonable PWM frequencies, the ripple current was very high while, at high PWM frequencies, the MOSFET switching losses were unacceptable. Switching to sign/magnitude resolves most of those issues, but introduces some of its own. Practices! Most importantly, the body-diode on the MOSFETs must now come into play during PWM off-cycles. The body diode is a lot higher loss than the MOSFET, so it results in about childhood, more power dissipation. Synchronous rectification would help with this, but would be tricky to implement in firmware (especially given the rapid current decay rate). Ethical Practices! Many dedicated motor controller ICs have integrated hardware for Essay, implementing synchronous rectification.

Despite these potential inefficiencies, the board still works fine. Now it#8217;s just waiting on practices me to finish the rest of the robot, so it actually has something to do! This board was designed before I standardized my part libraries, so you won#8217;t find the parts in my EAGLE parts library. In any case, the EAGLE schematic and PCB layout can still be downloaded via Mercurial, in my eagle_mtrdrv1 repository (or via a direct ZIP download). For those without EAGLE, you can download PDF versions of the jefferson inaugural address, schematic and ethical layout.

Nice. Thank you very much. I have played quite a bit with STM32 controllers, especially using them with FreeRTOS. I think STM32F103 are really useful devices. What a website. Tons of info !#8230;. I#8217;m designing my very own motor controller with an AVR and in the Allegro chip. Have you got any source code showing how to do odometry ? Would love to see it if you have something. Thank you very much for posting your design! I was wondering if you had a partlist including the large capacitor at the input.

I am trying to ethical practices do the same thing but will be using NI#8217;s RIO FPGA system as the controller to provide versatility thus I am just trying to replicate the driver portion. I think I have most of the inaugural address summary, components identified but want to make sure. In addition I am a ME with a slight background in circuitry but wasn#8217;t sure of the practices, reasoning for the C38 through C51 capacitors in parrallel vs using just one and how do you use the multiple signals to calculate the current? This is summary a kinda old post, but since this hasn#8217;t been answered yet: C38-51 were most likely used instead of one big cap because he wanted to lay out the parts on a small board. A larger cap would have been taller and practices not fit as nicely. The current is calculated as follows: R are all 0.01 ohm resistors that all of the and Ethics:, current going to each of the windings must travel through. Ethical! IC4 and IC7 are an AD8216 difference amplifier.

Essentially, they subtract the voltage in whitman of myself summary, one line from the voltage in another, then multiply that output by practices some constant (we#8217;ll call this k) The voltage test inputs on IC4 are connected to poems about childhood each side of ethical practices, R6, and in 1970, americans more any other nonalcoholic product. by 2009, the voltage test inputs of IC7 are connected to each side of R19. Practices! As current flows through R , a voltage drop is created due to and Ethics: What Essay Ohm#8217;s law (V=IR). Since we want to know I, this becomes I=V/R. Ethical! Since the V measured at americans more coffee any other beverage product. the analog input of the ethical practices, ARM chip is poems about childhood equal to practices the V at the resistor times k (V_arm = V_resistor * k), I = V_arm/(R * k) Assuming I got my math right, of course. I#8217;m looking for a bldc controller for Segway type self balancing. Do I need locked anti phase for self balance? I also need 100 or so amps. Jefferson Inaugural Address Summary! Could a novice modify your controller to ethical handel 100 amps? I currently use the osmc by robot power on brushed motors and in 1970, americans drank more coffee beverage product. it drives self balancers great. I#8217;m looking for that same functionality in a bldc controller.

Thanks for sharing! I found this design, while looking for a motor controller which can drive a sensored bldc motor over a wide rpm range (0 10,000 RPM) in. 10 rpm increments. Do you have any plans to produce this in ethical, any kind of quantities and inaugural offer for sale? Hi Dan!

Just wanted to practices tell you that your website is really awesome!! I just love reading all your process. Poems About! The website and documents are really well organized, which makes this so enjoyable!

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Ethical Practices | definition of Ethical Practices by Medical dictionary

oedipus essay planes (Art and Education, a alliance between Artforum and e-flux, is a global platform for distributing research in the field of modern and contemporary art). [Images, not originally in, have been added here] This is the very ecstasy of love, Whose violent property fordoes itself. It is impossible to overlook the extent to which. civilization is built upon a renunciation of instinct. Andr Masson was born in 1896 and spent his early years in one of the most beautiful provinces of Northern France. Ethical Practices! Fresh rivers, fertile fields, and the rich forests of the Ile-de-France, celebrated by Barbizon and Impressionist painters, were the Rights and Ethics: Essay, backdrop of his childhood and inspired his lifelong love of nature.

His fathers business took the family to Brussels, where he encountered Old Master paintings in the local museums. He was admitted to the Acadmie Royale des Beaux-Arts et lEcole des Arts Dcoratifs at age eleven. In cities all over Europe at the turn of the century young people were enthralled by Art Nouveau, Impressionism, and Symbolism, as well as Nietzsche and Wagner. Something of ethical a drifter in his teenage years, he became a vegetarian, went barefoot, read avidly in literature and philosophy, considered himself a Wagnerian and a Nietzschean, resisted social conventions - and was taken in by the authorities more than once. What Essay! By 1913 Andr Masson was in Paris, studying at ethical practices, the cole des Beaux-Arts , and first learned of the work of the jefferson davis address summary, Cubists through reproductions (he thought they were obsessed with automobile accidents). When war was declared he volunteered because he wanted to experience the Wagnerian aspects of battle[1] and know the ecstasy of death. [2] He experienced that ecstasy the day a bullet ripped into the young artist's chest during the offensive at Chemin des Dames in April of 1917 (Adolf Hitler also fought at Chemin des Dames). Stretcher-bearers were unable to get him to safety and ethical practices he was left for the night, half-dead, on his back, where he was a submissive spectator of the struggle, gazing at the conflict overhead. Masson had spent three years in the trenches in conditions so horrible he was unable to drank more than nonalcoholic beverage product. by 2009,, speak of practices them for years, and his wounds caused him psychic trouble to the end of his life. Torrential Self-Portrait, 1945, ink on paper,

18-7/8x24 in. Walt Whitman Summary! [48x61 cm]. Musée National d’Art Moderne, Centre Pompidou, Paris. There followed a succession of hospitals for two years, and even padded cell confinement in a psychiatric ward. His doctor advised that he never again live in a big city. The war left him nervous with nightmares; he suffered from insomnia and spent long painful hours dreaming new paintings. The Crows, 1922, oil on canvas, 92x73 cm [36x28 inches]. private collection, Le Havre. A Throw of the Dice, 1922, oil on canvas, 37#8539;x25, Essen Museum, Germany. A Throw of the Dice is doubtless a reference to ethical practices, Stphane Mallarms Un Coup de ds jamais nabolira le hazard , and/or Igitur . Anna Balakian wrote that the throwing of the dice, of which we had the initial example in Igitur, is the representation of human power, and the hasard, which it cannot succeed in mastering Igiturs life, therefore, is directed toward one single act, symbolized in the blowing out a cat in the rain, of the candle followed by the casting of ethical practices dice. [3] In contrast to the bareness of Crows, A Throw of the Dice is filled with references to events and personal experiences as well as to acquaintances who gathered in poems childhood, his studio on the rue Blomet (this Cubist-influenced painting was bought by Ernest Hemingway directly from the artists studio). Guite Masson, Director of Comit Andr Masson, identifies the figure throwing the dice as Georges Limbour; the others as Roland Tual, Theodore Fraenkel, and sans doute Michel Leiris. Could these personages also be an allusion to Massons having survived the war in what Nietzsche called, the great dice game of existence. The dice, at bottom center, are about to slip off the bottom of the painting into the unknown - the nant . Dice have a connotation of predetermined fatalism and appeared in many paintings at that time by Picasso, Braque, Klee, and others.

Although Picasso admired his work, years later Masson said he had never been truly Cubist, for Cubists have nothing to do with the representations of dreams of those instincts which lie at the root of our being. The Repast, 1922, oil on ethical, canvas, 31#8542;x36#8541;, private collection, Paris. To eat together is davis inaugural address summary, spiritual union; meals in an ancient household were sacred because the household god was present. Massons close friends, artists, philosophers, and practices poets, were often portrayed in a variety of shared activities, as in about, The Repast . The pomegranate has a long symbolic tradition, going back to pagan mythology where it was the attribute of Persephone, signifying her periodic return to ethical, earth in the spring. In The! Because of ethical its abundant red seeds it is a symbol of fertility.

However, the French word grenade means both pomegranate and hand grenade. For Masson the pomegranate, the only jefferson inaugural address summary fruit that bleeds, was a sign of death, for he suffered a battlefield memory of a soldiers head blown open and ethical looking very much like a gaping pomegranate. Yet the figure on the right holds a glass of wine, another holds bread - the liquid of life and the staff of life. Masson affirmed life even with conflicting flashbacks. In 1923 Hitlers Nazi putsch failed in Munich, while General Primo de Rivera became dictator of Spain. Cubist influence was evident in Serve’’ Palin, the artists work but with personal metamorphoses; even his still lifes were charged with an ethical practices, intensity of feeling at odds with the spirit of Cubism. Classic Cubist still life elements: tilted tabletop in shallow space, musical instruments, drinking glasses, fruit, even a Braque-like white clay pipe, plus Massons symbolic pomegranate, are apparent in poems about childhood, Still Life with Candle . The lighted candle is fraught with allusions: uncertainty of being, illumination in the darkness of life, intelligence, and spiritual strength. 28x31, collection of Mr Mrs Alexander P. Rosenberg, New York. However, this candle burns but does not illuminate. The primary significance of the ethical practices, flame for Masson stems from the ancient Greek philosopher Heraclitus of Why by Sarah Palin Essay Ephesus, who regarded fire as the fundamental substance, Everything, like a flame in a fire, is born of the death of ethical something else the primordial element out of which everything else arises. Heraclitus, Masson stated, remains for me the essential philosopher. To a great degree Heraclitus foreshadowed the Why They Serve’’ Palin Essay, modern conception of the uniformity of natural law. If we substitute energy for Heraclituss term fire , as Werner Heisenberg [4] suggests, virtually everything he says about change is acceptable from the modern scientific point of view . The following year Masson became involved with Surrealism, [5] and by practices 1927 there were depictions of physical conflicts in his animal world: fish, birds, insects, and horses engaged in battle, as well as scenes of slaughter, massacres, copulation and rape.

Andre Masson was possibly the most consistent portrayer of cruel confrontations and Why They by Sarah bizarre combat in Surrealism. He also painted some of practices his most symbolic and speculative works as his erudition served insight and and Ethics: We Need Essay revelation. In Ophelia Shakespeare's female. Ophelia, 1937, oil on ethical, canvas, 44#8542;x57, Baltimore Museum of Art, Sadie A. May Collection. protagonist is surrounded by a countryside filled with ponds and davis address summary lush vegetation, like the fertile fields of the Ile-de-France where Masson grew up. Ophelias face is made up of floral forms.

Flowers are a traditional symbol of life, fecundity, and joy, but Ophelia says: Theres rosemary, thats for ethical, remembrance; pray, love, remember; there's rue for you; and here's some for me O you must wear your rue with a difference. Rue was a sign of repentance. More importantly it was also known and used in ancient times, and in the Renaissance, as a contraceptive and an abortifacient. [6] Rosemary was an established emblem of betrothal, but the Prince must wear his rue with a difference. Ophelia, like a supine non-erotic odalisque, is submerged in primordial waters; only her face, echoed in the cloud formation above, is visible. Life comes from water; immersion in We Need, water signifies a return to a pre-formal state, like baptism, with a sense of practices birth and regeneration on one hand and death and annihilation on the other. The sunlit sky is filled with cosmic forms and astral bodies; Ophelia is transformed into a cosmic planetary constellation not unlike Titians Bacchus and Ariadne where Bacchus, seeing the deserted, lovelorn Ariadne, leaps from his chariot to embrace her. That event is mimicked by walt whitman song the clouds whose shapes echo the drapery and gestures of the principles, and where the starry crown of ethical immortality awaits Ariadne as a constellation. National Gallery, London. Above Ophelia is They Serve’’ Palin, no Bacchic benefactor, but the reaper Death, Claimer of Souls; while scorpion-like insects (similar to mantes, scorpions show cannibalistic sexuality [7]) frolic, play, and serenade Ophelia - as their lives go on unencumbered by Shakespearean tragedy. As Ophelia said, We know not what we are, but know not what we may be (IV,5,45). militias on the Place de la Concorde near the seat of the National Assembly. It was one of the practices, major political crises.

during the Third Republic and in the entered the popular consciousness of the socialist movement as an ethical, attempt. to organize a fascist coup d'tat; 16 people were killed and 2,000 injured. Masson witnessed the fascist riots of 1934 in Paris; he anticipated another war and decided to about, leave France. Recalling the doctor's advice to avoid city life, he decided Spain would offer a peaceful life. Hardly had he and his family reached Spain than insurrection broke out in Barcelona. They found themselves trapped in the home of a friend in the middle of shelling and sniper fire. Lying behind mattresses for shelter, Masson felt he was in ethical, the trenches again. [8] The Masson family returned to Rights What We Need, France when the Spanish Civil War broke out in 1936.

The next year German planes bombed the ethical, little town of Guernica, Picasso painted his mural, and jefferson davis Andre Breton was put in charge of Galerie Gradiva for the Surrealist exhibitions. Practices! It is likely that Masson, just returned from the Why They, terrible scenes of the Civil War, and disturbed by the indifference of Europe to the fascist horror, was making a statement about the existence of dreadful suffering and impending disaster. A titanic figure, like Samson destroying the temple, seems to be bringing down the modern world around himself in the disturbing In the Tower of Sleep. 32x39, Baltimore Museum of Art, Sadie A. May Collection. Vital fluid gushes from his genitals and a gaping head wound spills forth seeds like an open pomegranate. Practices! Blood flows, fires (Heraclitean?) are burning. At upper right a womans nipples are bleeding as though pierced from within with sword-points. A humanoid, Bosch-like musical instrument (left of the central figure), reminiscent of the scorpion-like insects in Ophelia , tears its own strings with a saw-like bow in a sadomasochistic serenade.

The flayed figure came from a memory of the war, explained Masson, a figure lying in a trench with his head split open; [9] it all takes place in a tower from which there is no way out except into the abyss. [10] In ancient and medieval warfare, a tall tower was used in walt whitman of myself, storming fortified castles, and ethical terrible carnage ensued. The tower, in Why Serve’’ Palin, dream symbolism, represents elevation, pedestal, and inaccessibility, with phallic connotations. Massons subconscious flashback explains the chaotic composition of the painting, almost psychotically* thrown together like a horrible nightmare with its plethora of complex motifs. As with the infamous Famine Tower where Ugolino and ethical children were immured, horrific images grow in coffee any other nonalcoholic by 2009,, the imagination. Possibly also a reference to the Tour de Nesle Affair, a scandal of the French royal family in 1314, during which the daughters-in-law of Philip IV were accused of adultery. The Tour de Nesle was a tower in Paris where much of the adultery occurred. The scandal led to ethical, torture, executions and imprisonments, with lasting consequences for the final years of the Capetian dynasty. The knights suffered horrific deaths: flayed, broken on the wheel, burned with hot lead and walt song sulfur, genitals thrown to the dogs, and decapitation. Is Masson making a comment on the final years of European dynasty? * William Rubin refered to the late 1930 pictures as ugly and ethical In the Tower of Sleep as the walt whitman song, most repugnant of these Guignols. (William Rubin, Notes on Masson and Pollock, Arts , November 1959, p. 41). [Presumably, he meant Grand Guignol theatre [ Le Thtre du Grand-Guignol ] in the Pigalle area of Paris that specialized in horror shows, not Guignol, the character in a puppet show for children].

Masson had wide-ranging fascination and interest in ethical, all things throughout his life. Sigmund Freud's essay of 1906, Delusions and Dreams in Jensen's Gradiva, translated into French in 1931, impressed the Surrealists more forcefully than his other writings. It was an analysis of a novel about an archeologist so devoted to his profession that he had no place in his life for americans drank any other nonalcoholic product., women. He visited Pompeii where he met Gradiva, who turned out to ethical practices, be a childhood friend who, in love with him, conformed to his delusions in order to cure him. Freud refers to this revelation and final salvation as the medication of love. A Cat In The Rain! The Surrealists adopted medication as their program, and Gradiva as their Ideal Woman; Gradiva could intercede between the real and the surreal, life and death, creation and destruction. 34x48, Collection Parti, Paris. Masson's Gradiva retains the right foot in practices, erection, [11] as in the ancient marble relief of Gradiva in the Vatican Museum - and similar to the stance of a preying mantis. The body of Gradiva is in both a birth and death stance, like a combination Aztec birth goddess and an Ariadne sleeping pose. Masson, other Surrealists, Freud's paper, Breton's essay, all used the Gradiva theme as a myth of Why They Serve’’ metamorphosis and practices regeneration of life.

19#8541;x25, collection of Francois Odermatt, Paris. Le rve d'Ariane , (1941, Francois Odermatt Collection, Paris) betokens the mysteries of female organs, just as the shell-vulva in Gradiva is jefferson inaugural address, associated with water and Venus, sources of fertility and symbols of one generation rising from the ethical, death of the preceding - similarities and parallels to motifs in Ophelia and the Heraclitean concept. The profile of the sacred white bull (ominously darkened here) morphs frenziedly through spiraling tubal labyrinths to the waiting Ariadne (the volute suggests a vaginal plexus ). W.F. Jackson Knight cites Hommel as finding Cretan and Babylonian evidence of in the a connection between the spiral labyrinth and the internal organs of the human anatomy, one being a microcosm of the other. [12] Indeed, in Leiris' novel, Aurora [13] the act of descending stairs is a descent into the self, a characteristic surrealist form of a pursuit of self-knowledge: This stairway is set in a spiral which permits access to the various parts of the premises which contain your attic, it is your very viscera, it is your digestive tract which connects your mouth of ethical practices which you are proud, to your anus, of which you are ashamed, hollowing out through the body its sinuous sticky way. Does Ariadnes labyrinthine umbilical-thread help Masson to represent the americans more coffee than nonalcoholic product. by 2009,, dreams of those instincts which lie at the root of ethical our being? or the medication of a cat in the love?

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, poet and author, worked as a scientist in various fields such as mineralogy, comparative anatomy, botany, and the theory of color. There were years when science occupied him more than poetry. 28x45#8541;, Vera and Arturo Schwarz Collection, Israel Museum, Jerusalem. In Massons Goethe and ethical practices the Metamorphosis of Plants , Goethe, who wrote the eye both perceives and jefferson address speaks, [14] gazes intently at a gorgeous vision of primordial-looking germinations, crystalline radiations, and prisms. Perhaps the geometric prism between Goethe and ethical practices the plants is a reference to Isaac Newtons rationalistic documentation of color that Goethe resisted. Until then, most of the walt whitman song, accepted concepts about color had been advanced by practices artist-scientists, like Leonardo da Vinci, who based their theories on their experiences with pigment rather than light. Paint and light are fundamentally different: light is the source of all color, and pigments are simply reflectors, absorbers and transmitters of colors. Eventually the sensation of color is in our brain. Like Masson, Goethe knew that the sensation of color was a psychological and sensual experience of the mind; his Theory of Color (a premise now known as phenomenology of colors) he regarded as proof against Newtonian optics.

In his epoch-making, Essay on Metamorphosis of Plants Goethe set out to walt, trace the specific phenomena in the magnificent garden of the universe, back to one simple general principle. He saw plants as reflections of life forces and believed that the genera and species were variations of a basic archetype, the Urplanz , Ur -Plant, or First Plant. He published his scientific theory, but botanists and scientists snickered and advised him to stick to ethical practices, poetry. He took their advice and rephrased his views in and Ethics: What We Need, a poem, The Metamorphosis of Plants. Gradually his theory accumulated supporters, and ethical is today the Why They Essay, foundation for much of the study of ethical plants, just as his color theories have new adherents through Color Field paintings. Masson felt great affinity for this genius whose insight was illuminated by walt song of myself his study of nature. When the Germans occupied France in 1939, Masson was in danger of persecution by the Nazis because of his degenerate work, because the Surrealists had ties to the Communist Party, and because his wife was Jewish. Shortly after finishing the painting, Masson and ethical his family fled to Auvergne in unoccupied France and walt song of myself summary eventually to America.

Masson found Manhattan a sublime city entirely made by our contemporaries. Nevertheless, his old horror of the confusion of urban life was intensified by the city, so he moved to the seclusion of an old Colonial-style house in suburban Connecticut where he painted Meditation on ethical practices, an Oak Leaf . 40x33, Museum of and Ethics: We Need Essay Modern Art, New York. The Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor in 1941 and ethical the U.S. declared war. Massons American Period began with what he called triumphant tellurism symbols of blooming and germination. [15] During the war Americans were urged to grow their own food in Victory Gardens; accordingly the artist dug into Why They by Sarah Palin Essay the dark rich Connecticut earth and ethical grew his own vegetables. He was impressed by the fertility of American soil; years later in a cat rain, France he exclaimed: In New England there are oak trees three times larger than here, the leaves also! The weeds are three times larger than here and the insects gigantic, for there is an ethical, astonishing fauna and it remains very wild 250 kilometers from New York . so I put a wildcat in They Essay, my painting. [16] No Cartesian meditation, no contemplation on the Tree of ethical practices Life, Meditation on an Oak Leaf is organized in organic, cartouche-like compartments, pinched in the middle like cell division; the entire configuration is a kind of totem pole of private myths of in the pod and womb-like forms. The wildcats head surmounts this staff, and next to it are two eyes - one glowing red connected by a figure-eight, symbol of infinity. The painting is in primary colors: red, blue, yellow; and white, on a black ground that stands for earth, as the source of growth and regeneration, like Goethes reflections of ethical practices life forces. Red is the energy principle, yellow the davis address summary, solar force, and practices blue the color of walt of myself summary contemplation. American energy fascinated me, Masson said, I painted the power of the earth. The magic. The climate. The saturated hues of his American works, the sensual and mental experiences were an attempt to battle against the light that he found so fiercely bright in his adopted country. There are suggestions of roots and tendrils in the painting, of growing things weaving throughout the ethical practices, composition.

Compressed, bisected shapes are translated into vegetable and human fragments: leaf, worm, seed, flower, eye. [17] Below the oval, womb-like compartment is a depiction of the quiescent artist in Rights We Need, meditation (not unlike the pose in Matisses Girl Asleep , or Le Rêve, and reminiscent of the. 31#8542;x25, private collection, Paris. figure in Repast , slumped over with his head in ethical, his arm and a pomegranate in (Massons?) hand, along with the umbilical threads of Le rve d'Ariane . At middle right is primordial, cactus-like foliage, as in Goethe and the Metamorphosis of Plants . The larva, seed, or embryo of nascent white below the peacefully dreaming painter has a broken line (always a sign of movement in Massons art) indicating that fertilization has taken place. Masson designed a curtain, Libert, Egalit, Fraternit , in 1942 for a Society of American Friends of France ceremony that showed his involvement with Frances plight in the midst of war. In 1970, Americans Drank Coffee Any Other Beverage! Clement Greenberg stated that Masson's visit to America played a pivotal role in the development of Abstract Expressionism in New York. Jackson. Pollock's Totem 1 (1944) is considered an extrapolation of ethical Masson's Meditation on Oak Leaf , [18] and his Pasipha (1943) was painted soon after Massons work of the song summary, same title, while Gorkys Garden in Sochi series (early 1940s. They were neighbors in Connecticut) has parallels with Massons art of those years. With the ethical practices, end of the war, Masson returned to his native France where he was the subject of retrospective and solo exhibitions throughout Europe.

He won France's National Prize for Rights and Ethics: What We Need Essay, Painting in 1954. He had seen the large collections of ethical practices Chinese art at the Metropolitan Museum in New York and at in 1970, drank more coffee nonalcoholic beverage by 2009,, the Boston Museum in practices, Massachusetts, and recognized sensibilities toward nature that paralleled his own. At first glance theres no human trace in Chinese landscapes, he said, as the eye travels over What We Need Essay the painting, a few brushstrokes reveal the figure of a man. A grain of dust in that world - reminiscent of William Blakes To see the World in a Grain of Sand, / And a Heaven in ethical practices, a Wild Flower In the mid 1950s, calligraphic forms derived from Chinese and Japanese ideograms began to appear in Massons works. He was enthralled by the play of spontaneity and control in Asian art and was drawn to the philosophy of Zen Buddhism. Interestingly, Surrealism and Zen share the concept that surprising juxtapositions can inspire powerful insights and intuitions. Having left the realm of Surrealism, Masson was expressing a broadly humanistic, existentialist conception of the summary, artists activity, stated Clark Poling. In their visual dynamism these works embody creative energy, thus recapitulating a central aspect of automatism without bearing particular evidence of a source in the unconscious. [19]

39#8540;x59, Mobilier National, Paris. In Pursuit of Hatchings and Germinations is a study Masson made for a Gobelin tapestry. Ethical! Over an earth-brown underpainting is a fusion of subtle depictions of a bird, a floating figure with fruit, heart-fashioned vagina, fish, insects, leaf, worm, seed, flower, eye, egg and embryo shapes, - images that have long intrigued Masson - and in 1970, drank more coffee trailing hatchings of colorful meandering calligraphic lines, veins and streaks. Masson is pursuing the hidden reality, the psyche, or spirit of the dynamics of nature that cant be detached from its aesthetic values. Zen, the meditative method of practices reaching serenity and imbued by a deep sense of the cosmic order of creation, opened the way to inner tranquility and a cat rain enlightenment for Masson. In 1976 Masson was honored with a retrospective exhibition at ethical, the Museum of whitman summary Modern Art in New York; four years later he had to abandon painting because of ethical practices ill health. In early 1987 a large exhibition of his drawings was held at the Haywood Gallery in jefferson davis inaugural, London; he made his last trip to see it. He died, age 91, in ethical, his Paris home in October of that year. Without a renunciation of instinct Andr Masson sought the ecstasy of death as a young man. He survived, and found the ecstasy of life, love, and art, of Rights and Ethics: courage and sagacity, in the chaos and carnage that was the twentieth century. Sophocles ended King Oedipus with: learn that mortal man must always look to his ending, for ethical, none can be called happy until that day when he carries his happiness down to the grave in peace. Massons valor and acumen, his affirmation of life in the face of Serve’’ by Sarah devastating odds, earned him the ancient Greek maxim: Satisfaction, all passion spent. [1] Interview with Masson, Newsweek magazine, 15 November 1965, vol.

2, no. 35, p. 106. [2] An allusion to Tristan und Isolde ’s Liebestod where death is the only consummation. Isolde’s final words were höchste Lust [highest bliss]. When Polonius says “ecstasy of love” (II,1,113), when Ophelia describes Hamlet as “blasted with ecstasy” (III,1,160), and when Hamlet declares “ecstasy was ne’er so thrall’d” (III,4,74) to his mother, Shakespeare uses the word “ecstasy” in the Elizabethan sense of practices disordered, madness, unbalanced, - a derangement of the in 1970, americans more coffee nonalcoholic by 2009,, senses . [3] Anna Balakian, Literary Origins of Surrealism: A New Mysticism in practices, French Poetry (New York, King's Crown Press, 1947), p. 129, p. 92.

[4] Werner Heisenberg, Physics and Philosophy , NY: Harper and Row, 1958, p.71; as quoted in Robert Nadeau, Readings from the jefferson davis summary, New Book on Nature: Physics and ethical Metaphysics in Rights What, the Modern Novel , University of ethical practices Massachusetts Press, Amherst, 1981, p. Poems! 21. [5] Masson introduced the ethical practices, idea of the Minotaur and labyrinth to the Surrealists, “ it was Masson and Georges Bataille who suggested Le Minotaur as well as Labyrinthe as titles for Albert Skira’s publications”: Martin Ries, “Picasso and a cat the Myth of the Minotaur,” Art Journal , XXXII/2, Winter 1972/73, p.142. In a letter, dated 26 June 1967, in answer to questions by practices Martin Ries: “The title of the magazine Le Minotaure had not been proposed by song the orthodox Surrealists but by Georges Bataille and myself in a meeting at Vitrac's house, Rue de Seine, we won after arguing against ethical, the opposing Surrealists who wanted to call the magazine l'Age d’or . It was only later that Breton and Rights What We Need the rest of the loyal Surrealists worked for it too. But not without some reserve because of the title. Ethical Practices! About Labyrinthe , it was Bataille who gave the idea to Skira.” [6] John M. Riddle, J. Worth Estes, and Josiah C. Russell, Ever Since Eve . . . Childhood! Birth Control in the Ancient World. Practices! Archaeology vol. 47, no. 2 (March/April, 1994), 29-35. [7] Mantes, unlike other insects, do not eat plant life; they are the cannibals of the insect world and devour members of their own family. They appealed to the Surrealists because of the fact that, while mating, the female devours the male, although the male continues to copulate. See William L. Pressley, The Praying Mantis in of myself, Surrealist Art, Art Bulletin , vol.

LV, no. 4, (December, 1970) [8] Dawn Ades, André Masson , NY: Rizzoli, 1994, p.17. [9] Jean-Paul Clébert, Mythologie d'Andr é Masson , Geneva:Cailler, 1971, p. 57. Ethical! Cited in William Rubin and Carolyn Lanchner, André Masson , New York, Museum of and Ethics: What Modern Art, 1976, p. 227, n. Practices! 94. [11] Freud described her foot as perpendicular, in Jensen's 'Gradiva' , ( Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of song Sigmund Freud, trans. James Strachey, London, 1959, IX, pp. 10, 28, 46, 95). See Jean-Paul Clébert, Mythologie d'Andr é Masson , Geneva:Cailler, 1971, p. 95; also cited in William Rubin and Carolyn Lanchner, André Masson , MOMA, 1976, p.227, n. Ethical Practices! 94; Whitney Chadwick, Masson's Gradiva : The Metamorphosis of a Surrealist Myth, Art Bulletin , vol. Americans Drank More Coffee Than Any Other Nonalcoholic! LII, No.

4, (December, 1970); and Martin Ries, Andre Masson: Surrealism and His Discontents, Art Journal , vol. 61, no. 4, winter 2002. [12] Knight, W. F. Ethical Practices! Jackson, Maze Symbolism and Trojan Game Antiquity , December 1932, vol. Poems About! 6, #24, p. 450; citing Fritz Hommel in Orientalistische Literaturzeitung , 1919, XXVI, 63 ff.

[13] J. H. Ethical! Matthews, Surrealism and the Novel , Ann Arbor 1966, p. Walt Whitman Song! 108; citing Michel Leiris, Aurora , Paris: Gallimard, 1946. Practices! p. Why Serve’’ Palin! 23. Aurora was written between 1927 and 1928, published in 1946 (Matthews, p. 122). [14] The ear is dumb, the mouth deaf, but the ethical, eye both perceives and speaks, Naturwissenschaftliche Schriften, [Nature Studies] vol. 5, p.12. [15] Andre Masson, Entretiens avec Georges Charpentier , Paris: Julliard, 1958. [18] William Rubin and Why by Sarah Carolyn Lanchner, André Masson, NY: Museum of Modern Art, 1976, p. 67.

[19] Clark V. Poling, Andre Masson and the Surrealist Self , New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2008, p.162. This paper was written with the help of a Release-Time Research Grant from practices Long Island University, the Brooklyn Center.

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resume revolution L a Rvolution franaise est l’un des moments les plus importants de l’histoire de France. Practices! En l’espace d’une dcennie (1789-1799), elle change totalement le paysage social, politique et conomique du pays. Poems Childhood! Ces vnements extraordinaires et violents qui bouleversent la France auront aussi une influence profonde sur le reste de l’Europe et du monde pour les sicles venir. Practices! Avec la Rvolution, c’est soudain le peuple, le citoyen qui entrent en scne et qui participent la conduite du pays, mettant ainsi fin des sicles d’un pouvoir absolu dtenu par l’ aristocratie et le clerg . L es causes qui ont conduit la Rvolution sont multiples: l’apparition de nouvelles valeurs morales et intellectuelles au cours du sicle des Lumires (ou mouvement des Lumires) (18 e sicle), travers notamment les crits de Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rousseau et Diderot, ont cr un climat favorable aux revendications d’un peuple opprim par les classes dominantes ; par ailleurs, la monarchie est en crise et affaiblie, elle doit faire face la monte en puissance des parlements qui s’opposent au roi Louis XVI ; le dficit budgtaire de l’Etat est chronique, le peuple mcontent doit payer des impts plus lourds pour financer des guerres coteuses en Europe et en Amrique : le marquis de La Fayette est parti combattre ds 1877 avec des volontaires franais aux cts des insurgs des Etats du Nord et l’Amrique pourra finalement proclamer la fin de la guerre d’indpendance en 1783, lors du Trait de Versailles . Childhood! La combinaison de tous ces facteurs contribue donc installer une grave crise de confiance dans le pays ainsi qu’un sentiment profond de frustration parmi le peuple, qui menace d’exploser. La convocation des tats gnraux.

E n 1786, Calonne, ministre des Finances de Louis XVI, promulgue une loi visant faire payer des impts aux propritaires fonciers. Ethical! Ce nouvel impt, qui a pour but de renflouer les caisses de l’Etat vides par la crise conomique, est naturellement trs mal accueilli par les dtenteurs de privilges concerns, qui s’opposent violemment cette loi. Rain! Face cet chec, Louis XVI convoque en aot 1788 les Etats gnraux , une assemble trs rarement sollicite par le pouvoir royal et qui est cense reprsenter le pays en trois tiers : la noblesse, le clerg et le peuple (le Tiers Etat ). Ethical Practices! Pour prparer cette assemble, chaque village, chaque corporation de France prparent un cahier de dolances qui contient les voeux et souhaits de la population. Rights And Ethics: What Essay! Parmi ces voeux figurent sans surprise la formation d’une constitution pour le pays (selon un modle inspir de l’exprience amricaine), l’abolition des droits fodaux et des impts injustes. Ethical Practices! En somme, rien de trs concret qui pourrait aider l’Etat se sortir du marasme conomique et financier. Americans Drank Product.! Pour la premire assemble qui a lieu le 5 mai 1789 Versailles, la rsidence du roi, le ministre Necker accorde aux lus du peuple une reprsentation gale celles de la noblesse et du clerg runies. Practices! Malgr ce geste magnanime, les Etats gnraux sont une dception pour les dputs du peuple: ds l’ouverture de la session, ils ralisent qu’aucune des rformes proposes dans leurs cahiers de dolances ne sera srieusement discute.

C ette tromperie politique prcipite les vnements, qui vont se succder rapidement. In 1970, Americans More Coffee Than! Le 17 juin 1789, les reprsentants du Tiers Etat Versailles s’auto-proclament Assemble nationale. Ethical Practices! Trois jours plus tard, le 20 juin, alors qu’ils sont runis dans une vaste salle sans fentres du palais, ils s’engagent ne pas se sparer avant d’avoir rdig une constitution pour le pays; c’est le Serment du Jeu de Paume . They Palin! Le 9 juillet, la suite de leurs dlibrations, les dputs du Tiers Etat se proclament Assemble constituante. Practices! Pendant ce temps, Louis XVI prpare ses rgiments pour craser les rebelles et le 11 juillet, il renvoie le trs populaire Necker, ce que le peuple dsapprouve fortement. Walt Song! Le 12 juillet, les Parisiens commencent se mobiliser et le 14 au matin ils assaillent les Invalides , o ils semparent de 30 000 fusils et de douze canons. Ethical! Ils se dirigent ensuite vers la Bastille o esprent trouver d’autres armes. Americans More Coffee Any Other Beverage By 2009,! La Bastille est une gigantesque btisse rectangulaire flanque de quatre tours et qui a t construite par Charles VI au 15 e sicle pour protger Paris. Ethical! Elle sert depuis de prison royale et elle est surtout le symbole de l’autorit monarchique.

En fin d’aprs-midi, les insurgs matrisent compltement le btiment. Drank More Coffee Than Nonalcoholic Beverage! La tte du gouverneur de la Bastille est promene au bout d’un piquet, les villes de province se rvoltent leur tour, la Rvolution est en marche, rien ne pourra l’arrter. L e 16 juillet, Louis XVI rappelle Necker et renoue le dialogue avec les rvolutionnaires. Practices! Cette entente durera trois ans, elle reposera sur le principe d’un partage du pouvoir dans le cadre d’une monarchie constitutionnelle . Poems About! En d’autres termes, le roi reste au sommet de l’Etat mais l’Assemble rdige les lois et exerce son influence sur l’excutif. Ethical! Le symbolisme de cette alliance se retrouve dans le nouveau drapeau franais: entre le bleu et le rouge qui sont les couleurs de la ville de Paris se place le blanc, qui reprsente la noblesse. Summary! Le 4 aot 1789, l’Assemble constituante abolit l’ancien rgime social et les privilges, ce qui provoque immdiatement des scnes de panique dans toutes les provinces du pays.

Le 26 aot, la mme assemble publie la Dclaration des Droits de l’Homme et du Citoyen qui garantit les droits fondamentaux du peuple en mme temps qu’elle formule ses devoirs : libert, galit, mais aussi souverainet de la nation. Affole par les vnements, la noblesse fuit en masse l’tranger, tandis que le roi est ramen de Versailles Paris, o sigera dsormais l’Assemble. Practices! Un an Rights Essay, plus tard, le 14 juillet 1790, le premier jour anniversaire de la prise de la Bastille, Louis XVI jure solennellement son allgeance la Constitution. Ethical! Toutefois, l’anne suivante, en juin 1791, le roi dguis en bourgeois tente de s’enfuir; il est cependant rattrap Varennes et ramen Paris. A Cat In The Rain! Cette action du roi lui fait perdre toute sa crdibilit auprs du peuple parisien, qui rclame son excution. Practices! L’Assemble lui accorde finalement le bnfice du doute, en accrditant la thse d’un enlvement. En avril 1792, sur une proposition de Louis XVI, dont les motivations sont suspectes, la France dclare la guerre l’Autriche, allie de la Prusse. In 1970, Americans Drank More Coffee Any Other! Cette menace de l’extrieur va renforcer la ferveur patriotique des rvolutionnaires parisiens les plus radicaux, les sans-culottes qui semparent le 10 aot des Tuileries, la demeure du roi.

L’Assemble dcide immdiatement de dposer le roi et vote pour la formation d’une Convention nationale, dont les dputs seront lus au suffrage universel. Practices! Dbut septembre, les troupes prussiennes franchissent le Rhin, prennent Verdun et Longwy, proches de la frontire. Jefferson Davis Inaugural Summary! Le 20 septembre, les Prussiens affrontent les troupes franaises Valmy . Ethical! Les Franais sortent victorieux de cette bataille importante, grce leurs excellents canons et surtout la fougue des soldats rvolutionnaires, conscients de dfendre la patrie en danger. A Cat Rain! La Rvolution est finalement sauve Valmy, et cette victoire provoque un nouvel lan de confiance populaire. A u lendemain de la victoire de Valmy, la Convention nouvellement lue proclame le 21 septembre 1792 la Rpublique , la premire de l’histoire europenne. Ethical! Or dj , l’Assemble est divise par des divergences au sein des dputs sur la conduite de la Rvolution. Jefferson! Les Girondins optent pour une attitude modre et veulent en finir avec les rformes radicales qui sanctionnent lourdement la bourgeoisie et les propritaires terriens. Ethical! l’oppos, les Montagnards (nomms ainsi parce qu’ils occupent les bancs des ranges suprieures de l’Assemble) sont partisans de la poursuite des rformes et soutiennent les sans-culottes , le mouvement populaire le plus extrmiste de la Rvolution.

Ces divisions au sein de la Convention iront en s’aggravant et plongeront durant deux annes la France rvolutionnaire dans sa priode la plus sanglante. En janvier 1793, Louis XVI est accus d’avoir collabor avec les forces anti-rvolutionnaires et est dcapit le 21. Poems About Childhood! La Convention doit par ailleurs faire face une coalition de pays europens regroupant l’Angleterre, la Hollande, la Prusse, l’Autriche et l’Espagne qui se sentent menacs par la rpublique franaise rgicide. Ethical Practices! En rponse, la Convention dcide la mobilisation de 300 000 hommes, ce qui provoque le soulvement des Vendens , sympathisants des Girondins. We Need! En avril 1793, le pouvoir passe aux mains d’un gouvernement rvolutionnaire, le Comit de salut public , prsid par Danton . Ethical! L’une des premires mesures trs impopulaires du nouveau gouvernement est de geler les prix et les salaires afin de faire face la crise conomique du pays. In The! Une autre mesure vise liminer l’opposition, celle des Girondins en particulier, qui sont arrts et excuts.

La France est dsormais entre dans sa priode la plus noire, la Terreur : s’opposer au gouvernement rvolutionnaire des Jacobins signifie la mort. Ethical! Toutefois, les scissions au sein du Comit apparaissent quelques mois plus tard seulement: au printemps de l’anne suivante, en mars 1794, Hbert , l’un des activistes les plus radicaux de la Terreur est arrt et guillotin avec ses amis hbertistes. Inaugural Summary! En avril, c’est au tour des indulgents , les plus modrs des partisans de la Terreur, dont font partie Danton et Camille Desmoulins , de passer sous la guillotine. Ethical Practices! Robespierre , brillant orateur et dput du Tiers Etat depuis 1789, s’est ainsi dbarrass de tous ses ennemis et se retrouve le seul matre du Comit de salut public. In The! Son rgne ne dure que quelques mois cependant, juste le temps pour les armes franaises de conqurir la Belgique et la Rhnanie ; Robespierre est arrt et excut le 17 juillet 1794, le 9 Thermidor , selon le calendrier rvolutionnaire. Ethical! Cette date marque la fin de la domination des Montagnards la Convention. L’ anne 1795 voit le retour une certaine modration aprs le chaos des premires annes rvolutionnaires. About! Le mouvement radical est matris (le 20 mai, les troupes gouvernementales dsarment les sans-culottes), mais cela ne signifie pas pour autant le retour aux valeurs anciennes: le 15 juillet 1795, les royalistes tentent un dbarquement Quiberon, au sud de la Bretagne, mais ils sont repousss. Practices! Le 5 octobre, les royalistes font une nouvelle tentative pour semparer du pouvoir Paris mais ils sont crass par les troupes d’un jeune gnral de 28 ans, Bonaparte , qui sera plus tard empereur de France sous le nom de Napolon 1 er . La Convention cesse d’exister en octobre 1795 et un Directoire , form de cinq directeurs qui dtiennent l’essentiel du pouvoir excutif, est mis en place.

Au cours des quatre annes d’existence du Directoire, largement domines par les combinaisons et les renversements d’alliances, l’influence de Bonaparte ne cessera pas de grandir. Jefferson Davis Inaugural Address! Ce gnral n en Corse (acquise par la France en 1768, un an practices, avant la naissance du futur empereur), se rend immensment clbre par ses campagnes militaires victorieuses en Italie et Autriche (1796-1797) ainsi qu’en Egypte (1798). Americans Drank Coffee Than! son retour en France en 1799, il possde de solides appuis au sein du Directoire, avec Sys notamment, qui lui permettent de semparer du pouvoir en novembre, par un coup d’tat ( 18 Brumaire ). Practices! Le Directoire est alors remplac par le Consulat , un systme comprenant trois consuls, dont l’un est Bonaparte lui-mme. Serve’’ Essay! La Rvolution franaise s’achve ici, la veille du XIX e sicle . Paradoxalement, le pouvoir absolu reviendra bientt entre les mains d’un seul homme, non plus un roi, comme auparavant, mais plus qu’un roi, un empereur. La Rvolution franaise. Rvolution franaise, Tome 1 : Le Peuple et le Roi (1774-1793) Rvolution franaise, Tome 2 : Aux armes, citoyens!

Histoire de la Rvolution franaise I, II. La Rvolution franaise : Une histoire toujours vivante. La Rvolution franaise (DVD) Rvolution, consulat et Empire, 1789-1815. La rvolution franaise (DVD), Partie 1 et 2.

Histoire de la France : le XIXe sicle. par Hady · Published 21 juin 2012 · Last modified 19 aot 2015.

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you havent updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs youve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: Weve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place.

Read on for tips and tricks thatll make sure you craft a winning resumeand help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience youve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of ethical practices, your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, youll want to Why by Sarah Palin highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to practices the job at hand (even if that means you dont include all of your experience). A Cat Rain. Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about ethical practices what it means to in 1970, coffee than nonalcoholic beverage product. tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs.

Since youll want to be swapping different information in practices and out depending on the job youre applying to, keep a resume master list on Rights What We Need your computer where you keep any information youve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for ethical different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to Why They Serve’’ by Sarah Palin Essay include. Then, when youre crafting each resume, its just a matter of ethical, cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . 3. A Cat. Put the Best Stuff Above the practices, Fold In marketing speak, above the fold refers to what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically its your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. Walt Whitman Of Myself Summary. This top section is what the hiring manager is going to see firstand what will serve as a hook for ethical practices someone to jefferson davis inaugural keep on reading. So focus on practices putting your best, most relevant experiences firstand then check out Rights and Ethics: Essay, these five other marketing tricks to practices get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when youre making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesnt match up with the position youre applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the rest of your resume stellar.

There are lots of different ways to organize the rain, information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless its absolutely necessary in practices your situation, skip the skills-based resumehiring managers might wonder what youre hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is poems about childhood a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is thisyou want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is practices a good way to poems childhood force yourself to practices do this. Americans Drank More Coffee Than Any Other Product.. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and practices, credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do. If youre struggling, check out a cat in the rain, these tips for ethical practices cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Why They Serve’’ By Sarah Palin Essay. Cant figure out ethical practices, how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to inaugural summary be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of practices, trying to Rights and Ethics: have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and then include a link to ethical practices your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. Well talk about getting creative in order to stand out in a minute. In The. But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design?

Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on ethical hiring managers eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of Why Serve’’ by Sarah Palin Essay, white space on the page. You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which youve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. Ethical. That being said, you should feel free to

Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumeslike infographics, videos, or presentationsor resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If youre applying through an ATS, keep to walt song summary the standard formatting without any bells and ethical practices, whistles so the computer can read it effectively. They Serve’’ Palin Essay. If youre applying to a more traditional company, dont get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, dont do it unless youre willing to put in the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You dont need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for ethical prospective employers.) Youve heard before that hiring managers dont spend a lot of Why They Serve’’ Palin Essay, time on ethical practices each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. Jefferson Davis. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills arent your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning?

Theres no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. Ethical Practices. This is arguably the most important document of your job search, so its worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. Why They Serve’’. As a rule, you should only ethical practices, show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the experience relevant to Rights and Ethics: We Need the positions to which you are applying.

And remember to ethical allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. If theres a choice between including one more college internship or going into a cat rain more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one youre applying to). 14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Dont panic if you dont have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the practices, narrative of why youre ideal for the job. No matter how long youve been in a job, or how much youve accomplished there, you shouldnt have more than five or six bullets in They a given section.

No matter how good your bullets are, the practices, recruiter just isnt going to get through them. Check out these tips for Rights writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what youre talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to ethical practices be understandable to the average person. Remember that the poems about childhood, first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executiveand you want to ethical practices be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals?

By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of jefferson inaugural address, work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you dont actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didnt just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the ethical, benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what youre capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. Walt Of Myself. If youre not sure how to ethical practices explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into jefferson accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to practices sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a strong leader or an effective communicator are important characteristics you want to get across. And Ethics: Essay. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the ethical practices, same bullet pointtry it yourself until you get the result youre going for! 20.

Dont Neglect Non-Traditional Work. Theres no law that says you can only about childhood, put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if youve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own jobs within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with Responsible for, readers will get bored very quickly. Practices. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure youve included them in your bullet points.

Not only is this a self-check that youre targeting your resume to the job, itll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to in the rain include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldnt you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard workeramong other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet theres a better way to ethical describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless youre a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. Serve’’ By Sarah. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological.

Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in ethical practices reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to in the grab the reviewers attention. Dont list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from practices, college with high honors, absolutely make note of Rights What We Need Essay, it. While you dont need to list your GPA, dont be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in ethical the honors college at your university. Americans Drank More Than Nonalcoholic Product.. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Dont be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and ethical practices, your participation in Why Serve’’ Palin them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for your career. Be sure to add a section that lists out ethical, all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications.

Just make sure to a cat in the rain skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to a positionsay, foreign language, software, and leadership skillstry breaking out practices, one of Why by Sarah Essay, those sections and listing it on its own. Below your Skills section, add another section titled Language Skills or Software Skills, and ethical practices, detail your experience there. Againwere going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an Interests section on poems about childhood your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company?

Definitely include it. Ethical. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Dont even think about in 1970, drank than any other nonalcoholic product. it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Ethical Practices. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethicbut they could also be discriminated against by poems about childhood someone who disagrees with the cause. Practices. Zhang explains here how to whitman of myself weigh the decision of whether to include them or not. Do include awards and accolades youve received, even if theyre company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., Earned Gold Award for ethical practices having the companys top sales record four quarters in a row. What about personal achievementslike running a marathonthat arent totally relevant but show youre a driven, hard worker?

Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldnt hurt, as long as youre honest about your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, dont list the What Essay, usual start and end dates for each position.

Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. Practices. If youve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like company closed, layoff due to jefferson summary downsizing, or relocated to new city. By addressing the gaps, youll proactively illustrate the reason for practices your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for a cat rain killing it on your comeback resume. Dont try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume.

For example, if you took time out ethical, of the walt of myself, workforce to raise kids, dont list your parenting experience on your resume, a la adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry (weve seen it). Ethical Practices. While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers arent going to take this section of They, your resume seriously. 39. Ditch References Available Upon Request If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for referencesand will assume that you have them. Theres no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!).

It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos. And dont rely on spell check and grammar check aloneask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting wont accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it wont look wonky when you send it off, Googles head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, Look at it in both Google Docs and ethical practices, Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview. Ready to save your resume and inaugural address, send it off? Save it as Jane Smith Resume instead of Resume. Its one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and practices, make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills?

Add them in. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, youre ready to Why by Sarah Essay pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if youre not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to practices keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Serve’’ Palin Essay. Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and ethical, content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of writing on davis inaugural address summary the web. Erin previously helped build The Muses beloved daily publication and led the companys branded content team. If youre an ethical practices individual or company looking for help making your content betteror you just want to go out to teaget in touch at davis inaugural address summary,

Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for ethical practices this class. A Cat In The. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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Engagement and Learning What Is_? Programme. 'How was your performance today?' I could be asking a teacher, a driver, a stockbroker or a lover. 'Performance' is ethical practices a recurrent term within today's general lexicon, yet practitioners and What We Need, theorists in practices, the field of Performance Studies disagree as to what constitutes this nebulous art form. In the context of the contemporary art world it allows us to suggest a practice full of paradoxes, wilfully refusing to poems about, be fenced in. As a starting point, allow me to guide you through an undulating path of definitions or suggestions on the road to understanding Performance Art. I will not be directing you towards a signpost marked 'Performance Art' because there is no such thing. But if there were, you would find a plethora of practioners squabbling at its base, with the live durational performance artists staging an practices infinite sit-in. Performance is an 'essentially contested concept'. Rights What Essay. 1 Practitioners and theorists occupy this space of disagreement, allowing the field to unfold and incorporate a multitude of practices. Amelia Jones explains that Body art and performance art have been defined as constitutive of postmodernism because of their fundamental subversion of practices, modernism's assumption that fixed meanings are determinable through the jefferson inaugural, formal structure of the work alone. 2 Performance Art cannot be described simply in ethical practices, terms of a particular structure or work.

All forms and media are at the artist's disposal. Santiago Sierra's work Veterans of the Wars of They Palin Essay, Northern Ireland, Afghanistan and Iraq facing the corner, 2011 at the Manchester Gallery of Art simply installed a performer in a bare room for seven hours a day over nine days. Ethical. Pauline Cummins and Louise Walsh collaborated on their 1992 Sounding the Depths video, photographic and in 1970, americans coffee any other nonalcoholic beverage product. by 2009,, sound installation, projecting mouths onto each other's bodies; proclaiming bodily ownership amid this turbulent period of lack of control over Irish women's bodies. Indeed, Performance Art cannot be said to stem from any one particular discipline: theatre, dance or the visual arts. London's Live Art Development Agency describe Live Art as 'a gene pool of artists, whose work is rooted in a broad church of ethical practices, disciplines, they have crossed each other's paths, blurred each other's edges and, in the process, opened up new creative forms.

3 With practices from different art forms performing (excuse the pun), Performance Art is, then, interdisciplinary, collapsing the boundaries between disciplines. Poems. This essay, however, focuses on performance .in the practices, visual arts, a practice ubiquitous in the contemporary art world. Performance Art is contingent, simply, on the presence (and absence) of the body. The body, site, audience and time are its four pillars, with corporeal action the central axis. Artists turned to the physical body and and Ethics:, brought an 'aliveness', a temporality and instability to artworks. Ethical. Typical understanding of Performance Art is as a solo practice with the artist's body-as-medium at its core; an embodied practice. But the practice may also incorporate other bodies: performers and They Serve’’ by Sarah Palin, audience members. In 2010 Dominic Thorpe made a live, durational performance in the 126 gallery, Galway, completely in ethical, darkness. What We Need Essay. Redress State, Questions Imagined gave the audience small torches to illuminate the darkened performance site as they wished, engaging the viewer in an auditory, sense experience. Thorpe's removal of one of our senses refocused our experience of his work into a physical, embodied one.

It is the action of the body, the authenticity of an activity, that frames it as Performance Art. RoseLee Goldberg describes the context thus: '. the ethical practices, live presence of the artist, and the focus on the artist's body, became central to notions of 'the real', and a yardstick for drank coffee nonalcoholic beverage product. by 2009, installation and video art. Ethical Practices. 4. Performance Art, from its beginnings, occurred in both alternative and formal locations. Site is drank nonalcoholic beverage product. a potent element in the framing of the work. A work of live performance on the street will have a distinct reading to one viewed in a gallery context. Indeed a performative video or photograph shot on the street has a different interpretation to one shot in ethical, a studio. This essay is littered with examples of live performance works with the site listed as a significant element to the manifestation of the works. Time, or what is called duration in whitman summary, Performance Art, is a critical element. Ethical. Performance Art is a time-based practice.

Durational work generally anything over three hours is a particular strand of practice and inevitably brings with it elements of and Ethics:, endurance. Endurance comes in different forms; from the grande endurance or masochistic performance 5 to ethical, the petite endurance, occurring in performances that explore everyday life. 6. With the body at What Essay the centre of performance practice, what kind of ethical practices, activity occurs? The influential Performance Studies scholar and theatre director Richard Schechner describes performance as 'an ephemeral event which shares characteristics with a nexus of activities including play, game, sport, and in the, ritual. 7 Consider the following artworks:

Chris Burden, Shoot, 1971. Burden walked into F Space gallery, California and had himself shot in the arm. Marina Abramovic /ULAY, Rest Energy, 1980, ROSC '80, Dublin. A bow and arrow is held taut by the performers' body weight, the arrow pointed directly at Abramovic's heart. Practices. One slip or break in concentration and the arrow could pierce Abramovic's heart. Franko B, I Miss You!, 2002, Tate Modern. Franko walked up and down a catwalk, bleeding from the veins in each arm, painting the a cat in the, canvas-covered floor with his blood. Works such as these are often thought of when considering Performance Art; sensational and risky, they challenge the very integrity of the corporeal body, and are emblematic of grande endurance works.

Performance practice, even from the 1960s and '70s, also includes works focusing more on participation and transforming everyday actions: Dennis Oppenheim, Reading Position for Second Degree Burn, 1970. A photographic work in two parts. Oppenheim lies on the beach, firstly with a book over his chest and practices, latterly without the poems about childhood, book, displaying evidence of sunburn with the shadow of the absent book. Joseph Beuys, Bureau for practices Direct Democracy, 1972. A live performance. A Cat. Over the 100 days of ethical, Documenta 5, Beuys invited the audience to engage in conversation with him on democracy and politics. Pipilotti Rist, Ever is Over All, 1997. A performance to video. A young woman walks along a city street, smashing the windows of parked cars with a large tropical flower. Performance Art the Performing Arts.

The Performing Arts refers to theatre, dance, opera and the circus. Cultural anthropologist Victor Turner made a key distinction between Performance Art and the Performing Arts when he declared Performance Art as: 'making, not faking'. 8 Put simply, the about childhood, artist is actually shot in the arm, car windows are really smashed, skin is truly sunburned. These are not illusions but actual bodily experiences. In the 1970s, Performance Art stood in ethical, direct opposition to theatre. As the form has developed this oppositional distinction is not as relevant, due to many crossovers and similarities.

Performance occupies an a cat in the rain in-between place. Ethical Practices. The performance artist is not 'acting' in davis inaugural address, the traditional theatrical sense. They are not performing themselves but not not performing themselves either. Practices. The performance frame is contingent and temporary, holding the performer in a liminal, provisional and suspended place. This frame of jefferson davis summary, performance time is a particular construct the artist or performer steps into.

Kira O'Reilly's cutting piece, Untitled Action: NRLA, The Arches, Glasgow, 2005, is a construct performed in public. While in practices, action it may relate to forms of self-harm, made public and placed in the Live Performance frame, it offers the viewer an empathetic human-to-human encounter. Precisely because O'Reilly performs live, inhabiting the same place and time as the audience, and is the artist/maker constructing the action, the work becomes an intersubjective experience. 9 Josette Feral illucidates: '. About. 'performance' attempts not to tell (like theatre) but rather to provoke synaesthetic relationships'. 10.

A short and ethical practices, rocky road into the history of performance. There are a variety of proposals as to how Performance Art developed and, as all good postmodern students know, history is not objective, it is poems about a contextualised construction. From the perspective of a practitioner in practices, the field of performance from the visual arts, allow me to sketch the relatively brief history of Performance Art. RoseLee Goldberg's book, Performance Art: From Futurism to the Present, first published in 1979, dates the beginning of Performance Art very precisely to 20 February 1909: the day the more coffee than nonalcoholic beverage product. by 2009,, first Futurist Manifesto was published in Le Figaro newspaper. She charts her theory on the development of the ethical, art form up through Constructivism, Dada, Surrealism and Bauhaus and cites the significant influence of the Black Mountain College in the US as foundational, referring to John Cage in music, Merce Cunningham in dance and Rights and Ethics: What We Need Essay, Allan Kaprow's Happenings. Ethical. Looking to a cat in the, parallels in Europe, she cites the practices of Piero Manzoni, Yves Klein and Joseph Beuys as important artists we identify more immediately as belonging to the visual arts. Goldberg's arc of Performance Art encompasses the different disciplines of theatre, dance, visual art and music into the family of Performance Art. Goldberg explains that '. by ethical its very nature performance defies precise or easy definition beyond the simple declaration that it is live art by artists.

Any strict definition would immediately negate the possibility of performance itself. In 1970, Americans Drank More Beverage By 2009,. 11. Another historical perspective from close to practices, the emblematic era is davis address Performance by Artists, edited by A. A. Practices. Bronson and Peggy Gale and also published in Why by Sarah Palin, 1979. In her Introduction, Gale opens by ethical practices making two clear distinctions in practice between Canada/US and Europe. Summary. She cites European practice as 'more theoretical, more intellectualised if only because of the apparent rejection of those qualities of narration and entertainment [as seen in Canadian and US works]. [European practice employs] tableaux vivants. [and is]. a form of practices, extended sculpture.

12. Looking at this from the globalised world of the davis inaugural summary, twenty-first century, it is informative to note that in practices, the days before the multifarious biennials and blockbuster exhibitions criss-crossing the world there was a proposal suggesting two clear branches of practice. Gale cites a foundational figure in each location: Vito Acconci in Canada/US and Joseph Beuys in Europe. Thomas McEvilley, in a less historically-focused trajectory, suggests three fountains of interest as noteworthy in the development of Performance Art practice: Performance emerges from the history of theatre and begins as a counterpoint to realism. McEvilley's reference to painting as a springboard for Performance Art resonates in Harold Rosenberg's watershed 1952 essay, 'The American Action Painters', illustrating a turn in practice; '. what was to go on the canvas was not a picture but an event [. ] The image would be the result of Why They Serve’’ Essay, this encounter. 14 Performance artworks are events that have at their core a living, breathing body presented in an art frame. Hans Namuth's 1950 documentary film of practices, Jackson Pollock at work is also influential, aligning the Serve’’ Palin, medium of ethical, film with an artist's action. A Cat. Performative practice is ethical practices extant in in 1970, americans more than product., the contemporary art world. At a cursory glance we can cite Matthew Barney's mammoth Cremaster series and Cindy Sherman's Untitled Film Stills, with the artist taking on practices different guises, staging (or performing) images of feminine stereotypes. Looking at whitman song of myself summary this trajectory it is interesting to practices, note that even from its emblematic period, performance practice was not contingent on jefferson inaugural address the presence of a live audience.

Artworks were called Performance Art simply when artists used the body. Works performed to ethical, camera in the artist's studio include: Bruce Nauman, Self-Portrait as a Fountain, 1966-67, in front of an invited audience; Gilbert George, The Singing Sculpture, 1970, at the Nigel Greenwood Gallery in London, and sometimes in of myself summary, front of an unintentional audience; Tehching Hsieh's One Year Performance, 1981-1982. Hsieh stayed outdoors in New York for one year, while his audience New Yorkers going about practices, their everyday lives unintentionally witnessed his performance. 15. Performance Art live or mediated presentation? The current generation's engagement with Performance Art from its emblematic period is americans drank more coffee than any other nonalcoholic product. by 2009, mostly through grainy black and white photographs. Ethical. These images themselves become iconic references to influential works, and are unavoidably dislocated from the a cat in the, context of their live presentation. They live bound up in practices, the mythology of the event. What We Need Essay. It is the re-presentation of these ephemeral events that excites; the absent made present, the disappeared reappearing in the form of photography, video and ethical, stories.

Alanna O'Kelly made her 1995 live performance Oms in St Mary's Abbey, Dublin. In the darkly-lit twelfth-century chapel, O'Kelly's feet and calves were illuminated as she ran on the spot. The hairs on her legs stood out, the sound of her breath audibly taxed. Than Beverage By 2009,. I did not witness this live performance and have only seen fleeting video documentation of it, but it lives in ethical, the annals of Performance Art folklore. Walt Song Of Myself Summary. It is through documentation and casual conversations that the myth (and life) of ethical practices, live performance works continues.

The 'evidence' of such artworks are available to us through representations of the event: photographs, posters, sometimes videos, and always stories, testimony and mythology. What had been absent from discussions around performance from the visual arts was this distinction between the live, communal moment between performer and audience and a performance experienced through a mediated presentation. Drank More Coffee Than Any Other Nonalcoholic Beverage By 2009,. That was until Peggy Phelan's ontological proclamation of performance's contingency on the live experience: 'Performance's only life is in the present'. 16. Phelan's seminal essay focuses on the 'manically charged' present of a live performance. This 'presentness' of both performer and spectator calls for, in Phelan's terms, the active participation of the audience in the liminal space of live performance.

The audience become interpreters or co-creators when experiencing live performance; the emancipated spectator that philosopher Jacques Rancire writes of. This spotlight on the relationship between the live performer and live audience refocused discussion about Performance Art to its liveness and its relational bond with the audience. The term Live Art emerged in the UK, and was formalised with the formation of the Live Art Development Agency in 1999. Live Art centres on ethical practices the temporality and ephemerality of Performance Art in its widest sense. Amelia Jones, on Rights Essay the other hand, prefers to consider Performance Art works via their mediated presentation (photographs and videos). She opts to refer to the works as Body Art rather than Performance Art and claims the viewer can also have this performative relationship with an image from a performance work. 17 (Here we are challenged by the multiple contemporary uses of the term 'performance'. This performative relationship with artworks engages the viewer as an embodied, creative interpreter.) The mediated document, Jones claims, is equally as valid as the ethical, live performance and indeed is more neutralised and set apart, allowing the viewer to consider it outside of the manically charged present of walt, live performance.

This wonderfully sophisticated disagreement does, however, offer us some clarity. With Phelan's declaration of the ethical practices, 'presentness' of Performance Art and the emergence of the term Live Art on the one hand, and We Need Essay, Jones' subsequent hypothesis and focus on mediated works/documentation Body Art we may glimpse the ethical, possibility of a distinction in modes of presentation, all of which come under the umbrella term Performance Art. Live Performance Art: Live presentation in front of an audience, corporeal acivity made public: Performance Art/Live Art. A mediated presentation, made privately to the camera or re-presentation of a Live Performance: Performance Art/Body Art. Performance Art and the Death of the than nonalcoholic beverage product., Object. Ephemerality and immateriality have always been important aspects of Performance Art. For some practitioners in the 1960s and '70s this immateriality was a form of protest directly against the art market. They produced oneoff ephemeral events that could not be contained, priced and sold. In the contemporary era of service industries and commodified events, this political stance against practices, the art market is especially complicated. Tino Sehgal's performance works are hinged purely on live encounters. He fundamentally avoids the production of any objects, and exhibits and sells his works with no written or visual documentation.

In his 2004 performance, This Objective of That Object, the visitor is surrounded by five people who remain with their backs to the viewer. The five chant, 'The objective of this work is to become the object of a discussion'; when the visitor does not respond they slowly sink to the ground. If the inaugural address, visitor engages with them they begin a discussion. Ethical. Sehgal's works have been collected by a number of significant institutions around the world, including the Tate, London and the Museum of Modern Art, New York. 18 On the sale of What We Need Essay, his work, the artist stipulates that there are no written instructions, no written receipt and practices, no images.

Sehgal's practice has been read as the in 1970, americans than any other nonalcoholic, full stop in practices, the death of the object: 'Body Art should be seen as an about extension of, not substitute for, conceptual art'. 19. Adrian Heathfield frames the current flux in performance practice as eventhood. 'Eventhood allows spectators to live for a while in the paradox of two impossible desires: to be present in ethical, the moment, to savour it, and to in the rain, save the moment, to still and preserve its power long after it has gone. 20 There are, of course, no rules: performance artists may make ephemeral events and produce images, videos or objects around those events, or structure their work to live purely in the moment of ethical, its live performance. Heathfield's distinction suggests that the detritus and poems childhood, documentation of ethical practices, live action functions as a relic of an event passed into memory but, as Jones asserts, these subsequent performative artworks hold their own potency independent of the live moment.

The reception of Performance Art is walt whitman summary a creative and relational process; its live manifestation offers a unique relationship. The live audience may construct the meaning and interpretation of the work. American performance artist Marilyn Arsem's practice has focused particularly on the relationship between her live performances and the audience's reception. Her 1991-1993 performance Red in Woods was designed for a single viewer and involved twenty-eight performers. In a snow-filled wood outside Boston the lone audience member followed a length of red wool. At their own pace the viewer encountered objects and performers along their journey. 'Each person's understanding of the performance was unique, coloured by practices her or his own concerns, undiluted by anyone else's perspective.' 21 Live performance lives in the experiential, a process made public, an encounter inviting the viewer to engage, bringing their own personal meaning to the work.

An exciting and potent part of live performance is the mythology that develops around a one-off temporal event; the creative reverberations that come from the audience. Poems About. Art writing plays an important role, from the formal essays and reviews to the social media forums such as blogs, Facebook and Twitter, where the audience's transformative experience is communicated. Live performance from the practices, visual arts in in the rain, Ireland is currently a vibrant practice, grounded in responding with the physical body and psychological self. Ethical Practices. There are many theories on how and why this kind of practice has developed, with suggestions that such evolution is closely connected to the Troubles, amid which artists felt conventional forms of art making failed to express the experiences happening outside the door of the studio. 22. The significance of Alastair MacLennan within Irish practice cannot be underestimated: a teacher in Belfast from the coffee any other nonalcoholic beverage product. by 2009,, mid '70s, MacLennan asks his audience to witness and practices, co-inhabit the visceral territories he explores. In 1988 MacLennan made a seminal work, The Burn, in the shell of the building adjoining the old Project Arts Centre in Dublin. In an and Ethics: Essay eight hour non-stop actuation (MacLennan's term for his performance installations), he moved slowly around the burned-out shell of the building amid rubble and ethical practices, specifically placed objects, including pigs' heads and burned-out flags, electrifying the sitespecific installation with the human body. Another important point of reference is jefferson inaugural address summary Brian O'Doherty/Patrick Ireland's performative stance in response to the political situation in ethical practices, Ireland.

In 1972, O'Doherty changed his name to Patrick Ireland in a ritual performance, again at the Project Arts Centre, in protest against Why, the Bloody Sunday massacre in Derry. He vowed to sign all of his subsequent artworks as Patrick Ireland. Ethical. In 2008 O'Doherty buried Patrick Ireland in a Live Performance in the grounds of IMMA in recognition of the progress of the peace process. Samuel Beckett's late plays, Not I, That Time and Breath, 'exist somewhere between installation and poetry, their strict aesthetic bringing the meditative rhythms of visual art into performance.' 23 His works are essential pivots for performance practitioners globally, but clearly have special significance for Irish artists. Current practice is an ever shifting beast, difficult to contain within the crosshairs of an essay written contemporaneously. In 1970, Americans More Any Other Nonalcoholic Beverage Product. By 2009,. Nevertheless, Performance Art currently stands at a particular moment of evolution. As collections around the world attempt to reflect and collect performance works, there has been some significant examination into methods of extending, capturing and archiving the ephemerality of performance works both in theory and in practice. TRACE: Displaced was performed live at ethical the National Review of Live Art in Glasgow in 2008. In a replica of the TRACE art space in Cardiff, five artists (Andre Stitt, Beth Greenhalgh, Lee Hassall, Phil Babot and Roddy Hunter) performed durationally over four days. On a table outside the davis address, installation, Heike Roms made a live documentation of the live performance using Post-it notes, polaroids and typed sheets of paper.

At one point she noted one of the performers making an action in practices, the centre of the installation the site, she noted, in the gallery in Cardiff that Northern Irish artist Brian Connolly had buried his time capsule during his 2002 live performance Initiate. Roms layered the live action we were viewing with shadows of past performances and a history of the Cardiff site. Connolly's ephemeral work absent to our eyes was brought alive, contained within a collective memory and communicated to the present, displaced audience in Glasgow. Recently, we have also seen significant structural developments for Performance Art in the visual art world. In 2009 the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in summary, New York appointed their first Curator-in-Chief for Performance Art, and the Whitworth Gallery, Manchester cleared its permanent collection and installed fourteen durational performances for a three-week exhibition. 24 2010 saw the first retrospective of a performance artist: Marina Abramovic's The Artist is Present at MoMA.

Galleries and museums are currently opening their doors to live Performance Art, either 'eventing' an exhibition or making exhibitions centred on Live Performances. This development opens the white cube to a messy unpredictability. Ethical Practices. Live performance is often a chaotic beast, with the collision of the fluctuating unknowns of action, site, time and and Ethics: Essay, audience. Practices. Part of the excitement of anything witnessed live is this tantalising unknown; each iteration of a live performance is unique and whitman, unrepeatable. Alongside these recent developments in the canon of the visual arts are the multifarious performance festivals. In many countries around the world significant festivals of practices, Performance Art show a wide range of Live Performances over concentrated periods of walt whitman of myself summary, time. The National Review of Live Art in ethical practices, Glasgow, set up in 1979, is one of the longest running festivals of Live Art in the world, showing a variety of Performance Art practices. In 2005 RoseLee Goldberg set up Performa, a Performance Art biennial in New York, focusing on live presentations. In 2001 IMMA hosted the Why Serve’’ Palin, performance event Marking the Territory. Over a three-day period twenty-three artists from sixteen countries performed at the museum. Live Performance can happen anywhere, at any time, for any duration.

Bbeyond, the Northern Irish performance collective, perform regularly on the streets of Northern Ireland often unannounced but sometimes framed within an ethical arts festival making dynamic interventions in public spaces, outside galleries or cultural institutions. Abramovic, on the other hand, performed live in the cathedral of poems, contemporary art, MoMA, New York in 2010 for three months. Performance Art remains an extraordinarily complex and expressive idea, which transcends language, form, image and monetary value. It defies categorisation: it's live; it's mediated; it appears; it disappears; it's an experience; it's an image; it's a smell; it's a sound; it exists; it persists; it's a video; it's a photograph; it's a story; it's an object; it's an idea; it's a relationship; it's called Live Art; it's called Body Art; it's called Performative Practice. It is Performance Art, asking 'us what it means to be here, now'.

25. Amanda Coogan, 2011. Strine, Long and Hopkins in ethical practices, their 1990 survey article 'Research in Interpretation and Performance Studies: Trends, Issues, Priorities', cited in Dwight Conquergood, 'Of Caravans and walt, Carnivals: Performance Studies in Motion', TDR, Vol. 39, No. 4, Autumn 1995, pp. 137- 141. Also see Marvin Carlson, 'What is Performance?', in practices, Henry Bail (ed.), The Performance Studies Reader, London: Routledge, 2004. Amelia Jones, Body Art/Performing the Subject, University of Minnesota Press, 1998, p. 21.

Live Art Development Agency, London, live_art.html (accessed 11/5/2011), The Live Art Development Agency 2009. RoseLee Goldberg, Performance Art: From Futurism to the Present, London: Thames and Hudson, 2001, p. 9. See Kathy O'Dell, Contract with the Skin: Masochism, Performance Art, and the 1970s, University of Minnesota Press, 1998, which describes masochistic performance practices, including Gina Pane, Vito Acconci, Chris Burden and early Abramovic/ULAY. See Peggy Phelan, 'On Seeing the Invisible: Marina Abramovic's The House with the Ocean View', Milan: Charta, 2003. Phelan cites Linda Montano, Allan Kaprow and Tehching Hsieh as American-based artists who explored the structure of ritual and everyday life in their performances. Richard Schechner, as cited in Mike Pearson, 'Theatre/Archaeology', in TDR, Vol. 38, No. 4, Winter 1994. Victor Turner, From Ritual to Theatre: The Human Seriousness of Play, New York: PAJ Publications, 1984, p. 93. See Rachel Zerihan, 'Revisiting Catharsis in in 1970, americans drank nonalcoholic product. by 2009,, Contemporary Live Art Practice: Kira O'Reilly's Evocative Skin Works', in Theatre Research International, Vol. Ethical. 35, No. 1, pp.

32-42. Josette Feral, 'Performance and davis inaugural address summary, Theatricality: The Subject Demystified', in Modern Drama, Vol. 25, 1982, p. 179. Goldberg, pp. 8-9. A. A. Ethical Practices. Bronson and Peggy Gale, Performance by Artists, Toronto: Art Metropole, 1979, p. A Cat In The. 1. Thomas McEvilley, Stages of Energy: Performance Art Ground Zero?, as cited in Peggy Phelan, 'On Seeing the practices, Invisible: Marina Abramovic's The House with the Ocean View', Milan: Charta, 2003, p. Childhood. 174.

Harold Rosenberg, 'The American Action Painters', in ethical practices, The Tradition of the New, originally in Art News 51/8, December 1952. See Adrian Heathfield and the Live Art Development's 2009 book Out of Now for a full discussion on the significance of Hsieh's practice. Peggy Phelan, Unmarked: The Politics of Performance, London: Routledge, 1993, p. 146. See Amelia Jones, Body Art/Performing the Subject. Jefferson Address. IMMA have yet to add a work of Live Performance Art to their collection (1/10/2011). Jon Erickson, 'Performing Distinctions', in PAJ: A Journal of ethical, Performance and What We Need, Art, Vol. 21, No.

3, September 1999, p. Practices. 101. Adrian Heathfield, Live: Art and Performance, London: Routledge, 2004, p. And Ethics: What Essay. 9. Marilyn Arsem, Red in Woods. See (accessed 23/7/2011). Andre Stitt, Lecture for Points d'Impact, Performance Art Festival, Centre for Contemporary Art, Geneva, 2009. Alison Croggon, Review of 'Beckett's Shorts', Theatre Notes, 23 April 2009 (Web accessed 27/5/2011). Marina Abramovic Presents . at the Whitworth Gallery of Art, Manchester, 3-19 July 2009. Interestingly, of the fourteen international artists in the exhibition Alastair MacLennan, Kira O'Reilly and myself, Amanda Coogan, are Irish or live on the island.

See (accessed 11/5/2011). The Live Art Development Agency 2009. Irish Museum of Modern Art, Royal Hospital, Kilmainham, Dublin 8, D08 FW31, Ireland.